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Sökning: WFRF:(Wieland Thomas)

  • Resultat 31-39 av 39
  • Föregående 123[4]
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31.
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32.
  • Wang, Min, et al. (författare)
  • The effect of temperature on supported dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayers : Structure and lubrication performance
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. - 0021-9797 .- 1095-7103. ; 445, s. 84-92
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Phospholipids fulfill an important role in joint lubrication. They, together with hyaluronan and glycoproteins, are the biolubricants that sustain low friction between cartilage surfaces bathed in synovial fluid. In this work we have investigated how the friction force and load bearing capacity of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) bilayers on silica surfaces are affected by temperature, covering the temperature range 25–52 °C. Friction forces have been determined utilizing the AFM colloidal probe technique, which showed that DPPC bilayers are able to provide low friction forces over the whole temperature interval. However, the load bearing capacity is improved at higher temperatures. We interpret this finding as being a consequence of lower rigidity and higher self-healing capacity of the DPPC bilayer in the liquid disordered state compared to the gel state. The corresponding structure of solid supported DPPC bilayers at the silica–liquid interface has been followed using X-ray reflectivity measurements, which suggests that the DPPC bilayer is in the gel phase at 25 °C and 39 °C and in the liquid disordered state at 55 °C. Well-defined bilayer structures were observed for both phases. The deposited DPPC bilayers were also imaged using AFM PeakForce Tapping mode, and these measurements indicated a less homogeneous layer at temperatures below 37 °C.
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33.
  • Wheeler, Eleanor, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of common genetic determinants of Hemoglobin A1c on type 2 diabetes risk and diagnosis in ancestrally diverse populations : A transethnic genome-wide meta-analysis
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: PLoS Medicine. - : PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE. - 1549-1277 .- 1549-1676. ; 14:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is used to diagnose type 2 diabetes (T2D) and assess glycemic control in patients with diabetes. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 18 HbA1c-associated genetic variants. These variants proved to be classifiable by their likely biological action as erythrocytic (also associated with erythrocyte traits) or glycemic (associated with other glucose-related traits). In this study, we tested the hypotheses that, in a very large scale GWAS, we would identify more genetic variants associated with HbA1c and that HbA1c variants implicated in erythrocytic biology would affect the diagnostic accuracy of HbA1c. We therefore expanded the number of HbA1c-associated loci and tested the effect of genetic risk-scores comprised of erythrocytic or glycemic variants on incident diabetes prediction and on prevalent diabetes screening performance. Throughout this multiancestry study, we kept a focus on interancestry differences in HbA1c genetics performance that might influence race-ancestry differences in health outcomes.Methods & findings: Using genome-wide association meta-analyses in up to 159,940 individuals from 82 cohorts of European, African, East Asian, and South Asian ancestry, we identified 60 common genetic variants associated with HbA1c. We classified variants as implicated in glycemic, erythrocytic, or unclassified biology and tested whether additive genetic scores of erythrocytic variants (GS-E) or glycemic variants (GS-G) were associated with higher T2D incidence in multiethnic longitudinal cohorts (N = 33,241). Nineteen glycemic and 22 erythrocytic variants were associated with HbA1c at genome-wide significance. GS-G was associated with higher T2D risk (incidence OR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.04-1.06, per HbA1c-raising allele, p = 3 x 10-29); whereas GS-E was not (OR = 1.00, 95% CI 0.99-1.01, p = 0.60). In Europeans and Asians, erythrocytic variants in aggregate had only modest effects on the diagnostic accuracy of HbA1c. Yet, in African Americans, the X-linked G6PD G202A variant (T-allele frequency 11%) was associated with an absolute decrease in HbA1c of 0.81%-units (95% CI 0.66-0.96) per allele in hemizygous men, and 0.68%-units (95% CI 0.38-0.97) in homozygous women. The G6PD variant may cause approximately 2% (N = 0.65 million, 95% CI0.55-0.74) of African American adults with T2Dto remain undiagnosed when screened with HbA1c. Limitations include the smaller sample sizes for non-European ancestries and the inability to classify approximately one-third of the variants. Further studies in large multiethnic cohorts with HbA1c, glycemic, and erythrocytic traits are required to better determine the biological action of the unclassified variants.Conclusions: As G6PD deficiency can be clinically silent until illness strikes, we recommend investigation of the possible benefits of screening for the G6PD genotype along with using HbA1c to diagnose T2D in populations of African ancestry or groups where G6PD deficiency is common. Screening with direct glucose measurements, or genetically-informed HbA1c diagnostic thresholds in people with G6PD deficiency, may be required to avoid missed or delayed diagnoses.
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34.
  • Wieland, D. C. Florian, et al. (författare)
  • Structure of DPPC-hyaluronan interfacial layers - effects of molecular weight and ion composition
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Soft Matter. - : Royal Society of Chemistry. - 1744-683X .- 1744-6848. ; 12:3, s. 729-740
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hyaluronan and phospholipids play an important role in lubrication in articular joints and provide in combination with glycoproteins exceptionally low friction coefficients. We have investigated the structural organization of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) Langmuir layers at the solution-air interface at different length scales with respect to the adsorption of hyaluronan (HA). This allows us to assemble a comprehensive picture of the adsorption and the resulting structures, and how they are affected by the molecular weight of HA and the presence of calcium ions. Brewster angle microscopy and grazing incident diffraction were used to determine the lateral structure at the micro- and macro scale. The data reveals an influence of HA on both the macro and micro structure of the DPPC Langmuir layer, and that the strength of this effect increases with decreasing molecular weight of HA and in presence of calcium ions. Furthermore, from X-ray reflectivity measurements we conclude that HA adsorbs to the hydrophilic part of DPPC, but data also suggest that two types of interfacial structures are formed at the interface. We argue that hydrophobic forces and electrostatic interactions play important rules for the association between DPPC and HA. Surface pressure area isotherms were used to determine the influence of HA on the phase behavior of DPPC while electrophoretic mobility measurements were used to gain insight into the binding of calcium ions to DPPC vesicles and hyaluronan.
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35.
  • Wieland, D. C. Florian, et al. (författare)
  • Studying solutions at high shear rates : A dedicated microfluidics setup
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation. - : International Union of Crystallography. - 0909-0495 .- 1600-5775. ; 23:2, s. 480-486
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The development of a dedicated small-angle X-ray scattering setup for the investigation of complex fluids at different controlled shear conditions is reported. The setup utilizes a microfluidics chip with a narrowing channel. As a consequence, a shear gradient is generated within the channel and the effect of shear rate on structure and interactions is mapped spatially. In a first experiment small-angle X-ray scattering is utilized to investigate highly concentrated protein solutions up to a shear rate of 300000 s-1. These data demonstrate that equilibrium clusters of lysozyme are destabilized at high shear rates.
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36.
  • Winkelmann, Juliane, et al. (författare)
  • Mutations in DNMT1 cause autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia, deafness and narcolepsy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - 0964-6906 .- 1460-2083. ; 21:10, s. 2205-2210
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia, deafness and narcolepsy (ADCA-DN) is characterized by late onset (30-40 years old) cerebellar ataxia, sensory neuronal deafness, narcolepsy-cataplexy and dementia. We performed exome sequencing in five individuals from three ADCA-DN kindreds and identified DNMT1 as the only gene with mutations found in all five affected individuals. Sanger sequencing confirmed the de novo mutation p.Ala570Val in one family, and showed co-segregation of p.Val606Phe and p.Ala570Val, with the ADCA-DN phenotype, in two other kindreds. An additional ADCA-DN kindred with a p.GLY605Ala mutation was subsequently identified. Narcolepsy and deafness were the first symptoms to appear in all pedigrees, followed by ataxia. DNMT1 is a widely expressed DNA methyltransferase maintaining methylation patterns in development, and mediating transcriptional repression by direct binding to HDAC2. It is also highly expressed in immune cells and required for the differentiation of CD4+ into T regulatory cells. Mutations in exon 20 of this gene were recently reported to cause hereditary sensory neuropathy with dementia and hearing loss (HSAN1). Our mutations are all located in exon 21 and in very close spatial proximity, suggesting distinct phenotypes depending on mutation location within this gene.
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37.
  • Zander, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • Influence of high hydrostatic pressure on solid supported DPPC bilayers with hyaluronan in the presence of Ca2+ ions
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Soft Matter. - : Royal Society of Chemistry. - 1744-683X .- 1744-6848. ; 15:36, s. 7295-7304
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The molecular mechanisms responsible for outstanding lubrication of natural systems, like articular joints, have been the focus of scientific research for several decades. One essential aspect is the lubrication under pressure, where it is important to understand how the lubricating entities adapt under dynamic working conditions in order to fulfill their function. We made a structural investigation of a model system consisting of two of the molecules present at the cartilage interface, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and hyaluronan, at high hydrostatic pressure. Phospholipid layers are found at the cartilage surfaces and are able to considerably reduce friction. Their behavior under load and varied solution conditions is important as pressures of 180 bar are encountered during daily life activities. We focus on how divalent ions, like Ca2+, affect the interaction between DPPC and hyaluronan, as other investigations have indicated that calcium ions influence their interaction. It could be shown that already low amounts of Ca2+ strongly influence the interaction of hyaluronan with DPPC. Our results suggest that the calcium ions increase the amount of adsorbed hyaluronan indicating an increased electrostatic interaction. Most importantly, we observe a modification of the DPPC phase diagram as hyaluronan absorbs to the bilayer which results in an Lα-like structure at low temperatures and a decoupling of the leaflets forming an asymmetric bilayer structure.
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38.
  • Zander, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • Influence of the Molecular Weight and the Presence of Calcium Ions on the Molecular Interaction of Hyaluronan and DPPC
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Molecules. - : NLM (Medline). - 1420-3049 .- 1420-3049. ; 25:17
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hyaluronan is an essential physiological bio macromolecule with different functions. One prominent area is the synovial fluid which exhibits remarkable lubrication properties. However, the synovial fluid is a multi-component system where different macromolecules interact in a synergetic fashion. Within this study we focus on the interaction of hyaluronan and phospholipids, which are thought to play a key role for lubrication. We investigate how the interactions and the association structures formed by hyaluronan (HA) and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) are influenced by the molecular weight of the bio polymer and the ionic composition of the solution. We combine techniques allowing us to investigate the phase behavior of lipids (differential scanning calorimetry, zeta potential and electrophoretic mobility) with structural investigation (dynamic light scattering, small angle scattering) and theoretical simulations (molecular dynamics). The interaction of hyaluronan and phospholipids depends on the molecular weight, where hyaluronan with lower molecular weight has the strongest interaction. Furthermore, the interaction is increased by the presence of calcium ions. Our simulations show that calcium ions are located close to the carboxylate groups of HA and, by this, reduce the number of formed hydrogen bonds between HA and DPPC. The observed change in the DPPC phase behavior can be attributed to a local charge inversion by calcium ions binding to the carboxylate groups as the binding distribution of hyaluronan and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine is not changed.
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39.
  • Zander, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • The influence of hyaluronan on the structure of a DPPC-bilayer under high pressures
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Colloids and Surfaces B. - : Elsevier. - 0927-7765 .- 1873-4367. ; 142, s. 230-238
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The superior lubrication properties of synovial joints have inspired many studies aiming at uncovering the molecular mechanisms which give rise to low friction and wear. However, the mechanisms are not fully understood yet, and, in particular, it has not been elucidated how the biolubricants present at the interface of cartilage respond to high pressures, which arise during high loads of joints. In this study we utilize a simple model system composed of two biomolecules that have been implied as being important for joint lubrication. It consists of a solid supported dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholin (DPPC) bilayer, which was formed via vesicles fusion on a flat Si wafer, and the anionic polysaccharide hyaluronan (HA). We first characterized the structure of the HA layer that adsorbed to the DPPC bilayers at ambient pressure and different temperatures using X-ray reflectivity (XRR) measurements. Next, XRR was utilized to evaluate the response of the system to high hydrostatic pressures, up to 2 kbar (200 MPa), at three different temperatures. By means of fluorescence microscopy images the distribution of DPPC and HA on the surface was visualized. Our data suggest that HA adsorbs to the headgroup region that is oriented towards the water side of the supported bilayer. Phase transitions of the bilayer in response to temperature and pressure changes were also observed in presence and absence of HA. Our results reveal a higher stability against high hydrostatic pressures for DPPC/HA composite layers compared to that of the DPPC bilayer in absence of HA.
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  • Föregående 123[4]
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