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61.
  • Engel, Fabian, et al. (författare)
  • A simplified approach to detect a significant carbon dioxide reduction by phytoplankton in lakes and rivers on a regional and global scale
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: The Science of Nature. - 0028-1042 .- 1432-1904. ; 107:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Carbon dioxide (CO2) uptake by phytoplankton can significantly reduce the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in lakes and rivers, and thereby CO2 emissions. Presently, it is not known in which inland waters on Earth a significant pCO2 reduction by phytoplankton is likely. Since detailed, comparable carbon budgets are currently not available for most inland waters, we modified a proxy to assess the pCO2 reduction by phytoplankton, originally developed for boreal lakes, for application on a global scale. Using data from 61 rivers and 125 lakes distributed over five continents, we show that a significant pCO2 reduction by phytoplankton is widespread across the temperate and sub-/tropical region, but absent in the cold regions on Earth. More specifically, we found that a significant pCO2 reduction by phytoplankton might occur in 24% of the lakes in the temperate region, and 39% of the lakes in the sub-/tropical region. We also showed that such a reduction might occur in 21% of the rivers in the temperate region, and 5% of the rivers in the sub-/tropical region. Our results indicate that CO2 uptake by phytoplankton is a relevant flux in regional and global carbon budgets. This highlights the need for more accurate approaches to quantify CO2 uptake by primary producers in inland waters, particularly in the temperate and sub-/tropical region.
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62.
  • Engel, Fabian, et al. (författare)
  • Environmental conditions for phytoplankton influenced carbon dynamics in boreal lakes
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Aquatic Sciences. - : SPRINGER BASEL AG. - 1015-1621 .- 1420-9055. ; 81:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The partial pressure of CO2 (pCO(2)) in lake water, and thus CO2 emissions from lakes are controlled by hydrologic inorganic carbon inputs into lakes, and in-lake carbon transformation (mainly organic carbon mineralization and CO2 uptake by primary producers). In boreal lakes, CO2 uptake by phytoplankton is often considered to be of minor importance. At present, however, it is not known in which and how many boreal lakes phytoplankton CO2 uptake has a sizeable influence on the lake water pCO(2). Using water physico-chemical and phytoplankton data from 126 widely spread Swedish lakes from 1992 to 2012, we found that pCO(2) was negatively related to phytoplankton carbon in lakes in which the phytoplankton share in TOC (C-phyto:TOC ratio) exceeded 5%. Total phosphorus concentration (TP) was the strongest predictor of spatial variation in the C-phyto:TOC ratio, where C-phyto:TOC ratios>5% occurred in lakes with TP>30 mu gl(-1). These lakes were located in the hemi-boreal zone of central and southern Sweden. We conclude that during summer, phytoplankton CO2 uptake can reduce the pCO(2) not only in warm eutrophic lakes, but also in relatively nutrient poor hemi-boreal lakes.
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63.
  • Engel, Fabian, et al. (författare)
  • Phytoplankton gross primary production increases along cascading impoundments in a temperate, low-discharge river : Insights from high frequency water quality monitoring
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - 2045-2322. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Damming alters carbon processing along river continua. Estimating carbon transport along rivers intersected by multiple dams requires an understanding of the effects of cascading impoundments on the riverine metabolism. We analyzed patterns of riverine metabolism and phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll a; Chla) along a 74.4-km river reach intersected by six low-head navigation dams. Calculating gross primary production (GPP) from continuous measurements of dissolved oxygen concentration, we found a maximum increase in the mean GPP by a factor of 3.5 (absolute difference of 0.45 g C m−3 d−1) along the first 26.5 km of the study reach, while Chla increased over the entire reach by a factor of 2.9 (8.7 µg l−1). In the intermittently stratified section of the deepest impoundment the mean GPP between the 1 and 4 m water layer differed by a factor of 1.4 (0.31 g C m−3 d−1). Due to the strong increase in GPP, the river featured a wide range of conditions characteristic of low- to medium-production rivers. We suggest that cascading impoundments have the potential to stimulate riverine GPP, and conclude that phytoplankton CO2 uptake is an important carbon flux in the river Saar, where a considerable amount of organic matter is of autochthonous origin.
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64.
  • Erlandsson, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Increasing Dissolved Organic Carbon Redefines the Extent of Surface Water Acidification and Helps Resolve a Classic Controversy
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: BioScience. - 0006-3568 .- 1525-3244. ; 61:8, s. 614-618
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Concentrations of organic acids in freshwaters have increased significantly during recent decades across large parts of Europe and North America. Different theories of the causes (e.g., recovery from acidification, climate change, land use) have different implications for defining the preindustrial levels for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which are crucial for assessing acidification and other aspects of water quality. We demonstrate this by classifying the acidification status of 66 lakes with long-term observations, representative of about 12,700 acid-sensitive lakes in nemoral and boreal Sweden. Of these lakes, 47% are classified as significantly acidified (Delta pH >= 0.4), assuming preindustrial DOC levels were equal to those observed in 1990. But if instead, the higher DOC levels observed in 2009 define preindustrial conditions, half as many lakes are acidified (24%). This emphasizes the need to establish reference levels for DOC and casts new light on the classic controversy about natural versus anthropogenic acidification.
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65.
  • Erlandsson, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Natural variability in lake pH on seasonal, interannual and decadal time scales : implications for assessment of human impact
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology. - : American Chemical Society (ACS). - 0013-936X .- 1520-5851. ; 42:15, s. 5594-5599
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Reference values define the natural state with respect to environmental stressors and are commonly used for assessments of ecological impacts and to set restoration targets. These reference values are often treated as constants, whereas in reality they can be highly variable. Here, we study the significance of this variability for assessments of human impact on the environment, by using almost two decades of observations from 95 acid-sensitive Swedish lakes. Our approach was to first estimate the preindustrial, steady-state reference level of acid neutralization capacity (ANC) for each lake with the hydro-geochemical model MAGIC. Then the variability in pH around this "baseline" was reconstructed from the contemporary, "natural" variability in the ANC, total organic carbon (TOC) and Al-concentrations, and partial CO2 pressure. The variability in reference pH was then examined for the period 1990-2004, on seasonal (single measurements), interannual (1-year median), and decadal (5-year median) scales. On the seasonal scale, the variability in reference pH ranged between 0.40 and 1.7. The range on the interannual time scale was up to 1.3 units and for the decadal scale up to 0.76 units. Since an anthropogenic pH decline of more than 0.4 units is deemed significant according to the Swedish Environmental Quality Criteria, this natural variability clearly needs to be accounted for when assessing acidification.
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66.
  • Erlandsson, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Thirty-five years of synchrony in the organic matter concentrations of Swedish rivers explained by variation in flow and sulphate
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Global Change Biology. - : Blackwell Publishing. - 1354-1013 .- 1365-2486. ; 14:5, s. 1191-1198
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Increasing concentrations of organic matter ( OM) in surface waters have been noted over large parts of the boreal/nemoral zone in Europe and North America. This has raised questions about the causes and the likelihood of further increases. A number of drivers have been proposed, including temperature, hydrology, as well as SO42 - and Cl (-) deposition. The data reported so far, however, have been insufficient to define the relative importance of different drivers in landscapes where they interact. Thirty-five years of monthly measurements of absorbance and chemical oxygen demand ( COD), two common proxies for OM, from 28 large Scandinavian catchments provide an unprecedented opportunity to resolve the importance of hypothesized drivers. For 21 of the catchments, there are 18 years of total organic carbon (TOC) measurements as well. Despite the heterogeneity of the catchments with regards to climate, size and land use, there is a high degree of synchronicity in OM across the entire region. Rivers go from widespread trends of decreasing OM to increasing trends and back again three times in the 35-year record. This synchronicity in decadal scale oscillations and long-term trends suggest a common set of dominant OM drivers in these landscapes. Here, we use regression models to test the importance of different potential drivers. We show that flow and SO42 - together can predict most of the interannual variability in OM proxies, up to 88% for absorbance, up to 78% for COD. Two other candidate drivers, air temperature and Cl (-) , add little explanatory value. Declines in anthropogenic SO42 - since the mid-1970s are thus related to the observed OM increases in Scandinavia, but, in contrast to many recent studies, flow emerges as an even more important driver of OM variability. Stabilizing SO42 - levels also mean that hydrology is likely to be the major driver of future variability and trends in OM.
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67.
  • Farkas, Julia, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of TiO2 nanoparticles on freshwater bacteria from three Swedish lakes
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment. - 0048-9697 .- 1879-1026. ; 535, s. 85-93
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Due to the rapidly rising production and usage of nano-enabled products, aquatic environments are increasingly exposed to engineered nanoparticles (ENPs), causing concerns about their potential negative effects. In this study we assessed the effects of uncoated titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO(2)NPs) on the growth and activity of bacterial communities of three Swedish lakes featuring different chemical characteristics such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, pH and elemental composition. TiO2NP exposure concentrations were 15, 100, and 1000 mu g L-1, and experiments were performed in situ under three light regimes: darkness, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and ambient sunlight including UV radiation (UVR). The nanoparticles were most stable in lake water with high DOC and low chemical element concentrations. At the highest exposure concentration (1000 mu g L-1 TiO2NP) the bacterial abundance was significantly reduced in all lake waters. In the medium and high DOC lake waters, exposure concentrations of 100 mu g L-1 TiO2NP caused significant reductions in bacterial abundance. The cell-specific bacterial activity was significantly enhanced at high TiO2NP exposure concentrations, indicating the loss of nanoparticle-sensitive bacteria and a subsequent increased activity by tolerant ones. No UV-induced phototoxic effect of TiO2NP was found in this study. We conclude that in freshwater lakes with high DOC and low chemical element concentrations, uncoated TiO(2)NPs show an enhanced stability and can significantly reduce bacterial abundance at relatively low exposure concentrations.
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68.
  • Grubisic, Lorena M., et al. (författare)
  • Effects of stratification depth and dissolved organic matter on brackish bacterioplankton communities
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Marine Ecology Progress Series. - 0171-8630 .- 1616-1599. ; 453, s. 37-48
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bacterioplankton growth is often directly or indirectly controlled by external energy subsidies via organic matter inputs or solar radiation. We carried out a mesocosm experiment to assess how bacterioplankton communities responded to elevated levels of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and experimentally controlled stratification depth. The month-long experiment consisted of 2500 l mesocosms subjected to 4 experimental manipulations in triplicate: the stratification depth was set to either 1.5 or 3.5 m, with or without experimental addition of ambient levels of chromophoric DOM. DOM addition had a significant effect on bacterial community composition as assessed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of amplified 16S rRNA genes. In contrast, there were no effects of the DOM amendment on bacterial biomass or production. Mixing depth and the coupled effective light climate in the photic zone also had a significant effect on bacterial community composition. Furthermore, shallow mixing depth was associated with enhanced primary production, whereas DOM addition had a negative effect on phyto plankton biomass and productivity. Our results suggest that bacterial community composition is coupled to primary production under the studied coastal nutrient regime, and point to a key role of DOM quality in controlling bacterioplankton communities.
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69.
  • Hastie, Adam, et al. (författare)
  • CO2 evasion from boreal lakes : Revised estimate, drivers of spatial variability, and future projections
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Global Change Biology. - 1354-1013 .- 1365-2486. ; 24:2, s. 711-728
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Lakes (including reservoirs) are an important component of the global carbon (C) cycle, as acknowledged by the 5th assessment report of the IPCC. In the context of lakes, the boreal region is disproportionately important contributing to 27% of the worldwide lake area, despite representing just 14% of global land surface area. In this study, we used a statistical approach to derive a prediction equation for the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in lakes as a function of lake area, terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP) and precipitation (r2 = 0.56), and to create the first high resolution, circumboreal map (0.5) of lake pCO2. The map of pCO2 was combined with lake area from the recently published GLOWABO database and three different estimates of the gas transfer velocity k to produce a resulting map of CO2 evasion (FCO2). For the boreal region we estimate an average, lake area weighted,pCO2 of 966 (678- 1325) μatm and a total FCO2 of 189 (74-347) Tg C yr−1, and evaluate the corresponding uncertainties based on Monte Carlo simulation. Our estimate of FCO2 is approximately twofold greater than previous estimates, as a result of methodological and data source differences. We use our results along with published estimates of the other C fluxes through inland waters to derive a C budget for the boreal region, and find that FCO2 from lakes is the most significant flux of the land-ocean aquatic continuum, and of a similar magnitude as emissions from forest fires. Using the model and applying it to spatially resolved projections of terrestrial NPP and precipitation while keeping everything else constant, we predict a 107% increase in boreal lake FCO2 under emission scenario RCP8.5 by 2100. Our projections are largely driven by increases in terrestrial NPP over the same period, showing the very close connection between the terrestrial and aquatic C cycle.
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70.
  • Humborg, Christoph, et al. (författare)
  • Environmental Impacts—Freshwater Biogeochemistry
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Second Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin. - Cham : Springer. - 9783319160054 - 9783319160061 ; , s. 307-336
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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