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Sökning: WFRF:(Weber Markus)

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91.
  • Ueda, Kiyoshi, et al. (författare)
  • Roadmap on photonic, electronic and atomic collision physics : I. Light-matter interaction
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physics B. - : IOP PUBLISHING LTD. - 0953-4075 .- 1361-6455. ; 52:17
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We publish three Roadmaps on photonic, electronic and atomic collision physics in order to celebrate the 60th anniversary of the ICPEAC conference. In Roadmap I, we focus on the light-matter interaction. In this area, studies of ultrafast electronic and molecular dynamics have been rapidly growing, with the advent of new light sources such as attosecond lasers and x-ray free electron lasers. In parallel, experiments with established synchrotron radiation sources and femtosecond lasers using cutting-edge detection schemes are revealing new scientific insights that have never been exploited. Relevant theories are also being rapidly developed. Target samples for photon-impact experiments are expanding from atoms and small molecules to complex systems such as biomolecules, fullerene, clusters and solids. This Roadmap aims to look back along the road, explaining the development of these fields, and look forward, collecting contributions from twenty leading groups from the field.
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92.
  • van den Berg, Leonard H., et al. (författare)
  • Revised Airlie House consensus guidelines for design and implementation of ALS clinical trials
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - : Wolters Kluwer. - 0028-3878 .- 1526-632X. ; 92:14, s. E1610-E1623
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To revise the 1999 Airlie House consensus guidelines for the design and implementation of preclinical therapeutic studies and clinical trials in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).Methods: A consensus committee comprising 140 key members of the international ALS community (ALS researchers, clinicians, patient representatives, research funding representatives, industry, and regulatory agencies) addressed 9 areas of need within ALS research: (1) preclinical studies; (2) biological and phenotypic heterogeneity; (3) outcome measures; (4) disease-modifying and symptomatic interventions; (5) recruitment and retention; (6) biomarkers; (7) clinical trial phases; (8) beyond traditional trial designs; and (9) statistical considerations. Assigned to 1 of 8 sections, committee members generated a draft set of guidelines based on a “background” of developing a (pre)clinical question and a “rationale” outlining the evidence and expert opinion. Following a 2-day, face-to-face workshop at the Airlie House Conference Center, a modified Delphi process was used to develop draft consensus research guidelines, which were subsequently reviewed and modified based on comments from the public. Statistical experts drafted a separate document of statistical considerations (section 9).Results: In this report, we summarize 112 guidelines and their associated backgrounds and rationales. The full list of guidelines, the statistical considerations, and a glossary of terms can be found in data available from Dryad (appendices e-3–e-5, doi.org/10.5061/dryad.32q9q5d). The authors prioritized 15 guidelines with the greatest potential to improve ALS clinical research.Conclusion: The revised Airlie House ALS Clinical Trials Consensus Guidelines should serve to improve clinical trial design and accelerate the development of effective treatments for patients with ALS.
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93.
  • Van Der Spek, Rick A., et al. (författare)
  • Reconsidering the causality of TIA1 mutations in ALS
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration. - : TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD. - 2167-8421 .- 2167-9223. ; 19:1-2, s. 1-3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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94.
  • van Rheenen, Wouter, et al. (författare)
  • H63D polymorphism in HFE is not associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of Aging. - 0197-4580 .- 1558-1497. ; 34:5, s. 1517.e5-1517.e7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The H63D polymorphism in HFE has frequently been associated with susceptibility to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Regarding the role of HFE in iron homeostasis, iron accumulation is considered an important process in ALS. Furthermore, novel therapeutic strategies are being developed targeting this process. Evidence for this genetic association is, however, limited to several small studies. For this reason we studied the H63D polymorphism in a large European cohort including 3962 ALS patients and 5072 control subjects from 7 countries. After meta-analysis of previous studies and current findings we conclude that the H63D polymorphism in HFE is not associated with susceptibility to ALS, age at disease onset, or survival. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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95.
  • Vigan, A., et al. (författare)
  • First light of the VLT planet finder SPHERE I. Detection and characterization of the substellar companion GJ 758 B
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 587
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • GJ 758 B is a brown dwarf companion to a nearby (15.76%) solar-type, metal-rich (M/H = +0.2 dex) main-sequence star (G9V) that was discovered with Subaru/HiCIAO in 2009. From previous studies, it has drawn attention as being the coldest (similar to 600 K) companion ever directly imaged around a neighboring star. We present new high-contrast data obtained during the commissioning of the SPHERE instrument at the Very Large Telescope (VLT). The data was obtained in Y-, J-, H-, and K-s-bands with the dual-band imaging (DBI) mode of IRDIS, thus providing a broad coverage of the full near-infrared (near-IR) range at higher contrast and better spectral sampling than previously reported. In this new set of high-quality data, we report the re-detection of the companion, as well as the first detection of a new candidate closer-in to the star. We use the new eight photometric points for an extended comparison of GJ 758 B with empirical objects and four families of atmospheric models. From comparison to empirical object, we estimate a T8 spectral type, but none of the comparison objects can accurately represent the observed near-IR fluxes of GJ 758 B. From comparison to atmospheric models, we attribute a T-eff = 600 +/- 100 K, but we find that no atmospheric model can adequately fit all the fluxes of GJ 758 B. The lack of exploration of metal enrichment in model grids appears as a major limitation that prevents an accurate estimation of the companion physical parameters. The photometry of the new candidate companion is broadly consistent with L-type objects, but a second epoch with improved photometry is necessary to clarify its status. The new astrometry of GJ 758 B shows a significant proper motion since the last epoch. We use this result to improve the determination of the orbital characteristics using two fitting approaches: Least-Squares Monte Carlo and Markov chain Monte Carlo. We confirm the high-eccentricity of the orbit (peak at 0.5), and find a most likely semi-major axis of 46.05 AU. We also use our imaging data, as well as archival radial velocity data, to reject the possibility that this is a false positive effect created by an unseen, closer-in, companion. Finally, we analyze the sensitivity of our data to additional closer-in companions and reject the possibility of other massive brown dwarf companions down to 4-5 AU.
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96.
  • Wang, Mingyi, et al. (författare)
  • Rapid growth of new atmospheric particles by nitric acid and ammonia condensation
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 581:7807, s. 184-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A list of authors and their affiliations appears at the end of the paper New-particle formation is a major contributor to urban smog(1,2), but how it occurs in cities is often puzzling(3). If the growth rates of urban particles are similar to those found in cleaner environments (1-10 nanometres per hour), then existing understanding suggests that new urban particles should be rapidly scavenged by the high concentration of pre-existing particles. Here we show, through experiments performed under atmospheric conditions in the CLOUD chamber at CERN, that below about +5 degrees Celsius, nitric acid and ammonia vapours can condense onto freshly nucleated particles as small as a few nanometres in diameter. Moreover, when it is cold enough (below -15 degrees Celsius), nitric acid and ammonia can nucleate directly through an acid-base stabilization mechanism to form ammonium nitrate particles. Given that these vapours are often one thousand times more abundant than sulfuric acid, the resulting particle growth rates can be extremely high, reaching well above 100 nanometres per hour. However, these high growth rates require the gas-particle ammonium nitrate system to be out of equilibrium in order to sustain gas-phase supersaturations. In view of the strong temperature dependence that we measure for the gas-phase supersaturations, we expect such transient conditions to occur in inhomogeneous urban settings, especially in wintertime, driven by vertical mixing and by strong local sources such as traffic. Even though rapid growth from nitric acid and ammonia condensation may last for only a few minutes, it is nonetheless fast enough to shepherd freshly nucleated particles through the smallest size range where they are most vulnerable to scavenging loss, thus greatly increasing their survival probability. We also expect nitric acid and ammonia nucleation and rapid growth to be important in the relatively clean and cold upper free troposphere, where ammonia can be convected from the continental boundary layer and nitric acid is abundant from electrical storms(4,5).
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97.
  • Weber, Markus, et al. (författare)
  • Unsupervised model generation for motion monitoring
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC). - : IEEE. - 9781457706523
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper addresses two fundamental requirements of full body motion monitoring: (a) the ability to sense the input of the user and (b) the means to interpret the captured input. Appropriate technology in both areas is required for an interactive virtual reality system to provide feedback in a useful and natural way. This paper combines technologies for both areas: It develops a sensor fusion approach for capturing user input based on miniature on-body inertial and magnetic motion sensors. Furthermore, it presents work in progress to automatically generate models for motion patterns from the captured input. The technology is then used and evaluated in the context of a personalized virtual rehabilitation trainer application.
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98.
  • Weber, Roland, et al. (författare)
  • Dioxin- and POP-contaminated sites—contemporary and future relevance and challenges : Overview on background, aims and scope of the series
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research. - 0944-1344 .- 1614-7499. ; 15:5, s. 363-393
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background, aim and scope: Once they have been generated, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) can persist in soils and sediments and in waste repositories for periods extending from decades to centuries. In 1994, the US EPA concluded that contaminated sites and other reservoirs are likely to become the major source of contemporary pollution problems with these substances. With this in mind, this article is the first in a new series in ESPR under the title ‘Case Studies on Dioxin and POP Contaminated Sites—Contemporary and Future Relevance and Challenges’, which will address this important issue. The series will document various experiences from sites contaminated with PCDD/F and other POPs. This article provides an overview of the content of the articles comprising the series. In addition, it provides a review of the subject in its own right and identifies the key issues arising from dioxin/POP-contaminated sites. Additionally, it highlights the important conclusions that can be drawn from these examples. The key aim of this article and of the series as a whole is to provide a comprehensive overview of the types of PCDD/F contaminated sites that exist as a result of historical activities. It details the various processes whereby these sites became contaminated and attempts to evaluate their contemporary relevance as sources of PCDD/Fs and other POPs. It also details the various strategies used to assess these historical legacies of contamination and the concepts developed, or which are under development, to effect their remediation.Main features: Special sessions on ‘Contaminated sites—Cases, remediation, risk and policy’ were held at the DIOXIN conferences in 2006 and 2007, and this theme will be continued at DIOXIN 2008 to be held in Birmingham. Selected cases from the approximately 70 contributions made to these sessions, together with some additional invited case studies are outlined together with the key issues they raise. By evaluating these cases and adding details of experiences published in the current literature, an overview will be given of the different features and challenges of dioxin and POP-contaminated sites.Results: This article provides a systematic categorisation of types of PCDD/F and POP-contaminated sites. These are categorised according to the chemical or manufacturing process, which generated the PCDD/Fs or POPs and also includes the use and disposal aspects of the product life cycle in question. The highest historical PCDD/F and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination burdens have arisen as a result of the production of chlorine and of chlorinated organic chemicals. In particular, the production of chlorinated pesticides, PCBs and the related contaminated waste streams are identified being responsible for historical releases of toxic equivalents (TEQs) at a scale of many tonnes. Along with such releases, major PCDD/F contaminated sites have been created through the application or improper disposal of contaminated pesticides, PCBs and other organochlorine chemicals, as well through the recycling of wastes and their attempted destruction. In some extreme examples, PCDD/F contaminated sites have also resulted from thermal processes such as waste incinerators, secondary metal industries or from the recycling or deposition of specific waste (e.g. electronic waste or car shredder wastes), which often contain chlorinated or brominated organic chemicals. The examples of PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB contamination of fish in European rivers or the impact of contaminated sites upon fishing grounds and upon other food resources demonstrate the relevance of these historical problems to current and future human generations. Many of the recent food contamination problems that have emerged in Europe and elsewhere demonstrate how PCDD/F and dioxin like PCBs from historical sources can directly contaminate human and animal feedstuffs and indeed highlight their considerable contemporary relevance in this respect. Accordingly, some key experiences and lessons learnt regarding the production, use, disposal and remediation of POPs from the contaminated sites are summarised.Discussion: An important criterion for evaluating the significance and risks of PCDD/Fs and other POPs at contaminated sites is their present or future potential for mobility. This, in turn, determines to a large degree their propensity for off-site transport and environmental accessibility. The detailed evaluation of contaminated site cases reveals different site-specific factors, which influence the varied pathways through which poor water-soluble POPs can be mobilised. Co-contaminants with greater water solubility are also typically present at such sites. Hence, pumping of groundwater (pump and treat) is often required in addition to attempting to physically secure a site. At an increasing number of contaminated sites, securing measures are failing after relatively short time spans compared to the time horizon, which applies to persistent organic pollutant contamination. Due to the immense costs and challenges associated with remediation of contaminated sites ‘monitored natural attenuation’ is increasingly gaining purchase as a conceptual remediation approach. However, these concepts may well prove limited in their practical application to contaminated sites containing persistent organic pollutants and other key pollutants like heavy metals.Conclusions: It is inevitable, therefore, that dioxin/POP-contaminated sites will remain of contemporary and future relevance. They will continue to represent an environmental issue for future generations to address. The securing and/or remediation of dioxin/POP-contaminated sites is very costly, generally in the order of tens or hundreds of millions of dollars. Secured landfills and secured production sites need to be considered as constructions not made for ‘eternity’ but built for a finite time scale. Accordingly, they will need to be controlled, supervised and potentially repaired/renewed. Furthermore, the leachates and groundwater impacted by these sites will require ongoing monitoring and potential further remediation. These activities result in high maintenance costs, which are accrued for decades or centuries and should, therefore, be compared to the fully sustainable option of complete remediation. The contaminated site case studies highlight that, while extensive policies and established funds for remediation exist in most of the industrialised western countries, even these relatively well-regulated and wealthy countries face significant challenges in the implementation of a remediation strategy. This highlights the fact that ultimately only the prevention of contaminated sites represents a sustainable solution for the future and that the Polluter Pays Principle needs to be applied in a comprehensive way to current problems and those which may emerge in the future.Recommendations and perspectives: With the continuing shift of industrial activities in developing and transition economies, which often have poor regulation (and weak self-regulation of industries), additional global challenges regarding POPs and other contaminated sites may be expected. In this respect, a comprehensive application of the “polluter pays principle” in these countries will also be a key to facilitate the clean-up of contaminated areas and the prevention of future contaminated sites. The threats and challenges of contaminated sites and the high costs of securing/remediating the problems highlight the need for a comprehensive approach based upon integrated pollution prevention and control. If applied to all polluting (and potentially polluting) industrial sectors around the globe, such an approach will prove to be both the cheapest and most sustainable way to underpin the development of industries in developing and transition economies.
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