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  • Xu, Shuang Feng, et al. (författare)
  • Lactoferrin ameliorates dopaminergic neurodegeneration and motor deficits in MPTP-treated mice
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Redox Biology. - : Elsevier BV. - 2213-2317. ; 21
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Brain iron accumulation is common in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Iron chelators have been investigated for their ability to prevent neurodegenerative diseases with features of iron overload. Given the non-trivial side effects of classical iron chelators, lactoferrin (Lf), a multifunctional iron-binding globular glycoprotein, was screened to identify novel neuroprotective pathways against dopaminergic neuronal impairment. We found that Lf substantially ameliorated PD-like motor dysfunction in the subacute 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mouse model of PD. We further showed that Lf could alleviate MPTP-triggered apoptosis of DA neurons, neuroinflammation, and histological alterations. As expected, we also found that Lf suppressed MPTP-induced excessive iron accumulation and the upregulation of divalent metal transporter (DMT1) and transferrin receptor (TFR), which is the main intracellular iron regulation protein, and subsequently improved the activity of several antioxidant enzymes. We probed further and determined that the neuroprotection provided by Lf was involved in the upregulated levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and its downstream protein, accompanied by the activation of extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), as well as decreased phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK)/P38 kinase in vitro and in vivo. Our findings suggest that Lf may be an alternative safe drug in ameliorating MPTP-induced brain abnormalities and movement disorder.
  • Yang, Fu-Sheng, et al. (författare)
  • Chromosome-level genome assembly of a parent species of widely cultivated azaleas
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 11:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Azaleas (Ericaceae) comprise one of the most diverse ornamental plants, renowned for their cultural and economic importance. We present a chromosome-scale genome assembly for Rhododendron simsii, the primary ancestor of azalea cultivars. Genome analyses unveil the remnants of an ancient whole-genome duplication preceding the radiation of most Ericaceae, likely contributing to the genomic architecture of flowering time. Small-scale gene duplications contribute to the expansion of gene families involved in azalea pigment biosynthesis. We reconstruct entire metabolic pathways for anthocyanins and carotenoids and their potential regulatory networks by detailed analysis of time-ordered gene co-expression networks. MYB, bHLH, and WD40 transcription factors may collectively regulate anthocyanin accumulation in R. simsii, particularly at the initial stages of flower coloration, and with WRKY transcription factors controlling progressive flower coloring at later stages. This work provides a cornerstone for understanding the underlying genetics governing flower timing and coloration and could accelerate selective breeding in azalea. Azaleas are one of the most diverse ornamental plants and have cultural and economic importance. Here, the authors report a chromosome-scale genome assembly for the primary ancestor of the azalea cultivar Rhododendro simsi and identify transcription factors that may function in flower coloration at different stages.
  • Zhang, Dezhi, et al. (författare)
  • Phylogenetic Conflict Between Species Tree and Maternally Inherited Gene Trees in a Clade of Emberiza Buntings (Aves: Emberizidae)
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: SYSTEMATIC BIOLOGY. - 1063-5157 .- 1076-836X.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Different genomic regions may reflect conflicting phylogenetic topologies primarily due to incomplete lineage sorting and/or gene flow. Genomic data are necessary to reconstruct the true species tree and explore potential causes of phylogenetic conflict. Here, we investigate the phylogenetic relationships of 4 Emberiza species (Aves: Emberizidae) and discuss the potential causes of the observed mitochondrial non-monophyly of Emberiza godlewskii (Godlewski's bunting) using phylogenomic analyses based on whole genome resequencing data from 41 birds. Analyses based on both the whole mitochondrial genome and similar to 39 kilobases from the non-recombining W chromosome reveal sister relationships between each the northern and southern populations of E. godlewskii with E. cioides and E. cia, respectively. In contrast, the monophyly of E. godlewskii is reflected by the phylogenetic signal of autosomal and Z chromosomal sequence data as well as demographic inference analyses, which-in combination-support the following tree topology: ([{E. godlewskii, E. cia}, E. cioides], E. jankowskii). Using D-statistics, we detected multiple gene flow events among different lineages, indicating pervasive introgressive hybridization within this clade. Introgression from an unsampled lineage that is sister to E. cioides or introgression from an unsampled mitochondrial + W chromosomal lineage of E. cioides into northern E. godlewskii may explain the phylogenetic conflict between the species tree estimated from genome-wide data versus mtDNA/W tree topologies. These results underscore the importance of using genomic data for phylogenetic reconstruction and species delimitation.
  • Zhuang, Ting, et al. (författare)
  • SHARPIN stabilizes estrogen receptor a and promotes breast cancer cell proliferation
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Oncotarget. - : Impact Journals, LLC. - 1949-2553. ; 8:44, s. 77137-77151
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Estrogen receptor a is expressed in the majority of breast cancers and promotes estrogen-dependent cancer progression. In our study, we identified the novel E3 ubiquitin ligase SHARPIN function to facilitate ERα signaling. SHARPIN is highly expressed in human breast cancer and correlates with ERα protein level by immunohistochemistry. SHARPIN expression level correlates with poor prognosis in ERα positive breast cancer patients. SHARPIN depletion based RNA-sequence data shows that ERα signaling is a potential SHARPIN target. SHARPIN depletion significantly decreases ERα protein level, ERα target genes expression and estrogen response element activity in breast cancer cells, while SHARPIN overexpression could reverse these effects. SHARPIN depletion significantly decreases estrogen stimulated cell proliferation in breast cancer cells, which effect could be further rescued by ERα overexpression. Further mechanistic study reveals that SHARPIN mainly localizes in the cytosol and interacts with ERα both in the cytosol and the nuclear. SHARPIN regulates ERα signaling through protein stability, not through gene expression. SHARPIN stabilizes ERα protein via prohibiting ERα protein poly-ubiquitination. Further study shows that SHARPIN could facilitate the mono-ubiquitinaiton of ERα at K302/303 sites and facilitate ERE luciferase activity. Together, our findings propose a novel ERα modulation mechanism in supporting breast cancer cell growth, in which SHARPIN could be one suitable target for development of novel therapy for ERα positive breast cancer.
  • Aldrin-Kirk, Patrick, et al. (författare)
  • DREADD Modulation of Transplanted DA Neurons Reveals a Novel Parkinsonian Dyskinesia Mechanism Mediated by the Serotonin 5-HT6 Receptor
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Neuron. - : Elsevier BV. - 0896-6273. ; 90:5, s. 955-968
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Transplantation of DA neurons is actively pursued as a restorative therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD). Pioneering clinical trials using transplants of fetal DA neuroblasts have given promising results, although a number of patients have developed graft-induced dyskinesias (GIDs), and the mechanism underlying this troublesome side effect is still unknown. Here we have used a new model where the activity of the transplanted DA neurons can be selectively modulated using a bimodal chemogenetic (DREADD) approach, allowing either enhancement or reduction of the therapeutic effect. We show that exclusive activation of a cAMP-linked (Gs-coupled) DREADD or serotonin 5-HT6 receptor, located on the grafted DA neurons, is sufficient to induce GIDs. These findings establish a mechanistic link between the 5-HT6 receptor, intracellular cAMP, and GIDs in transplanted PD patients. This effect is thought to be mediated through counteraction of the D2 autoreceptor feedback inhibition, resulting in a dysplastic DA release from the transplant.
  • Andersson, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • The landscape of somatic mutations in infant MLL-rearranged acute lymphoblastic leukemias.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 47:4, s. 192-330
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with MLL rearrangements (MLL-R) represents a distinct leukemia with a poor prognosis. To define its mutational landscape, we performed whole-genome, exome, RNA and targeted DNA sequencing on 65 infants (47 MLL-R and 18 non-MLL-R cases) and 20 older children (MLL-R cases) with leukemia. Our data show that infant MLL-R ALL has one of the lowest frequencies of somatic mutations of any sequenced cancer, with the predominant leukemic clone carrying a mean of 1.3 non-silent mutations. Despite this paucity of mutations, we detected activating mutations in kinase-PI3K-RAS signaling pathway components in 47% of cases. Surprisingly, these mutations were often subclonal and were frequently lost at relapse. In contrast to infant cases, MLL-R leukemia in older children had more somatic mutations (mean of 6.5 mutations/case versus 1.3 mutations/case, P = 7.15 × 10(-5)) and had frequent mutations (45%) in epigenetic regulators, a category of genes that, with the exception of MLL, was rarely mutated in infant MLL-R ALL.
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