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21.
  • Ademuyiwa, Adesoji O., et al. (författare)
  • Determinants of morbidity and mortality following emergency abdominal surgery in children in low-income and middle-income countries
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: BMJ Global Health. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 2059-7908. ; 1:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Child health is a key priority on the global health agenda, yet the provision of essential and emergency surgery in children is patchy in resource-poor regions. This study was aimed to determine the mortality risk for emergency abdominal paediatric surgery in low-income countries globally.Methods: Multicentre, international, prospective, cohort study. Self-selected surgical units performing emergency abdominal surgery submitted prespecified data for consecutive children aged <16 years during a 2-week period between July and December 2014. The United Nation's Human Development Index (HDI) was used to stratify countries. The main outcome measure was 30-day postoperative mortality, analysed by multilevel logistic regression.Results: This study included 1409 patients from 253 centres in 43 countries; 282 children were under 2 years of age. Among them, 265 (18.8%) were from low-HDI, 450 (31.9%) from middle-HDI and 694 (49.3%) from high-HDI countries. The most common operations performed were appendectomy, small bowel resection, pyloromyotomy and correction of intussusception. After adjustment for patient and hospital risk factors, child mortality at 30 days was significantly higher in low-HDI (adjusted OR 7.14 (95% CI 2.52 to 20.23), p<0.001) and middle-HDI (4.42 (1.44 to 13.56), p=0.009) countries compared with high-HDI countries, translating to 40 excess deaths per 1000 procedures performed.Conclusions: Adjusted mortality in children following emergency abdominal surgery may be as high as 7 times greater in low-HDI and middle-HDI countries compared with high-HDI countries. Effective provision of emergency essential surgery should be a key priority for global child health agendas.
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22.
  • Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan Antonio, et al. (författare)
  • Increased estrogen to androgen ratio enhances immunoglobulin levels and impairs B cell function in male mice.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Scientific reports. - 2045-2322. ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sex steroids, such as estrogens and androgens, are important regulators of the humoral immune response. Studies in female mice have demonstrated that alteration of circulating estrogen concentration regulates antibody-mediated immunity. As males have normally little endogenous estrogen, we hypothesized that in males high estrogens and low androgens affect the immune system and enhance the allergic inflammatory response. Here, we studied transgenic male mice expressing human aromatase (AROM+). These animals have a high circulating estrogen to androgen ratio (E/A), causing female traits such as gynecomastia. We found that AROM+ male mice had significantly higher plasma immunoglobulin levels, particularly IgE. Flow cytometry analyses of splenocytes revealed changes in mature/immature B cell ratio together with a transcriptional upregulation of the Igh locus. Furthermore, higher proliferation rate and increased IgE synthesis after IgE class-switching was found. Subsequently, we utilized an ovalbumin airway challenge model to test the allergic response in AROM+ male mice. In line with above observations, an increase in IgE levels was measured, albeit no impact on immune cell infiltration into the lungs was detected. Together, our findings suggest that high circulating E/A in males significantly alters B cell function without any significant enhancement in allergic inflammation.
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23.
  • Akimoto, Chizuru, et al. (författare)
  • A blinded international study on the reliability of genetic testing for GGGGCC-repeat expansions in C9orf72 reveals marked differences in results among 14 laboratories
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics. - 0022-2593 .- 1468-6244. ; 51:6, s. 419-424
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The GGGGCC-repeat expansion in C9orf72 is the most frequent mutation found in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Most of the studies on C9orf72 have relied on repeat-primed PCR (RP-PCR) methods for detection of the expansions. To investigate the inherent limitations of this technique, we compared methods and results of 14 laboratories. Methods The 14 laboratories genotyped DNA from 78 individuals (diagnosed with ALS or FTD) in a blinded fashion. Eleven laboratories used a combination of amplicon-length analysis and RP-PCR, whereas three laboratories used RP-PCR alone; Southern blotting techniques were used as a reference. Results Using PCR-based techniques, 5 of the 14 laboratories got results in full accordance with the Southern blotting results. Only 50 of the 78 DNA samples got the same genotype result in all 14 laboratories. There was a high degree of false positive and false negative results, and at least one sample could not be genotyped at all in 9 of the 14 laboratories. The mean sensitivity of a combination of amplicon-length analysis and RP-PCR was 95.0% (73.9-100%), and the mean specificity was 98.0% (87.5-100%). Overall, a sensitivity and specificity of more than 95% was observed in only seven laboratories. Conclusions Because of the wide range seen in genotyping results, we recommend using a combination of amplicon-length analysis and RP-PCR as a minimum in a research setting. We propose that Southern blotting techniques should be the gold standard, and be made obligatory in a clinical diagnostic setting.
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24.
  • Alix, James J. P., et al. (författare)
  • Assessment of the reliability of the motor unit size index (MUSIX) in single subject "round-robin" and multi-centre settings
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Clinical Neurophysiology. - : ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD. - 1388-2457 .- 1872-8952. ; 130:5, s. 666-674
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The motor unit size index (MUSIX) is incorporated into the motor unit number index (MUNIX). Our objective was to assess the intra-/inter-rater reliability of MUSIX in healthy volunteers across single subject "round robin" and multi-centre settings.Methods: Data were obtained from (i) a round-robin assessment in which 12 raters (6 with prior experience and 6 without) assessed six muscles (abductor pollicis brevis, abductor digiti minimi, biceps brachii, tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum brevis and abductor hallucis) and (ii) a multi-centre study with 6 centres studying the same muscles in 66 healthy volunteers. Intrafinter-rater data were provided by 5 centres, 1 centre provided only intra-rater data. Intrafinter-rater variability was assessed using the coefficient of variation (COV), Bland-Altman plots, bias and 95% limits of agreement.Results: In the round-robin assessment intra-rater COVs for MUSIX ranged from 7.8% to 28.4%. Inter-rater variability was between 7.8% and 16.2%. Prior experience did not impact on MUSIX values. In the multi-centre study MUSIX was more consistent than the MUNIX. Abductor hallucis was the least reliable muscle.Conclusions: The MUSIX is a reliable neurophysiological biomarker of reinnervation.Significance: MUSIX could provide insights into the pathophysiology of a range of neuromuscular disorders, providing a quantitative biomarker of reinnervation.
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25.
  • Andersen, Peter M., et al. (författare)
  • EFNS guidelines on the clinical management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (MALS) : revised report of an EFNS task force
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Neurology. - 1351-5101 .- 1468-1331. ; 19:3, s. 360-E24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The evidence base for the diagnosis and management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is weak. Objectives: To provide evidence-based or expert recommendations for the diagnosis and management of ALS based on a literature search and the consensus of an expert panel. Methods: All available medical reference systems were searched, and original papers, meta-analyses, review papers, book chapters and guidelines recommendations were reviewed. The final literature search was performed in February 2011. Recommendations were reached by consensus. Recommendations: Patients with symptoms suggestive of ALS should be assessed as soon as possible by an experienced neurologist. Early diagnosis should be pursued, and investigations, including neurophysiology, performed with a high priority. The patient should be informed of the diagnosis by a consultant with a good knowledge of the patient and the disease. Following diagnosis, the patient and relatives/carers should receive regular support from a multidisciplinary care team. Medication with riluzole should be initiated as early as possible. Control of symptoms such as sialorrhoea, thick mucus, emotional lability, cramps, spasticity and pain should be attempted. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding improves nutrition and quality of life, and gastrostomy tubes should be placed before respiratory insufficiency develops. Non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation also improves survival and quality of life. Maintaining the patient's ability to communicate is essential. During the entire course of the disease, every effort should be made to maintain patient autonomy. Advance directives for palliative end-of-life care should be discussed early with the patient and carers, respecting the patient's social and cultural background.
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26.
  • Arndt, D. S., et al. (författare)
  • State of the Climate in 2016
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS). - 0003-0007 .- 1520-0477. ; 98:8, s. S1-S280
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2016, the dominant greenhouse gases released into Earth's atmosphere-carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide-continued to increase and reach new record highs. The 3.5 +/- 0.1 ppm rise in global annual mean carbon dioxide from 2015 to 2016 was the largest annual increase observed in the 58-year measurement record. The annual global average carbon dioxide concentration at Earth's surface surpassed 400 ppm (402.9 +/- 0.1 ppm) for the first time in the modern atmospheric measurement record and in ice core records dating back as far as 800000 years. One of the strongest El Nino events since at least 1950 dissipated in spring, and a weak La Nina evolved later in the year. Owing at least in part to the combination of El Nino conditions early in the year and a long-term upward trend, Earth's surface observed record warmth for a third consecutive year, albeit by a much slimmer margin than by which that record was set in 2015. Above Earth's surface, the annual lower troposphere temperature was record high according to all datasets analyzed, while the lower stratospheric temperature was record low according to most of the in situ and satellite datasets. Several countries, including Mexico and India, reported record high annual temperatures while many others observed near-record highs. A week-long heat wave at the end of April over the northern and eastern Indian peninsula, with temperatures surpassing 44 degrees C, contributed to a water crisis for 330 million people and to 300 fatalities. In the Arctic the 2016 land surface temperature was 2.0 degrees C above the 1981-2010 average, breaking the previous record of 2007, 2011, and 2015 by 0.8 degrees C, representing a 3.5 degrees C increase since the record began in 1900. The increasing temperatures have led to decreasing Arctic sea ice extent and thickness. On 24 March, the sea ice extent at the end of the growth season saw its lowest maximum in the 37-year satellite record, tying with 2015 at 7.2% below the 1981-2010 average. The September 2016 Arctic sea ice minimum extent tied with 2007 for the second lowest value on record, 33% lower than the 1981-2010 average. Arctic sea ice cover remains relatively young and thin, making it vulnerable to continued extensive melt. The mass of the Greenland Ice Sheet, which has the capacity to contribute similar to 7 m to sea level rise, reached a record low value. The onset of its surface melt was the second earliest, after 2012, in the 37-year satellite record. Sea surface temperature was record high at the global scale, surpassing the previous record of 2015 by about 0.01 degrees C. The global sea surface temperature trend for the 21st century-to-date of +0.162 degrees C decade(-1) is much higher than the longer term 1950-2016 trend of +0.100 degrees C decade(-1). Global annual mean sea level also reached a new record high, marking the sixth consecutive year of increase. Global annual ocean heat content saw a slight drop compared to the record high in 2015. Alpine glacier retreat continued around the globe, and preliminary data indicate that 2016 is the 37th consecutive year of negative annual mass balance. Across the Northern Hemisphere, snow cover for each month from February to June was among its four least extensive in the 47-year satellite record. Continuing a pattern below the surface, record high temperatures at 20-m depth were measured at all permafrost observatories on the North Slope of Alaska and at the Canadian observatory on northernmost Ellesmere Island. In the Antarctic, record low monthly surface pressures were broken at many stations, with the southern annular mode setting record high index values in March and June. Monthly high surface pressure records for August and November were set at several stations. During this period, record low daily and monthly sea ice extents were observed, with the November mean sea ice extent more than 5 standard deviations below the 1981-2010 average. These record low sea ice values contrast sharply with the record high values observed during 2012-14. Over the region, springtime Antarctic stratospheric ozone depletion was less severe relative to the 1991-2006 average, but ozone levels were still low compared to pre-1990 levels. Closer to the equator, 93 named tropical storms were observed during 2016, above the 1981-2010 average of 82, but fewer than the 101 storms recorded in 2015. Three basins-the North Atlantic, and eastern and western North Pacific-experienced above-normal activity in 2016. The Australian basin recorded its least active season since the beginning of the satellite era in 1970. Overall, four tropical cyclones reached the Saffir-Simpson category 5 intensity level. The strong El Nino at the beginning of the year that transitioned to a weak La Nina contributed to enhanced precipitation variability around the world. Wet conditions were observed throughout the year across southern South America, causing repeated heavy flooding in Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Wetter-than-usual conditions were also observed for eastern Europe and central Asia, alleviating the drought conditions of 2014 and 2015 in southern Russia. In the United States, California had its first wetter-than-average year since 2012, after being plagued by drought for several years. Even so, the area covered by drought in 2016 at the global scale was among the largest in the post-1950 record. For each month, at least 12% of land surfaces experienced severe drought conditions or worse, the longest such stretch in the record. In northeastern Brazil, drought conditions were observed for the fifth consecutive year, making this the longest drought on record in the region. Dry conditions were also observed in western Bolivia and Peru; it was Bolivia's worst drought in the past 25 years. In May, with abnormally warm and dry conditions already prevailing over western Canada for about a year, the human-induced Fort McMurray wildfire burned nearly 590000 hectares and became the costliest disaster in Canadian history, with $3 billion (U.S. dollars) in insured losses.
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27.
  • Beaney, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • May Measurement Month 2017 : an analysis of blood pressure screening results worldwide
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Global Health. - : Lancet Ltd. - 2214-109X. ; 6:7, s. 736-743
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Increased blood pressure is the biggest contributor to the global burden of disease and mortality. Data suggest that less than half of the population with hypertension is aware of it. May Measurement Month was initiated to raise awareness of the importance of blood pressure and as a pragmatic interim solution to the shortfall in screening programmes. Methods: This cross-sectional survey included volunteer adults (≥18 years) who ideally had not had their blood pressures measured in the past year. Each participant had their blood pressure measured three times and received a a questionnaire about demographic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. The primary objective was to raise awareness of blood pressure, measured by number of countries involved, number of people screened, and number of people who have untreated or inadequately treated hypertension (defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg, or both, or on the basis of receiving antihypertensive medication). Multiple imputation was used to estimate the mean of the second and third blood pressure readings if these were not recorded. Measures of association were analysed using linear mixed models. Findings: Data were collected from 1 201 570 individuals in 80 countries. After imputation, of the 1 128 635 individuals for whom a mean of the second and third readings was available, 393 924 (34·9%) individuals had hypertension. 153 905 (17·3%) of 888 616 individuals who were not receiving antihypertensive treatment were hypertensive, and 105 456 (46·3%) of the 227 721 individuals receiving treatment did not have controlled blood pressure. Significant differences in adjusted blood pressures and hypertension prevalence were apparent between regions. Adjusted blood pressure was higher in association with antihypertensive medication, diabetes, cerebrovascular disease, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Blood pressure was higher when measured on the right arm than on the left arm, and blood pressure was highest on Saturdays. Interpretation: Inexpensive global screening of blood pressure is achievable using volunteers and convenience sampling. Pending the set-up of systematic surveillance systems worldwide, MMM will be repeated annually to raise awareness of blood pressure. Funding: International Society of Hypertension, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Servier Pharmaceutical Co.
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28.
  • Beaney, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • May Measurement Month 2018 : a pragmatic global screening campaign to raise awareness of blood pressure by the International Society of Hypertension
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - : Oxford University Press. - 1522-9645. ; 40:25, s. 2006-2017
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS: Raised blood pressure (BP) is the biggest contributor to mortality and disease burden worldwide and fewer than half of those with hypertension are aware of it. May Measurement Month (MMM) is a global campaign set up in 2017, to raise awareness of high BP and as a pragmatic solution to a lack of formal screening worldwide. The 2018 campaign was expanded, aiming to include more participants and countries. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eighty-nine countries participated in MMM 2018. Volunteers (≥18 years) were recruited through opportunistic sampling at a variety of screening sites. Each participant had three BP measurements and completed a questionnaire on demographic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. Hypertension was defined as a systolic BP ≥140 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg, or taking antihypertensive medication. In total, 74.9% of screenees provided three BP readings. Multiple imputation using chained equations was used to impute missing readings. 1 504 963 individuals (mean age 45.3 years; 52.4% female) were screened. After multiple imputation, 502 079 (33.4%) individuals had hypertension, of whom 59.5% were aware of their diagnosis and 55.3% were taking antihypertensive medication. Of those on medication, 60.0% were controlled and of all hypertensives, 33.2% were controlled. We detected 224 285 individuals with untreated hypertension and 111 214 individuals with inadequately treated (systolic BP ≥ 140 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥ 90 mmHg) hypertension. CONCLUSION: May Measurement Month expanded significantly compared with 2017, including more participants in more countries. The campaign identified over 335 000 adults with untreated or inadequately treated hypertension. In the absence of systematic screening programmes, MMM was effective at raising awareness at least among these individuals at risk.
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29.
  • Beer, Christian, et al. (författare)
  • Harmonized European Long-Term Climate Data for Assessing the Effect of Changing Temporal Variability on Land-Atmosphere CO2 Fluxes
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Climate. - 0894-8755 .- 1520-0442. ; 27:13, s. 4815-4834
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Temporal variability of meteorological variables and extreme weather events is projected to increase in many regions of the world during the next century. Artificial experiments using process-oriented terrestrial ecosystem models make it possible to isolate effects of temporal variability from effects of gradual climate change on terrestrial ecosystem functions and the system state. Such factorial experiments require two long-term climate datasets: 1) a control dataset that represents observed and projected climate and 2) a dataset with the same long-term mean as the control dataset but with altered short-term variability. Using a bias correction method, various climate datasets spanning different periods are harmonized and then combined with the control dataset with consistent time series for Europe during 1901-2100. Then, parameters of a distribution transformation function are estimated for individual meteorological variables to derive the second climate dataset, which has similar long-term means but reduced temporal variability. The transformation conserves the number of rainy days within a month and the shape of the daily meteorological data distributions, which is important to ensure that, for example, drought duration does not modify the suitability of localized vegetation type to precipitation regimes. The median absolute difference between daily data of both datasets is 5% to 20%. On average, decadal extreme values are reduced by 2% to 35%. Driving a terrestrial ecosystem model with both climate datasets shows a general higher gross primary production under reduced temporal climate variability. This effect of climate variability on productivity demonstrates the potential of the climate datasets for studying various effects of temporal variability on ecosystem state and functions over large domains.
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30.
  • Birve, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • A novel SOD1 splice site mutation associated with familial ALS revealed by SOD activity analysis
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - 0964-6906 .- 1460-2083. ; 19:21, s. 4201-4206
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • More than 145 mutations have been found in the gene CuZn-Superoxide dismutase (SOD1) in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The vast majority are easily detected nucleotide mutations in the coding region. In a patient from a Swiss ALS family with half-normal erythrocyte SOD1 activity, exon flanking sequence analysis revealed a novel thymine to guanine mutation 7 bp upstream of exon 4 (c.240-7T>G). The results of splicing algorithm analyses were ambiguous, but five out of seven analysis tools suggested a potential novel splice site that would add six new base pairs to the mRNA. If translated, this mRNA would insert Ser and Ile between Glu78 and Arg79 in the SOD1 protein. In fibroblasts from the patient, the predicted mutant transcript and the mutant protein were both highly expressed, and despite the location of the insertion into the metal ion-binding loop IV, the SOD1 activity appeared high. In erythrocytes, which lack protein synthesis and are old compared with cultured fibroblasts, both SOD1 protein and enzymic activity was 50% of controls. Thus, the usage of the novel splice site is near 100%, and the mutant SOD1 shows the reduced stability typical of ALS-associated mutant SOD1s. The findings suggests that this novel intronic mutation is causing the disease and highlights the importance of wide exon-flanking sequencing and transcript analysis combined with erythrocyte SOD1 activity analysis in comprehensive search for SOD1 mutations in ALS. We find that there are potentially more SOD1 mutations than previously reported.
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