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31.
  • Jennings, Eleanor, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of weather-related episodic events in lakes : an analysis based on high-frequency data
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Freshwater Biology. - 0046-5070 .- 1365-2427. ; 57:3, s. 589-601
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • 1. Weather-related episodic events are typically unpredictable, and their duration is often short. Abiotic and biological responses are often missed in routine monitoring. These responses are, however, now of particular relevance given projected changes in extreme weather conditions. 2. We present data from high-frequency monitoring stations from lakes in Europe, North America and Asia that illustrate two classes of abiotic effects of weather events: (i) generally short-lived effects of storms on lake thermal structure and (ii) the more prolonged effects of high rainfall events on dissolved organic matter levels and water clarity. We further relate these abiotic effects to changes in dissolved oxygen or in chlorophyll a levels. 3. Three differing causes for weather-related decreases in surface dissolved oxygen levels were observed: (i) entrainment of anoxic water from depth, (ii) reduction in primary productivity and (iii) increased mineralisation of organic carbon delivered from the catchment. 4. The duration of in-lake effects tended to be longer for events driven by weather conditions with a longer return period, that is, conditions that were relatively more severe and less frequent at a site. While the susceptibility of lakes to change was related in part to the severity of the meteorological drivers, the impacts also depended on site-specific factors in some cases. 5. The availability of high-frequency data at these sites provided insight into the capacity of the lakes to absorb current and future pressures. Several of the changes we observed, including increases in carbon availability, decreases in photosynthetically active radiation and increased disturbance, have the capacity to shift lakes towards an increased degree of heterotrophy. The magnitude and direction of any such change will, however, also depend on the magnitude and direction of climate change for a given location and on lake and catchment characteristics.
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32.
  • Jenny, Jean Philippe, et al. (författare)
  • Scientists’ Warning to Humanity: Rapid degradation of the world's large lakes
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Great Lakes Research. - : Elsevier BV. - 0380-1330. ; 46:4, s. 686-702
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2020 The Authors Large lakes of the world are habitats for diverse species, including endemic taxa, and are valuable resources that provide humanity with many ecosystem services. They are also sentinels of global and local change, and recent studies in limnology and paleolimnology have demonstrated disturbing evidence of their collective degradation in terms of depletion of resources (water and food), rapid warming and loss of ice, destruction of habitats and ecosystems, loss of species, and accelerating pollution. Large lakes are particularly exposed to anthropogenic and climatic stressors. The Second Warning to Humanity provides a framework to assess the dangers now threatening the world's large lake ecosystems and to evaluate pathways of sustainable development that are more respectful of their ongoing provision of services. Here we review current and emerging threats to the large lakes of the world, including iconic examples of lake management failures and successes, from which we identify priorities and approaches for future conservation efforts. The review underscores the extent of lake resource degradation, which is a result of cumulative perturbation through time by long-term human impacts combined with other emerging stressors. Decades of degradation of large lakes have resulted in major challenges for restoration and management and a legacy of ecological and economic costs for future generations. Large lakes will require more intense conservation efforts in a warmer, increasingly populated world to achieve sustainable, high-quality waters. This Warning to Humanity is also an opportunity to highlight the value of a long-term lake observatory network to monitor and report on environmental changes in large lake ecosystems.
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33.
  • Knoll, Lesley B., et al. (författare)
  • Consequences of lake and river ice loss on cultural ecosystem services
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Limnology and Oceanography Letters. - : Wiley Periodicals Inc.. - 2378-2242. ; 4:5, s. 119-131
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • People extensively use lakes and rivers covered by seasonal ice. Although ice cover duration has been declining over the past 150 years for Northern Hemisphere freshwaters, we know relatively little about how ice loss directly affects humans. Here, we synthesize the cultural ecosystem services (i.e., services that provide intangible or nonmaterial benefits) and associated benefits supported by inland ice. We also provide, for the first time, empirical examples that give quantitative evidence for a winter warming effect on a wide range of ice-related cultural ecosystem services and benefits. We show that in recent decades, warmer air temperatures delayed the opening date of winter ice roads and led to cancellations of spiritual ceremonies, outdoor ice skating races, and ice fishing tournaments. Additionally, our synthesis effort suggests unexploited data sets that allow for the use of integrative approaches to evaluate the interplay between inland ice loss and society.
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34.
  • Kopacek, Jiri, et al. (författare)
  • Disruptions and re-establishment of the calcium-bicarbonate equilibrium in freshwaters
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment. - : ELSEVIER. - 0048-9697 .- 1879-1026. ; 743
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • During recent decades, increasing anthropogenic activities have affected natural ionic composition, including the strongest and most common relationship between ionic concentrations in the majority of natural global freshwaters, i.e., the Ca2+-ANC (acid neutralizing capacity) equilibrium. Using long-term monitoring data and MAGIC modelling, we evaluated effects of major present environmental stressors (synthetic fertilizers, liming, acidic deposition, forest disturbances, and climate change) on the Ca2+-ANC equilibrium. We evaluated the effects for three different types of terrestrial ecosystems, a circumneutral lowland agricultural catchment, two acid sensitive mountain forest catchments differing in forest health, and one acid sensitive alpine catchment. All catchments are in a region with the world-largest changes in fertilizing rates and acidic deposition in the 20th century, with increasing impacts until the late 1980s, and their subsequent abrupt, dramatic decreases. These strong changes resulted in a substantial disruption, followed by continuing re-establishment of the Ca2+-ANC relationship in all study waters. The shape of the disruption and the following re-establishment of its new value were dependent on the intensity, duration, and combination of stressors, as well as on catchment characteristics (bedrock composition, soil amount and composition, vegetation status, and hydrology). We conclude that a new equilibrium may deviate from its natural value due to the (1) legacy of fertilizing, acidic deposition and liming, affecting the soil Ca(2+ )pools, (2) forest disturbances and management practices, and (3) climate change. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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35.
  • Kothawala, Dolly, et al. (författare)
  • Inner filter correction of dissolved organic matter fluorescence
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Limnology and Oceanography. - 1541-5856 .- 1541-5856. ; 11, s. 616-630
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The fluorescence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) is suppressed by a phenomenon of self-quenching known as the inner filter effect (IFE). Despite widespread use of fluorescence to characterize DOM in surface waters, the advantages and constraints of IFE correction are poorly defined. We assessed the effectiveness of a commonly used absorbance-based approach (ABA), and a recently proposed controlled dilution approach (CDA) to correct for IFE. Linearity between corrected fluorescence and total absorbance (ATotal; the sum of absorbance at excitation and emission wavelengths) across the full excitation-emission matrix (EEM) in dilution series of four samples indicated both ABA and CDA were effective to an absorbance of at least 1.5 in a 1 cm cell, regardless of wavelength positioning. In regions of the EEMs where signal to background noise (S/N) was low, CDA correction resulted in more variability than ABA correction. From the ABA algorithm, the onset of significant IFE (>5%) occurs when absorbance exceeds 0.042. In these cases, IFE correction is required, which was the case for the vast majority (97%) of lakes in a nationwide survey (n= 554). For highly absorbing samples, undesirably large dilution factors would be necessary to reduce absorbance below 0.042. For rare EEMs with ATotal > 1.5 (3.0% of the lakes in the Swedish survey), a 2-fold dilution is recommended followed by ABA or CDA correction. This study shows that for the vast majority of natural DOM samples the most commonly applied ABA algorithm provides adequate correction without prior dilution.
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36.
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37.
  • Marcé, Rafael, et al. (författare)
  • Automatic High Frequency Monitoring for Improved Lake and Reservoir Management
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology. - 0013-936X .- 1520-5851. ; 50:20, s. 10780-10794
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent technological developments have increased the number of variables being monitored in lakes and reservoirs using automatic high frequency monitoring (AHFM). However, design of AHFM systems and posterior data handling and interpretation are currently being developed on a site-by-site and issue-by-issue basis with minimal standardization of protocols or knowledge sharing. As a result, many deployments become short-lived or underutilized, and many new scientific developments that are potentially useful for water management and environmental legislation remain underexplored. This Critical Review bridges scientific uses of AHFM with their applications by providing an overview of the current AHFM capabilities, together with examples of successful applications. We review the use of AHFM for maximizing the provision of ecosystem services supplied by lakes and reservoirs (consumptive and non consumptive uses, food production, and recreation), and for reporting lake status in the EU Water Framework Directive. We also highlight critical issues to enhance the application of AHFM, and suggest the establishment of appropriate networks to facilitate knowledge sharing and technological transfer between potential users. Finally, we give advice on how modern sensor technology can successfully be applied on a larger scale to the management of lakes and reservoirs and maximize the ecosystem services they provide.
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38.
  • Müller, Roger A., et al. (författare)
  • Hourly, daily, and seasonal variability in the absorption spectra of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in a eutrophic, humic lake
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences. - 2169-8953 .- 2169-8961. ; 119:10, s. 1985-1998
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The short-term (hourly and daily) variation in chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in lakes is largely unknown. We assessed the spectral characteristics of light absorption by CDOM in a eutrophic, humic shallow mixed lake of temperate Sweden at a high-frequency (30 min) interval and during a full growing season (May to October). Physical time series, such as solar radiation, temperature, wind, and partial pressures of carbon dioxide in water and air, were measured synchronously. We identified a strong radiation-induced summer CDOM loss (25 to 50%) that developed over 4 months, which was accompanied by strong changes in CDOM absorption spectral shape. The magnitude of the CDOM loss exceeded subhourly to daily variability by an order of magnitude. Applying Fourier analysis, we demonstrate that variation in CDOM remained largely unaffected by rapid shifts in weather, and no apparent response to in-lake dissolved organic carbon production was found. In autumn, CDOM occasionally showed variation at hourly to daily time scales, reaching a maximum daily coefficient of variation of 15%. We suggest that lake-internal effects on CDOM are quenched in humic lake waters by dominating effects associated with imported CDOM and solar exposure. Since humic lake waters belong to one of the most abundant lake types on Earth, our results have important implications for the understanding of global CDOM cycling.
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39.
  • Müller, Roger A., et al. (författare)
  • Water renewal along the aquatic continuum offsets cumulative retention by lakes : implications for the character of organic carbon in boreal lakes
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Aquatic Sciences. - 1015-1621 .- 1420-9055. ; 75:4, s. 535-545
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The character of organic carbon (OC) in lake waters is strongly dependent on the time water has spent in the landscape as well as in the lake itself due to continuous biogeochemical OC transformation processes. A common view is that upstream lakes might prolong the water retention in the landscape, resulting in an altered OC character downstream. We calculated the number of lakes upstream for 24,742 Swedish lakes in seven river basins spanning from 56º to 68º N. For each of these lakes, we used a lake volume to discharge comparison on a landscape scale to account for upstream water retention by lakes (Tn tot). We found a surprisingly weak relationship between the number of lakes upstream and Tn tot. Accordingly, we found that the coloured fraction of organic carbon was not related to lake landscape position but significantly related to Tn tot when we analysed lake water chemical data from 1,559 lakes in the studied river basins. Thus, we conclude that water renewal along the aquatic continuum by lateral water inputs offsets cumulative retention by lakes. Based on our findings, we suggest integrating Tn tot in studies that address lake landscape position in the boreal zone to better understand variations in the character of organic carbon across lake districts.
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40.
  • Nydahl, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Colored organic matter increases CO2 in meso-eutrophic lake water through altered light climate and acidity
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Limnology and Oceanography. - 0024-3590 .- 1939-5590. ; 64:2, s. 744-756
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Many surface waters across the boreal region are browning due to increased concentrations of colored allochthonous dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Browning may stimulate heterotrophic metabolism, may have a shading effect constraining primary production, and may acidify the water leading to decreased pH with a subsequent shift in the carbonate system. All these effects are expected to result in increased lake water carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations. We tested here these expectations by assessing the effects of both altered allochthonous DOC input and light conditions through shading on lake water CO2 concentrations. We used two mesocosm experiments with water from the meso‐eutrophic Lake Erken, Sweden, to determine the relative importance of bacterial activities, primary production, and shifts in the carbonate system on CO2 concentrations. We found that DOC addition and shading resulted in a significant increase in partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in all mesocosms. Surprisingly, there was no relationship between bacterial activities and pCO2. Instead the experimental reduction of light by DOC and/or shading decreased the photosynthesis to respiration ratio leading to increased pCO2. Another driving force behind the observed pCO2 increase was a significant decrease in pH, caused by a decline in photosynthesis and the input of acidic DOC. Considering that colored allochthonous DOC may increase in a warmer and wetter climate, our results could also apply for whole lake ecosystems and pCO2 may increase in many lakes through a reduction in the rate of photosynthesis and decreased pH.
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