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Sökning: WFRF:(Wardlaw Joanna M.)

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  • Föregående 1[2]3Nästa
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11.
  • De Guio, François, et al. (författare)
  • Reproducibility and variability of quantitative magnetic resonance imaging markers in cerebral small vessel disease
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0271-678X. ; 36:8, s. 1319-1337
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Brain imaging is essential for the diagnosis and characterization of cerebral small vessel disease. Several magnetic resonance imaging markers have therefore emerged, providing new information on the diagnosis, progression, and mechanisms of small vessel disease. Yet, the reproducibility of these small vessel disease markers has received little attention despite being widely used in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. This review focuses on the main small vessel disease-related markers on magnetic resonance imaging including: white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, dilated perivascular spaces, microbleeds, and brain volume. The aim is to summarize, for each marker, what is currently known about: (1) its reproducibility in studies with a scan-rescan procedure either in single or multicenter settings; (2) the acquisition-related sources of variability; and, (3) the techniques used to minimize this variability. Based on the results, we discuss technical and other challenges that need to be overcome in order for these markers to be reliably used as outcome measures in future clinical trials. We also highlight the key points that need to be considered when designing multicenter magnetic resonance imaging studies of small vessel disease.
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12.
  • Dichgans, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • METACOHORTS for the study of vascular disease and its contribution to cognitive decline and neurodegeneration : An initiative of the Joint Programme for Neurodegenerative Disease Research
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's and Dementia. - : Wiley. - 1552-5260. ; 12:12, s. 1235-1249
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dementia is a global problem and major target for health care providers. Although up to 45% of cases are primarily or partly due to cerebrovascular disease, little is known of these mechanisms or treatments because most dementia research still focuses on pure Alzheimer's disease. An improved understanding of the vascular contributions to neurodegeneration and dementia, particularly by small vessel disease, is hampered by imprecise data, including the incidence and prevalence of symptomatic and clinically “silent” cerebrovascular disease, long-term outcomes (cognitive, stroke, or functional), and risk factors. New large collaborative studies with long follow-up are expensive and time consuming, yet substantial data to advance the field are available. In an initiative funded by the Joint Programme for Neurodegenerative Disease Research, 55 international experts surveyed and assessed available data, starting with European cohorts, to promote data sharing to advance understanding of how vascular disease affects brain structure and function, optimize methods for cerebrovascular disease in neurodegeneration research, and focus future research on gaps in knowledge. Here, we summarize the results and recommendations from this initiative. We identified data from over 90 studies, including over 660,000 participants, many being additional to neurodegeneration data initiatives. The enthusiastic response means that cohorts from North America, Australasia, and the Asia Pacific Region are included, creating a truly global, collaborative, data sharing platform, linked to major national dementia initiatives. Furthermore, the revised World Health Organization International Classification of Diseases version 11 should facilitate recognition of vascular-related brain damage by creating one category for all cerebrovascular disease presentations and thus accelerate identification of targets for dementia prevention.
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13.
  • Mair, Grant, et al. (författare)
  • Arterial Obstruction on Computed Tomographic or Magnetic Resonance Angiography and Response to Intravenous Thrombolytics in Ischemic Stroke.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Stroke. - 0039-2499 .- 1524-4628. ; 48:2, s. 353-360
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Computed tomographic angiography and magnetic resonance angiography are used increasingly to assess arterial patency in patients with ischemic stroke. We determined which baseline angiography features predict response to intravenous thrombolytics in ischemic stroke using randomized controlled trial data.METHODS: We analyzed angiograms from the IST-3 (Third International Stroke Trial), an international, multicenter, prospective, randomized controlled trial of intravenous alteplase. Readers, masked to clinical, treatment, and outcome data, assessed prerandomization computed tomographic angiography and magnetic resonance angiography for presence, extent, location, and completeness of obstruction and collaterals. We compared angiography findings to 6-month functional outcome (Oxford Handicap Scale) and tested for interactions with alteplase, using ordinal regression in adjusted analyses. We also meta-analyzed all available angiography data from other randomized controlled trials of intravenous thrombolytics.RESULTS: In IST-3, 300 patients had prerandomization angiography (computed tomographic angiography=271 and magnetic resonance angiography=29). On multivariable analysis, more extensive angiographic obstruction and poor collaterals independently predicted poor outcome (P<0.01). We identified no significant interaction between angiography findings and alteplase effect on Oxford Handicap Scale (P≥0.075) in IST-3. In meta-analysis (5 trials of alteplase or desmoteplase, including IST-3, n=591), there was a significantly increased benefit of thrombolytics on outcome (odds ratio>1 indicates benefit) in patients with (odds ratio, 2.07; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-3.64; P=0.011) versus without (odds ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.58-1.35; P=0.566) arterial obstruction (P for interaction 0.017).CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous thrombolytics provide benefit to stroke patients with computed tomographic angiography or magnetic resonance angiography evidence of arterial obstruction, but the sample was underpowered to demonstrate significant treatment benefit or harm among patients with apparently patent arteries.CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.isrctn.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN25765518.
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14.
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15.
  • Sandercock, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of thrombolysis with alteplase within 6 h of acute ischaemic stroke on long-term outcomes (the third International Stroke Trial [IST-3]) : 18-month follow-up of a randomised controlled trial.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - 1474-4422 .- 1474-4465. ; 12:8, s. 768-76
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Few data are available from randomised trials about the effect of thrombolysis with alteplase on long-term functional outcome in patients who have had acute ischaemic stroke and no trial has reported effects on health-related quality of life. A secondary objective of the third International Stroke Trial (IST-3) was to assess the effect of thrombolysis on such outcomes at 18 months.METHODS: In this open-label, international, multicentre, randomised, controlled trial, 3035 patients with ischaemic stroke from 12 countries were randomly allocated within 6 h of onset via a secure central system to either intravenous alteplase (0·9 mg/kg; n=1515) plus standard care or standard care alone (control; n=1520). 2348 patients were scheduled for 18-month follow-up. For our main analysis, survivors were assessed at 18 months with the Oxford handicap scale (OHS; the primary outcome was the adjusted odds of OHS score 0-2). We also used the EuroQoL (EQ) instrument and asked questions about overall functioning and living circumstances. We analysed the OHS and the five EQ domains by ordinal logistic regression and calculated the mean difference between treatment groups in EQ utility index and visual analogue scale score. Analyses were adjusted for key baseline prognostic factors. This study is registered with controlled-trials.com, number ISRCTN25765518.FINDINGS: At 18 months, 408 (34·9%) of 1169 patients in the alteplase group versus 414 (35·1%) of 1179 in the control group had died (p=0·85). 391 (35·0%) of 1117 patients versus 352 (31·4%) of 1122 had an OHS score of 0-2 (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1·28, 95% CI 1·03-1·57; p=0·024). Treatment was associated with a favourable shift in the distribution of OHS grades (adjusted common OR 1·30, 95% CI 1·10-1·55; p=0·002). Alteplase treatment was associated with significantly higher overall self-reported health (adjusted mean difference in EQ utility index 0·060; p=0·019). The differences between the groups in visual analogue scale score and the proportion living at home were not significant.INTERPRETATION: IST-3 provides evidence that thrombolysis with intravenous alteplase for acute ischaemic stroke does not affect survival, but does lead to statistically significant, clinically relevant improvements in functional outcome and health-related quality of life that are sustained for at least 18 months.FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council, Health Foundation UK, Stroke Association UK, Research Council of Norway, AFA Insurances Sweden, Swedish Heart Lung Fund, The Foundation of Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg, Polish Ministry of Science and Education, the Australian Heart Foundation, Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, Swiss National Research Foundation, Swiss Heart Foundation, Assessorato alla Sanita (Regione dell'Umbria, Italy), and Danube University.
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16.
  • Berge, Eivind, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of alteplase on survival after ischaemic stroke (IST-3) : 3 year follow-up of a randomised, controlled, open-label trial
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - 1474-4422 .- 1474-4465. ; 15:10, s. 1028-34
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The effect of alteplase on patient survival after ischaemic stroke is the subject of debate. We report the effect of intravenous alteplase on long-term survival after ischaemic stroke of participants in the Third International Stroke Trial (IST-3).METHODS: In IST-3, done at 156 hospitals in 12 countries (Australia, Europe, and the UK), participants (aged >18 years) were randomly assigned with a telephone voice-activated or web-based system in a 1:1 ratio to treatment with intravenous 0·9 mg/kg alteplase plus standard care or standard care alone within 6 h of ischaemic stroke. We followed up participants in the UK and Scandinavia (Sweden and Norway) for survival up to 3 years after randomisation using data from national registries and compared survival in the two groups with proportional hazards survival analysis, adjusting for key prognostic variables. IST-3 is registered with the ISRCTN registry, number ISRCTN25765518.FINDINGS: Between May 5, 2000, and July 27, 2011, 3035 participants were enrolled in IST-3. Of these, 1948 (64%) of 3035 participants were scheduled for analysis of 3 year survival, and 1946 (>99%) of these were included in the analysis (967 [50%] in the alteplase plus standard care group and 979 [50%] in the standard care alone group). By 3 years after randomisation, 453 (47%) of 967 participants in the alteplase plus standard care group and 494 (50%) of 979 in the standard care alone group had died (risk difference 3·6% [95% CI -0·8 to 8·1]). Participants allocated to alteplase had a significantly higher hazard of death during the first 7 days (99 [10%] of 967 died in the alteplase plus standard care group vs 65 [7%] of 979 in the standard care alone group; hazard ratio 1·52 [95% CI 1·11-2·08]; p=0·004) and a significantly lower hazard of death between 8 days and 3 years (354 [41%] of 868 vs 429 [47%] of 914; 0·78 [0·68-0·90]; p=0·007).INTERPRETATION: Alteplase treatment within 6 h after ischaemic stroke was associated with a small, non-significant reduction in risk of death at 3 years, but among individuals who survived the acute phase, treatment was associated with a significant increase in long-term survival. These results are reassuring for clinicians who have expressed concerns about the effect of alteplase on survival.FUNDING: Heart and Stroke Scotland, UK Medical Research Council, Health Foundation UK, Stroke Association UK, Research Council of Norway, AFA Insurance, Swedish Heart Lung Fund, Foundation of Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg, Polish Ministry of Science and Education, Australian Heart Foundation, Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, Swiss National Research Foundation, Swiss Heart Foundation, Assessorato alla Sanita (Regione dell'Umbria), and Danube University.
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17.
  • Jackson, Caroline A, et al. (författare)
  • Differing Risk Factor Profiles of Ischemic Stroke Subtypes: Evidence for a Distinct Lacunar Arteriopathy?
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Stroke: a journal of cerebral circulation. - : American Heart Association. - 1524-4628. ; 41:4, s. 624-629
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Differences in risk factor profiles between lacunar and other ischemic stroke subtypes may provide evidence for a distinct lacunar arteriopathy, but existing studies have limitations. We overcame these by pooling individual data on 2875 patients with first-ever ischemic stroke from 5 collaborating prospective stroke registers that used similar, unbiased methods to define risk factors and classify stroke subtypes. METHODS: We compared risk factors between lacunar and nonlacunar ischemic strokes, altering the comparison groups in sensitivity analyses, and incorporated these data into a meta-analysis of published studies. RESULTS: Unadjusted and adjusted analyses gave similar results. We found a lower prevalence of cardioembolic source (adjusted odds ratio, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.24 to 0.46), ipsilateral carotid stenosis (odds ratio, 0.21; 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.30), and ischemic heart disease (odds ratio, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.97) in lacunar compared with nonlacunar patients but no difference for hypertension, diabetes, or any other risk factor studied. Results were robust to sensitivity analyses and largely confirmed in our meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Hypertension and diabetes appear equally common in lacunar and nonlacunar ischemic stroke, but lacunar stroke is less likely to be caused by embolism from the heart or proximal arteries, and the lower prevalence of ischemic heart disease in lacunar stroke provides additional support for a nonatherosclerotic arteriopathy causing many lacunar ischemic strokes. Our findings have implications for how clinicians classify ischemic stroke subtypes and highlight the need for additional research into the specific causes of and treatments for lacunar stroke.
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18.
  • Mair, Grant, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of alteplase on the CT hyperdense artery sign and outcome after ischemic stroke.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - 0028-3878 .- 1526-632X. ; 86:2, s. 118-25
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the location and extent of the CT hyperdense artery sign (HAS) at presentation affects response to IV alteplase in the randomized controlled Third International Stroke Trial (IST-3).METHODS: All prerandomization and follow-up (24-48 hours) CT brain scans in IST-3 were assessed for HAS presence, location, and extent by masked raters. We assessed whether HAS grew, persisted, shrank, or disappeared at follow-up, the association with 6-month functional outcome, and effect of alteplase. IST-3 is registered (ISRCTN25765518).RESULTS: HAS presence (vs absence) independently predicted poor 6-month outcome (increased Oxford Handicap Scale [OHS]) on adjusted ordinal regression analysis (odds ratio [OR] 0.66, p < 0.001). Outcome was worse in patients with more (vs less) extensive HAS (OR 0.61, p = 0.027) but not in proximal (vs distal) HAS (p = 0.420). Increasing age was associated with more HAS growth at follow-up (OR 1.01, p = 0.013). Treatment with alteplase increased HAS shrinkage/disappearance at follow-up (OR 0.77, p = 0.006). There was no significant difference in HAS shrinkage with alteplase in proximal (vs distal) or more (vs less) extensive HAS (p = 0.516 and p = 0.580, respectively). There was no interaction between presence vs absence of HAS and benefit of alteplase on 6-month OHS (p = 0.167).CONCLUSIONS: IV alteplase promotes measurable reduction in HAS regardless of HAS location or extent. Alteplase increased independence at 6 months in patients with and without HAS.CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class I evidence that for patients within 6 hours of ischemic stroke with a CT hyperdense artery sign, IV alteplase reduced intra-arterial hyperdense thrombus.
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19.
  • Traylor, Matthew, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic basis of lacunar stroke : a pooled analysis of individual patient data and genome-wide association studies
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Neurology. - : Lancet Ltd. - 1474-4422.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The genetic basis of lacunar stroke is poorly understood, with a single locus on 16q24 identified to date. We sought to identify novel associations and provide mechanistic insights into the disease. Methods: We did a pooled analysis of data from newly recruited patients with an MRI-confirmed diagnosis of lacunar stroke and existing genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Patients were recruited from hospitals in the UK as part of the UK DNA Lacunar Stroke studies 1 and 2 and from collaborators within the International Stroke Genetics Consortium. Cases and controls were stratified by ancestry and two meta-analyses were done: a European ancestry analysis, and a transethnic analysis that included all ancestry groups. We also did a multi-trait analysis of GWAS, in a joint analysis with a study of cerebral white matter hyperintensities (an aetiologically related radiological trait), to find additional genetic associations. We did a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) to detect genes for which expression is associated with lacunar stroke; identified significantly enriched pathways using multi-marker analysis of genomic annotation; and evaluated cardiovascular risk factors causally associated with the disease using mendelian randomisation. Findings: Our meta-analysis comprised studies from Europe, the USA, and Australia, including 7338 cases and 254 798 controls, of which 2987 cases (matched with 29 540 controls) were confirmed using MRI. Five loci (ICA1L-WDR12-CARF-NBEAL1, ULK4, SPI1-SLC39A13-PSMC3-RAPSN, ZCCHC14, ZBTB14-EPB41L3) were found to be associated with lacunar stroke in the European or transethnic meta-analyses. A further seven loci (SLC25A44-PMF1-BGLAP, LOX-ZNF474-LOC100505841, FOXF2-FOXQ1, VTA1-GPR126, SH3PXD2A, HTRA1-ARMS2, COL4A2) were found to be associated in the multi-trait analysis with cerebral white matter hyperintensities (n=42 310). Two of the identified loci contain genes (COL4A2 and HTRA1) that are involved in monogenic lacunar stroke. The TWAS identified associations between the expression of six genes (SCL25A44, ULK4, CARF, FAM117B, ICA1L, NBEAL1) and lacunar stroke. Pathway analyses implicated disruption of the extracellular matrix, phosphatidylinositol 5 phosphate binding, and roundabout binding (false discovery rate <0·05). Mendelian randomisation analyses identified positive associations of elevated blood pressure, history of smoking, and type 2 diabetes with lacunar stroke. Interpretation: Lacunar stroke has a substantial heritable component, with 12 loci now identified that could represent future treatment targets. These loci provide insights into lacunar stroke pathogenesis, highlighting disruption of the vascular extracellular matrix (COL4A2, LOX, SH3PXD2A, GPR126, HTRA1), pericyte differentiation (FOXF2, GPR126), TGF-β signalling (HTRA1), and myelination (ULK4, GPR126) in disease risk. Funding: British Heart Foundation.
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20.
  • van der Worp, H. Bart, et al. (författare)
  • EuroHYP-1: European multicenter, randomized, phase III clinical trial of therapeutic hypothermia plus best medical treatment vs. best medical treatment alone for acute ischemic stroke
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Stroke. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1747-4949. ; 9:5, s. 642-645
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rationale Cooling reduced infarct size and improved neurological outcomes in animal studies modeling ischemic stroke, and also improved outcome in randomized clinical trials in patients with hypoxic-ischemic brain injury after cardiac arrest. Cooling awake patients with ischemic stroke has been shown feasible in phase II clinical trials. Primary aim To determine whether systemic cooling to a target body temperature between 34 center dot 0 and 35 center dot 0 degrees C, started within six-hours of symptom onset and maintained for 24h, improves functional outcome at three-months in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Design International, multicenter, phase III, randomized, open-label clinical trial with blinded outcome assessment in 1500 patients aged 18 years or older with acute ischemic stroke and a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of 6 up to and including 18. In patients randomized to hypothermia, cooling to a target body temperature of 34-35 degrees C will be started within six-hours after symptom onset with rapid intravenous infusion of refrigerated normal saline or a surface cooling technique and maintained for 24h with a surface or endovascular technique. Patients randomized to hypothermia will receive pethidine and buspirone to prevent shivering and discomfort. Primary outcome Score on the modified Rankin Scale at 91 days, as analyzed with ordinal logistic regression and expressed as a common odds ratio. Discussion With 750 patients per intervention group, this trial has 90% power to detect 7% absolute improvement at the 5% significance level. The full trial protocol is available at http://www.eurohyp1.eu. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01833312.
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