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51.
  • He, Jia, et al. (författare)
  • A population-based survey of the epidemiology of symptom-defined gastroesophageal reflux disease : the Systematic Investigation of Gastrointestinal Diseases in China
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: BMC Gastroenterology. - 1471-230X .- 1471-230X. ; 10, s. 94-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The epidemiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has yet to be investigated using the symptomatic threshold criteria recommended by the Montreal Definition. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of symptom-defined GERD across five regions of China, and to investigate variables associated with GERD. Methods: A representative sample of 18 000 adults (aged 18-80 years) were selected equally from rural and urban areas in each region (n = 1800). According to the Montreal Definition, GERD is present when mild symptoms of heartburn and/ or regurgitation occur on >= 2 days a week, or moderate-to-severe symptoms of heartburn and/or regurgitation occur on >= 1 day a week. Results: In total, 16 091 participants completed the survey (response rate: 89.4%) and 16 078 responses were suitable for analysis. Applying the Montreal criteria, the prevalence of symptom-defined GERD was 3.1% and varied significantly (p < 0.001) among the five regions (from 1.7% in Guangzhou to 5.1% in Wuhan) and between rural and urban populations (3.8% vs 2.4%). Factors significantly associated with GERD included living in a rural area and a family history of gastrointestinal diseases. Conclusions: This population-based survey found that the prevalence of symptom-defined GERD in China was 3.1%, which is lower than that found in Western countries.
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52.
  • Ji, Guomin, et al. (författare)
  • Enhanced rectifying performance by asymmetrical gate voltage for BDC20 molecular devices
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: RSC Advances. - : Royal Society of Chemistry. - 2046-2069. ; 4:32, s. 16537-16544
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • By applying the asymmetrical gate voltage on the 1,4-bis (fullero[c]pyrrolidin-1-yl) benzene BDC20 molecule, we investigate theoretically its electronic transport properties using the density functional theory and nonequilibrium Greens function formalism for a unimolecule device with metal electrodes. Interestingly, the rectifying characteristic with very high rectification ratio, 91.7 and 24.0, can be obtained when the gate voltage is asymmetrically applied on the BDC20 molecular device. The rectification direction can be tuned by the different gate voltage applying regions. The rectification behavior is understood in terms of the evolution of the transmission spectrum and projected density of states spectrum with applied bias combined with molecular projected self-consistent Hamiltonian states analyses. Our finding implies that to realize and greatly promote rectifying performance of the BDC20 molecule the variable gate voltage applying position might be a key
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53.
  • Kunze, Angelika, 1978, et al. (författare)
  • Ion-mediated changes of supported lipid bilayers and their coupling to the substrate. A case of bilayer slip?
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Soft Matter. - 1744-6848 .- 1744-683X. ; 7:18, s. 8582-8591
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ion-mediated (Ca(2+)) changes in viscoelastic, structural and optical properties of negatively charged solid supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) on SiO(2) surfaces were studied by means of quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) monitoring and optical reflectometry. Despite the sensitivity of QCM-D to viscoeleastic/structural variations, it has not often been used to probe such changes for SLBs. SLBs were prepared from binary phospholipid mixtures of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC, neutral) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-rac-glycerol) (POPG, negatively charged) on SiO(2) sensor surfaces in a Ca(2+)-containing buffer. Interestingly, for bilayers containing POPG fractions above 35%, large QCM-D dissipation shifts occurred, when Ca(2+) was removed from buffer in contact with the SLB (while maintaining 100 mM NaCl). The accompanying frequency changes were small. These Ca(2+) mediated QCM-D responses are reversible, and a signal for considerable changes in the viscoelastic and structural properties of the SLB. Variation of Ca(2+)-concentration revealed a threshold concentration of around 0.4 mM for the changes in the SLB to occur. Below this value, at >35% POPG concentration in the SLB, the SLB appears to become more weakly attached to the SiO(2) substrate, which is partly attributed to a weakening of the POPG-substrate interaction in the absence of Ca(2+). A consequence of this is an oscillation-amplitude dependent dissipation, which we attribute to slip of the bilayer at higher oscillation amplitudes. Complementary experiments using a combined QCM-D/reflectometry instrument showed that the Ca(2+)-induced changes in the viscoelastic/structural properties of the SLB are accompanied by changes in the optical properties. We discuss different scenarios to explain the observed reversible effect of Ca(2+)-ions on the dissipative and optical properties of the mixed SLBs. Based on our results we propose the observed phenomenon to be a combination of geometric changes, internal structural changes, changes in the interfacial water layer, and a slip mechanism, i.e. friction between the SLB and the substrate.
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54.
  • Lee, Dung-Fang, et al. (författare)
  • Regulation of embryonic and induced pluripotency by aurora kinase-p53 signaling.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Cell Stem Cell. - 1934-5909 .- 1875-9777. ; 11:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Many signals must be integrated to maintain self-renewal and pluripotency in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and to enable induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) reprogramming. However, the exact molecular regulatory mechanisms remain elusive. To unravel the essential internal and external signals required for sustaining the ESC state, we conducted a short hairpin (sh) RNA screen of 104 ESC-associated phosphoregulators. Depletion of one such molecule, aurora kinase A (Aurka), resulted in compromised self-renewal and consequent differentiation. By integrating global gene expression and computational analyses, we discovered that loss of Aurka leads to upregulated p53 activity that triggers ESC differentiation. Specifically, Aurka regulates pluripotency through phosphorylation-mediated inhibition of p53-directed ectodermal and mesodermal gene expression. Phosphorylation of p53 not only impairs p53-induced ESC differentiation but also p53-mediated suppression of iPSC reprogramming. Our studies demonstrate an essential role for Aurka-p53 signaling in the regulation of self-renewal, differentiation, and somatic cell reprogramming.
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55.
  • Lou, H. B., et al. (författare)
  • Pressure-induced amorphous-to-amorphous configuration change in Ca-Al metallic glasses
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - 2045-2322. ; 2, s. 376-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Pressure-induced amorphous-to-amorphous configuration changes in Ca-Al metallic glasses (MGs) were studied by performing in-situ room-temperature high-pressure x-ray diffraction up to about 40 GPa. Changes in compressibility at about 18 GPa, 15.5 GPa and 7.5 GPa during compression are detected in Ca80Al20, Ca72.7Al27.3, and Ca66.4Al33.6 MGs, respectively, whereas no clear change has been detected in the Ca50Al50 MG. The transfer of s electrons into d orbitals under pressure, reported for the pressure-induced phase transformations in pure polycrystalline Ca, is suggested to explain the observation of an amorphous-to-amorphous configuration change in this Ca-Al MG system. Results presented here show that the pressure induced amorphous-to-amorphous configuration is not limited to f electron-containing MGs.
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56.
  • Piao, S. L., et al. (författare)
  • The carbon budget of terrestrial ecosystems in East Asia over the last two decades
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Biogeosciences. - : Copernicus GmbH. - 1726-4189. ; 9:9, s. 3571-3586
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes regional study provides a synthesis of the carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems in East Asia, a region comprised of China, Japan, North and South Korea, and Mongolia. We estimate the current terrestrial carbon balance of East Asia and its driving mechanisms during 1990-2009 using three different approaches: inventories combined with satellite greenness measurements, terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycle models and atmospheric inversion models. The magnitudes of East Asia's terrestrial carbon sink from these three approaches are comparable: -0.293 +/- 0.033 PgC yr(-1) from inventory-remote sensing model-data fusion approach, -0.413 +/- 0.141 PgC yr(-1)(not considering biofuel emissions) or -0.224 +/- 0.141 PgC yr(-1) (considering biofuel emissions) for carbon cycle models, and -0.270 +/- 0.507 PgC yr(-1) for atmospheric inverse models. Here and in the following, the numbers behind +/- signs are standard deviations. The ensemble of ecosystem modeling based analyses further suggests that at the regional scale, climate change and rising atmospheric CO2 together resulted in a carbon sink of -0.289 +/- 0.135 PgC yr(-1), while land-use change and nitrogen deposition had a contribution of -0.013 +/- 0.029 PgC yr(-1) and -0.107 +/- 0.025 PgC yr(-1), respectively. Although the magnitude of climate change effects on the carbon balance varies among different models, all models agree that in response to climate change alone, southern China experienced an increase in carbon storage from 1990 to 2009, while northern East Asia including Mongolia and north China showed a decrease in carbon storage. Overall, our results suggest that about 13-27% of East Asia's CO2 emissions from fossil fuel burning have been offset by carbon accumulation in its terrestrial territory over the period from 1990 to 2009. The underlying mechanisms of carbon sink over East Asia still remain largely uncertain, given the diversity and intensity of land management processes, and the regional conjunction of many drivers such as nutrient deposition, climate, atmospheric pollution and CO2 changes, which cannot be considered as independent for their effects on carbon storage.
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57.
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58.
  • Zhao, Xi, et al. (författare)
  • Preparation of uniform and large sized agarose microspheres by an improved membrane emulsification technique
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Powder Technology. - 0032-5910 .- 1873-328X. ; 253, s. 444-452
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The SPG (Shirasu porous-glass) membrane emulsification technique has been subject to much attention for the preparation of uniform emulsions. However, so far primarily used for the production of droplets with sizes below approximately 60 mu m. A production bottleneck occurred if the desired size was further increased, especially when highly viscous dispersed phases were involved. To this end, an improved membrane emulsification technique was proposed and has been applied to the preparation of large agarose microspheres, with a size of around 90 mu m and with a narrow size distribution. The effects of important emulsification parameters, including the pore size of the SPG membrane, the operating pressure, the stirring rate of the continuous phase, the composition of the continuous oil phase, and the concentration of agarose in the dispersed water phase, have been extensively studied. Under optimum conditions, uniform-size agarose microspheres with an average diameter of 93 pm and a size distribution index of 0.65 were successfully prepared. The average particle size of the home-made agarose microspheres was almost identical to that of the commercial product Sepharose 4 Fast Flow (4FF), which is produced by mechanical stirring and an additional sieving process. However, the size distribution of the former was much narrower than that of the latter. Therefore, the improved membrane emulsification technique presented here is promising for the application of high viscosity systems such as agarose solutions, and the production scale can be further enhanced by increasing the number of membrane units attached to the experimental apparatus. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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59.
  • Zhao, Zeng-Ren, et al. (författare)
  • Increased serum level of Nup88 protein is associated with the development of colorectal cancer
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Medical Oncology. - : Humana Press (Springer Imprint). - 1357-0560 .- 1559-131X. ; 29:3, s. 1789-1795
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nucleoporin88 (Nup88) has been shown to be overexpressed in a wide variety of malignancies including colorectal cancer (CRC). However, no study about serum Nup88 in human CRC was reported. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the level of serum Nup88 protein and its relationships with clinicopathological variables in CRC. The serum concentration of Nup88 protein was determined by a quantitative sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 118 pre-operative serum samples, 66 post-operative and 96 healthy controls. Among the patients, the levels of CEA (n = 91) and CA19-9 (n = 87) in the pre-operative serum were measured, and DNA sequencing was performed in 12 CRCs and 2 samples from non-cancerous colon tissue. In the same patients, the level of pre-operative serum Nup88 was significantly higher than that of post-operative Nup88 (P = 0.021). Furthermore, the level of pre-operative Nup88 was positively related to the depth of tumor invasion (P = 0.002) and advanced stage (P = 0.001). The level of pre-operative Nup88 in the left colon tended to be higher than that in the right colon and the rectum (P = 0.063). DNA sequencing results showed that there were two single nucleotide polymorphisms, distributed in exon 6 (NM_002532.3:c.1044Gandgt;A (ACG-ACA, Thr -andgt; Thr) and exon 10 (NM_002532.3: c.1389Aandgt;T, CCA-CCT, Pro -andgt; Pro). Serum Nup88 might be a candidate for a new biomarker implicated in the development and aggressiveness of CRCs.
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60.
  • Zhao, Zeng-Ren, et al. (författare)
  • Significance of mRNA and Protein Expression of MAC30 in Progression of Colorectal Cancer
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Chemotherapy. - Basel : Karger AG. - 0009-3157 .- 1421-9794. ; 57:5, s. 394-401
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Meningioma-associated protein (MAC30), first described to be overexpressed in meningiomas, exhibits altered expression in certain human tumors. The aim of our study was to investigate the expression of MAC30 mRNA and its correlation with clinicopathological variables in human colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: MAC30 mRNA expression was first examined in 55 CRCs, along with the samples from the matched distant normal and adjacent noncancerous tissue by RT-PCR, further verified in 18 CRCs by quantitative RT-PCR. MAC30 protein expression was detected by Western blot in 10 CRCs, and DNA sequencing was performed in 1 case of the paired CRC and the matched noncancerous specimen. MAC30 mRNA expression in two colon cancer cell lines, HCT-116(p53-/-) and HCT-116(p53+/+), was detected by quantitative RT-PCR. Results: The mRNA expression of MAC30 was increased in CRC when compared with distant normal (p < 0.01) and adjacent noncancerous mucosa (p < 0.01). The mean value of MAC30 mRNA expression in the tumor located in the colon was higher than in the rectum (0.677 +/- 0.419 vs. 0.412 +/- 0.162, p = 0.005). As the tumor penetrated the wall of the colon/rectum, MAC30 mRNA expression notably increased in tumors with T3+T4 stage compared to tumors with T1+T2 stage (0.571 +/- 0.364 vs. 0.404 +/- 0.115, p = 0.014). MAC30 protein expression in CRCs was also remarkably elevated compared to the adjacent noncancerous mucosa. There was no mutation in the coding region of the MAC30 gene either in CRC or in the noncancerous mucosa. mRNA expression of p53 was notably decreased in HCT-116(p53-/-) compared to HCT-116(p53+/+), while MAC30 did not vary greatly. Conclusion: The overexpression of MAC30 might be involved in the development and aggressiveness of CRCs, especially in the colon.
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