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  • Fang, Du, et al. (författare)
  • Increased neuronal PreP activity reduces A beta accumulation, attenuates neuroinflammation and improves mitochondrial and synaptic function in Alzheimer disease's mouse model
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 0964-6906 .- 1460-2083. ; 24:18, s. 5198-5210
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Accumulation of amyloid-beta (A beta) in synaptic mitochondria is associated with mitochondrial and synaptic injury. The underlying mechanisms and strategies to eliminate A beta and rescue mitochondrial and synaptic defects remain elusive. Presequence protease (PreP), a mitochondrial peptidasome, is a novel mitochondrial A beta degrading enzyme. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that increased expression of active human PreP in cortical neurons attenuates Alzheimer disease's (AD)-like mitochondrial amyloid pathology and synaptic mitochondrial dysfunction, and suppresses mitochondrial oxidative stress. Notably, PreP-overexpressed AD mice show significant reduction in the production of proinflammatory mediators. Accordingly, increased neuronal PreP expression improves learning and memory and synaptic function in vivo AD mice, and alleviates A beta-mediated reduction of long-term potentiation (LTP). Our results provide in vivo evidence that PreP may play an important role in maintaining mitochondrial integrity and function by clearance and degradation of mitochondrial A beta along with the improvement in synaptic and behavioral function in AD mouse model. Thus, enhancing PreP activity/expression may be a new therapeutic avenue for treatment of AD.
  • Feldt, Sandra M., et al. (författare)
  • Effects of Driving Forces for Recombination and Regeneration on the Photovoltaic Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells using Cobalt Polypyridine Redox Couples
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C. - : American Chemical Society (ACS). - 1932-7447 .- 1932-7455. ; 115:43, s. 21500-21507
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) with open-circuit potentials above 1 V were obtained by employing the triphenylamine based organic dye D35 in combination with cobalt phenanthroline redox couples. A series of cobalt bipyridine and cobalt phenanthroline complexes with different redox potentials were investigated to examine the dependence of the driving force for recombination and dye regeneration on the photovoltaic performance. The photovoltage of the devices was found to increase and the photocurrent to decrease with increasing redox potential of the complexes. The halftime for regeneration of the oxidized dye by cobalt trisbipyrine was about 20 mu s, similar to that found for the iodide/triiodide redox couple, whereas regeneration kinetics became slower for cobalt complexes with less driving force for regeneration. A driving force for dye regeneration of 390 mV for cobalt(II/III) tris(5-chloro-1,10-phenanthroline) was found sufficient to regenerate more than 80% of the D35 dye molecules, resulting in a conversion of incident photons to electric current of above 80%. The photocurrent of the D35 sensitized DSCs using cobalt phenanthroline complexes decreased, however, with increasing Nernst potential of the redox couples, due to the increased recombination and the decreased regeneration rate constants.
  • Geng, Wenping, et al. (författare)
  • Conductive Domain-Wall Temperature Sensors of LiNbO3 Ferroelectric Single-Crystal Thin Films
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: IEEE Electron Device Letters. - : IEEE. - 0741-3106 .- 1558-0563. ; 42:12, s. 1841-1844
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Domain wall current (DWC) plays a key role in storage devices, logic devices and sensors due to its high on-off ratio and nano structure size in the era of nanoelectronics technology. In this work, the DWC of single crystal LiNbO3 thin film was studied by piezoresponse force microscope (PFM) and conducting atomic force microscope (c-AFM). We mainly focus on voltage and temperature dependence of DWC which increases with the voltage and temperatures. Based on this research, the packaged DWC temperature sensor is fabricated and applied in wide temperature range. The existence of domain walls makes the current on-off ratio as high as 103 at the voltage of 15 V. Our study shows that DWC has a negative temperature coefficient (NTC) from 140 K to 500 K. The current increases from 3 pA to 57 μA, which is attributed to the conductivity of switched domain. This work proposes a new type temperature sensor with wide temperature range and high compatibility and sensitivity. In addition, it provides support for harsh environment applications of ferroelectric domain engineering devices.
  • Gidlund, Mikael, et al. (författare)
  • Uplink Scheduling Algorithms for QoS Support in Broadband Wireless Access Networks
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of Communications. - : Academy Publisher. - 1796-2021 .- 1796-2021. ; 4:2, s. 133-142
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In order to support different types of multimedia applications, the IEEE 802.16 standard defines different service classes with their associated Quality of Service (QoS) parameters. The scheduling algorithm is the crucial point in QoS provisioning over such broadband wireless access (BWA) network and it is important that the scheduling algorithm have a multi-dimensional objective of satisfying QoS requirements of the users, maximizing system utilization and ensuring fairness among users. In this article we present two different scheduling algorithms for the uplink (UL) connection. One is a combination of legacy scheduling algorithms earliest deadline first (EDF) and weighted fair queuing (WFQ). The other proposed algorithm is a cross-layer algorithm that pledges fairness among admitted connections and it also supports all service classes. The proposed scheduling algorithms are compared to several other scheduling algorithms for UL traffic under different mixes of traffic and for various characteristics of the IEEE 802.16 MAC layer such as UL burst preamble, frame length and bandwidth request mechanisms. Simulation results indicate that legacy scheduling algorithms are not suitable for the multi-class traffic in IEEE 802.16 since they do not explicitly incorporate the QoS parameters for the given standard.
  • Gong, Wenwen, et al. (författare)
  • Emission factors of unintentional HCB and PeCBz and their correlation with PCDD/PCDF
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Environmental Pollution. - : Elsevier. - 0269-7491 .- 1873-6424. ; 230, s. 516-522
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz) have been listed as unintentional POPs in the annex of the Stockholm Convention and thus, attracted attention by government and researchers. Since the intentional production and use has ceased in most countries, the unintentional releases to the environment have increased. This study gathered 206 and 78 emission factors (EFs) of unintentional HCB and PeCBz from scientific publications and governmental reports, respectively. Most of the EFs referred to the release vector "air" (EFAir) and to a less extent to "product" (EFProduct). EFs were proposed for different source categories/classes used in the Toolkit according to the technologies that released the HCB or PeCBz. Overall, lowest and highest EFAir for HCB were found in the metallurgical industry range from 1 μg/t in well controlled plants (coke, iron and steel) up to 40,000 μg/t (secondary zinc). EFs for PeCBz were in similar order of magnitude. Due to lack of data, EFs to water, land or residue cannot be proposed. Using linear regression and statistical analysis such as Pearson correlation, we found strongest correlation of EFAir between HCB and PeCBz (R(2) = 0.79, P < 0.01) and weaker, but still significant, correlations for EFAir between PCDD/PCDFTEQ and HCB (R(2) = 0.56; P < 0.01) or PeCBz (R(2) = 0.31 P < 0.01) for various thermal processes.
  • Gong, Wenwen, et al. (författare)
  • Reassessment and update of emission factors for unintentional dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment. - : Elsevier. - 0048-9697 .- 1879-1026. ; 605, s. 498-506
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • One of the major goals of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants is to continuously reduce the releases of unintentional persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-paradioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from anthropogenic sources. Until now, most efforts have focused on the releases of PCDD/PCDF and to a lesser extent on unintentionally generated PCB, and therefore, release inventories reported as toxic equivalents (TEQ) do not include the twelve dioxin-like PCB (dl-PCB). In order to facilitate the development of national release inventories for the total TEQ - consisting of PCDD, PCDF and PCB - this study collected and summarized published emission factors (EFs) of unintentional dl-PCB or calculated them from measured data for the sources listed in the UNEP Toolkit. In total, 286 EFs for dl-PCB were found (or could be calculated) whereby 233 described release to air, 23 EFs addressed to residue, 25 EFs to product; and only 5 EFs addressed releases to land. Taking into account performance criteria such as the facility type and scale or abatement technologies, the EFs were grouped and assigned to the source categories and/or classes used in the UNEP Toolkit. With these newly added data and EFs of dl-PCB, the already existing EFs in the Toolkit can be improved and amended. In addition, a statistically significant correlation between the EFAir of dl-PCB proposed in this study and EFAir of PCDD/PCDF recommended in the Toolkit was observed.
  • Guan, Jian-Yue, et al. (författare)
  • Cooperation influenced by the correlation degree of two-layered complex networks in evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Chinese Physics B. - : Institute of Physics (IOP). - 1674-1056. ; 19:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game is investigated on two-layered complex networks respectively representing interaction and learning networks in one and two dimensions. A parameter q is introduced to denote the correlation degree between the two-layered networks. Using Monte Carlo simulations we studied the effects of the correlation degree on cooperative behaviour and found that the cooperator density nontrivially changes with q for different payoff parameter values depending on the detailed strategy updating and network dimension. An explanation for the obtained results is provided.
  • Haycock, Philip C., et al. (författare)
  • Association Between Telomere Length and Risk of Cancer and Non-Neoplastic Diseases A Mendelian Randomization Study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: JAMA Oncology. - : American Medical Association. - 2374-2437 .- 2374-2445. ; 3:5, s. 636-651
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE: The causal direction and magnitude of the association between telomere length and incidence of cancer and non-neoplastic diseases is uncertain owing to the susceptibility of observational studies to confounding and reverse causation. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a Mendelian randomization study, using germline genetic variants as instrumental variables, to appraise the causal relevance of telomere length for risk of cancer and non-neoplastic diseases. DATA SOURCES: Genomewide association studies (GWAS) published up to January 15, 2015. STUDY SELECTION: GWAS of noncommunicable diseases that assayed germline genetic variation and did not select cohort or control participants on the basis of preexisting diseases. Of 163 GWAS of noncommunicable diseases identified, summary data from 103 were available. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Summary association statistics for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are strongly associated with telomere length in the general population. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for disease per standard deviation (SD) higher telomere length due to germline genetic variation. RESULTS: Summary data were available for 35 cancers and 48 non-neoplastic diseases, corresponding to 420 081 cases (median cases, 2526 per disease) and 1 093 105 controls (median, 6789 per disease). Increased telomere length due to germline genetic variation was generally associated with increased risk for site-specific cancers. The strongest associations (ORs [ 95% CIs] per 1-SD change in genetically increased telomere length) were observed for glioma, 5.27 (3.15-8.81); serous low-malignant-potential ovarian cancer, 4.35 (2.39-7.94); lung adenocarcinoma, 3.19 (2.40-4.22); neuroblastoma, 2.98 (1.92-4.62); bladder cancer, 2.19 (1.32-3.66); melanoma, 1.87 (1.55-2.26); testicular cancer, 1.76 (1.02-3.04); kidney cancer, 1.55 (1.08-2.23); and endometrial cancer, 1.31 (1.07-1.61). Associations were stronger for rarer cancers and at tissue sites with lower rates of stem cell division. There was generally little evidence of association between genetically increased telomere length and risk of psychiatric, autoimmune, inflammatory, diabetic, and other non-neoplastic diseases, except for coronary heart disease (OR, 0.78 [ 95% CI, 0.67-0.90]), abdominal aortic aneurysm (OR, 0.63 [ 95% CI, 0.49-0.81]), celiac disease (OR, 0.42 [ 95% CI, 0.28-0.61]) and interstitial lung disease (OR, 0.09 [ 95% CI, 0.05-0.15]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: It is likely that longer telomeres increase risk for several cancers but reduce risk for some non-neoplastic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases.
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