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  • Lind, Monica P., et al. (författare)
  • Circulating levels of persistent organic pollutants are related to retrospective assessment of life-time weight change
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Chemosphere. - : Elsevier BV. - 0045-6535 .- 1879-1298. ; 90:3, s. 998-1004
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been suggested to be linked to obesity. We have previously shown that less-chlorinated PCBs were positively related to fat mass, while highly-chlorinated PCBs were inversely related to obesity.Objective: The aim of the present evaluation is to investigate the relationship between retrospective assessed life-time change in body weight (20-70. years) with circulating POP levels measured at age 70. years.Methods: 1016 subjects aged 70. years were investigated in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUSs) study. 16 PCBs and 3 OC pesticides were analyzed using HRGC/HRMS. Current body weight was measured and participants self-reported their weight at age 20.Results: The average estimated weight change over 50. years was 14.4. kg. Both the sum of OC pesticide concentrations (4.3. kg more weight gain in quintile 5 vs. quintile 1, p< 0.0001) and the sum of the less-chlorinated PCBs were positively related to the estimated weight change (3.7. kg more weight gain in quintile 2 vs. quintile 1, non-linear relationship p=0.0015). In contrast, the sum of concentrations of highly-chlorinated PCBs were inversely related to estimated weight change (8.4. kg less weight gain in quintile 5 vs. quintile 1, p< 0.0001).Conclusion: High levels of OC pesticides and the less-chlorinated PCBs at age 70 were associated with a pronounced estimated weight change over the previous 50. years. However, the opposite was seen for highly-chlorinated PCBs. Differences in mode of action, toxicokinetics, non-linear relationships and reverse causation might explain these discrepancies.
  • Ombrello, MJ, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic architecture distinguishes systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis from other forms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis: clinical and therapeutic implications
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Annals of the rheumatic diseases. - : BMJ. - 1468-2060 .- 0003-4967. ; 76:5, s. 906-913
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a heterogeneous group of conditions unified by the presence of chronic childhood arthritis without an identifiable cause. Systemic JIA (sJIA) is a rare form of JIA characterised by systemic inflammation. sJIA is distinguished from other forms of JIA by unique clinical features and treatment responses that are similar to autoinflammatory diseases. However, approximately half of children with sJIA develop destructive, long-standing arthritis that appears similar to other forms of JIA. Using genomic approaches, we sought to gain novel insights into the pathophysiology of sJIA and its relationship with other forms of JIA.MethodsWe performed a genome-wide association study of 770 children with sJIA collected in nine countries by the International Childhood Arthritis Genetics Consortium. Single nucleotide polymorphisms were tested for association with sJIA. Weighted genetic risk scores were used to compare the genetic architecture of sJIA with other JIA subtypes.ResultsThe major histocompatibility complex locus and a locus on chromosome 1 each showed association with sJIA exceeding the threshold for genome-wide significance, while 23 other novel loci were suggestive of association with sJIA. Using a combination of genetic and statistical approaches, we found no evidence of shared genetic architecture between sJIA and other common JIA subtypes.ConclusionsThe lack of shared genetic risk factors between sJIA and other JIA subtypes supports the hypothesis that sJIA is a unique disease process and argues for a different classification framework. Research to improve sJIA therapy should target its unique genetics and specific pathophysiological pathways.
  • Tison, J.-L., et al. (författare)
  • Retrieving the paleoclimatic signal from the deeper part of the EPICA Dome C ice core
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: The Cryosphere. - : Copernicus GmbH. - 1994-0416 .- 1994-0424. ; 9:4, s. 1633-1648
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An important share of paleoclimatic information is buried within the lowermost layers of deep ice cores. Because improving our records further back in time is one of the main challenges in the near future, it is essential to judge how deep these records remain unaltered, since the proximity of the bedrock is likely to interfere both with the recorded temporal sequence and the ice properties. In this paper, we present a multiparametric study (delta D-delta O-18(ice), delta O-18(atm), total air content, CO2, CH4, N2O, dust, high-resolution chemistry, ice texture) of the bottom 60 m of the EPICA (European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica) Dome C ice core from central Antarctica. These bottom layers were subdivided into two distinct facies: the lower 12 m showing visible solid inclusions (basal dispersed ice facies) and the upper 48 m, which we will refer to as the basal clean ice facies. Some of the data are consistent with a pristine paleoclimatic signal, others show clear anomalies It is demonstrated that neither large-scale bottom refreezing of subglacial water, nor mixing (be it internal or with a local basal end term from a previous/initial ice sheet configuration) can explain the observed bottom-ice properties. We focus on the high-resolution chemical profiles and on the available remote sensing data on the subglacial topography of the site to propose a mechanism by which relative stretching of the bottom-ice sheet layers is made possible, due to the progressively confining effect of subglacial valley sides. This stress field change, combined with bottom-ice temperature close to the pressure melting point, induces accelerated migration recrystallization, which results in spatial chemical sorting of the impurities, depending on their state (dissolved vs. solid) and if they are involved or not in salt formation. This chemical sorting effect is responsible for the progressive build-up of the visible solid aggregates that therefore mainly originate from within, and not from incorporation processes of debris from the ice sheet's substrate. We further discuss how the proposed mechanism is compatible with the other ice properties described. We conclude that the paleoclimatic signal is only marginally affected in terms of global ice properties at the bottom of EPICA Dome C, but that the timescale was considerably distorted by mechanical stretching of MIS20 due to the increasing influence of the subglacial topography, a process that might have started well above the bottom ice. A clear paleoclimatic signal can therefore not be inferred from the deeper part of the EPICA Dome C ice core. Our work suggests that the existence of a flat monotonic ice bedrock interface, extending for several times the ice thickness, would be a crucial factor in choosing a future oldest ice drilling location in Antarctica.
  • Wagner-Drouet, E, et al. (författare)
  • Comparison of Cytomegalovirus-Specific Immune Cell Response to Proteins versus Peptides Using an IFN-γ ELISpot Assay after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland). - : MDPI AG. - 2075-4418. ; 11:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Measuring CMV-specific cellular immunity may improve the risk stratification and management of patients. IFN-γ ELISpot assays, based on the stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with CMV pp65 and IE-1 proteins or peptides, have been validated in clinical settings. However, it remains unclear to which extend the T-cell response to synthetic peptides reflect that mediated by full-length proteins processed by antigen-presenting cells. We compared the stimulating ability of pp65 and IE-1 proteins and corresponding overlapping peptides in 16 HSCT recipients using a standardized IFN-γ ELISpot assay. Paired qualitative test results showed an overall 74.4% concordance. Discordant results were mainly due to low-response tests, with one exception. One patient with early CMV reactivation and graft-versus-host disease, sustained CMV DNAemia and high CD8+ counts showed successive negative protein-based ELISpot results but a high and sustained response to IE-1 peptides. Our results suggest that the response to exogenous proteins, which involves their uptake and processing by antigen-presenting cells, more closely reflects the physiological response to CMV infection, while the response to exogenous peptides may lead to artificial in vitro T-cell responses, especially in strongly immunosuppressed patients.
  • Wertheimer, T, et al. (författare)
  • Abatacept as salvage therapy in chronic graft-versus-host disease-a retrospective analysis
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Annals of hematology. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1432-0584 .- 0939-5555. ; 100:3, s. 779-787
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The immunomodulatory fusion protein abatacept has recently been investigated for the treatment of steroid-refractory chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGvHD) in a phase 1 clinical trial. We analyzed the safety and efficacy of abatacept for cGvHD therapy in a retrospective study with 15 patients who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) and received abatacept for cGvHD with a median age of 49 years. Grading was performed as part of the clinical routine according to the National Institute of Health’s (NIH) consensus criteria at initiation of abatacept and 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months thereafter. The median time of follow-up was 191 days (range 55–393 days). Best overall response rate (ORR) was 40%. In particular, patients with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome showed significant clinical improvement and durable responses following abatacept treatment with a response rate of 89% based on improvement in lung severity score (n = 6) or stabilized lung function (n = 4) or both (n = 3). Infectious complications CTCAE °III or higher were observed in 3/15 patients. None of the patients relapsed from the underlying malignancy. Thus, abatacept appears to be a promising treatment option for cGvHD, in particular for patients with lung involvement. However, further evaluation within a phase 2 clinical trial is required.
  • Wolff, W., et al. (författare)
  • Water fragmentation by bare and dressed light ions with MeV energies : Fragment-ion-energy and time-of-flight distributions
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Physical Review A: covering atomic, molecular, and optical physics and quantum information. - 2469-9926 .- 2469-9934. ; 94:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The energy and time-of-flight distributions of water ionic fragments produced by impact of fast atoms and bare and dressed ions; namely, H+, Li0-3+, C1+, and C2+ are reported in this work. Fragment species as a function of emission energy and time-of-flight were recorded by using an electrostatic spectrometer and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer, respectively. An improved Coulomb explosion model coupled to a classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) simulation gave the energy centroids of the fragments for the dissociation channels resulting from the removal of two to five electrons from the water molecule. For the energy distribution ranging up to 50 eV, both the experiment and model reveal an isotropic production of multiple charged oxygen ions, as well as hydrogen ions. From the ion energy distribution, relative yields of the dissociation resulting from multiple ionization were obtained as a function of the charge state, as well as for several projectile energies. Multiple-ionization yields with charge state up to 4+, were extracted from the measurements of the time-of-flight spectra, focused on the production of single and multiple charged oxygen ions. The measurements were compared to ion-water collision experiments investigated at the keV energy range available in the literature, revealing differences and similarities in the fragment-ion energy distribution.
  • Alajbeg, Ivan, et al. (författare)
  • Intraoralelectrostimulator for xerostomia relief : along-term, multicenter, open-label, uncontrolled, clinical trial
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology and oral radiology. - : Elsevier. - 2212-4403 .- 2212-4411. ; 113:6, s. 773-781
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: A previous sham-controlled multinational study demonstrated the short-term efficacy and safety for xerostomia treatment of an intraoral device that delivers electrostimulation to the lingual nerve. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that those beneficial effects would be sustained over an 11-month period. STUDY DESIGN: The device was tested on a mixed sample of 94 patients with xerostomia in an open-label, uncontrolled, prospective multicenter trial. Statutory outcome assessments were done at 5th, 8th, and 11th months and analyzed by multiple comparisons. RESULTS: Improvements achieved at month 5 from baseline were sustained throughout the follow-up period for the primary outcome, xerostomia severity, and the secondary outcomes resting whole salivary flow rate, xerostomia frequency, oral discomfort, and difficulties in speech, swallowing, and sleeping. No significant side effects were detected. CONCLUSIONS: The beneficial effects of a removable intraoral electrostimulating device were sustained for an 11-month period.
  • Aliko, A., et al. (författare)
  • World Workshop on Oral Medicine VI: clinical implications of medication-induced salivary gland dysfunction
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Oral Surgery Oral Medicine Oral Pathology Oral Radiology. - : Elsevier BV. - 2212-4403. ; 120:2, s. 185-206
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. This study aimed to systematically review the available literature on the clinical implications of medication-induced salivary gland dysfunction (MISGD). Study Design. The systematic review was performed using PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science (through June 2013). Studies were assessed for degree of relevance and strength of evidence, based on whether clinical implications of MISGD were the primary study outcomes, as well as on the appropriateness of study design and sample size. Results. For most purported xerogenic medications, xerostomia was the most frequent adverse effect. In the majority of the 129 reviewed papers, it was not documented whether xerostomia was accompanied by decreased salivary flow. Incidence and prevalence of medication-induced xerostomia varied widely and was often associated with number and dose of medications. Xerostomia was most frequently reported to be mild-to-moderate in severity. Its onset occurred usually in the first weeks of treatment. There was selected evidence that medication-induced xerostomia occurs more frequently in women and older adults and that MISGD may be associated with other clinical implications, such as caries or oral mucosal alterations. Conclusions. The systematic review showed that MISGD constitutes a significant burden in many patients and may be associated with important negative implications for oral health.
  • Arvidson, R. E., et al. (författare)
  • Opportunity Mars Rover mission : Overview and selected results from Purgatory ripple to traverses to Endeavour crater
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research. - Hoboken : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0148-0227 .- 2156-2202. ; 116, s. E00F15-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Opportunity has been traversing the Meridiani plains since 25 January 2004 (sol 1), acquiring numerous observations of the atmosphere, soils, and rocks. This paper provides an overview of key discoveries between sols 511 and 2300, complementing earlier papers covering results from the initial phases of the mission. Key new results include (1) atmospheric argon measurements that demonstrate the importance of atmospheric transport to and from the winter carbon dioxide polar ice caps; (2) observations showing that aeolian ripples covering the plains were generated by easterly winds during an epoch with enhanced Hadley cell circulation; (3) the discovery and characterization of cobbles and boulders that include iron and stony-iron meteorites and Martian impact ejecta; (4) measurements of wall rock strata within Erebus and Victoria craters that provide compelling evidence of formation by aeolian sand deposition, with local reworking within ephemeral lakes; (5) determination that the stratigraphy exposed in the walls of Victoria and Endurance craters show an enrichment of chlorine and depletion of magnesium and sulfur with increasing depth. This result implies that regional-scale aqueous alteration took place before formation of these craters. Most recently, Opportunity has been traversing toward the ancient Endeavour crater. Orbital data show that clay minerals are exposed on its rim. Hydrated sulfate minerals are exposed in plains rocks adjacent to the rim, unlike the surfaces of plains outcrops observed thus far by Opportunity. With continued mechanical health, Opportunity will reach terrains on and around Endeavour's rim that will be markedly different from anything examined to date. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.
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