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Sökning: WFRF:(Zock J. P.) > (2005-2009)

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11.
  • Harrop, J., et al. (författare)
  • Eczema, atopy and allergen exposure in adults : a population-based study
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Allergy. - 0954-7894 .- 1365-2222. ; 37:4, s. 526-535
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: There are few published studies on geographical variation in prevalence of eczema in adults or its association with recognised risk factors for allergic disease. Objective: To describe the geographical variation in prevalence of eczema in adults, assess the associations with sociodemographic risk factors, serum-specific IgE and IgG, and exposure to allergen. Methods: A community-based sample of 8206 adults aged 27-56 years, in 25 European centres and Portland, USA, provided questionnaire information on symptoms of eczema. Serum-specific IgE to house dust mite (HDM), cat, grass and Cladosporium, and IgG and IgG4 to HDM and cat were measured. Mattress levels of mite and cat allergen were assessed. Results: Overall prevalence of eczema was 7.1% (range between countries of 2.2-17.6%). Eczema was associated with female gender [odds ratio (OR) 1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.01-1.55)], family history of atopic disease (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.18-1.74), IgE sensitization to at least one allergen (OR 1.50; 95% CI 1.19-1.90), particularly Cladosporium (OR 3.65; 95% CI 1.81-7.37), and total IgE. Eczema was negatively associated with age and no clear associations were observed with sibship size, mattress mite and cat allergen levels or with cat and HDM-specific IgG or IgG4. Conclusions: There is geographical variation in the prevalence of eczema in adults both within and between countries. Although the disease is associated with IgE sensitization, in this study it was not related to mattress mite or cat allergen levels.
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12.
  • Zock, Jan-Paul, et al. (författare)
  • The use of household cleaning sprays and adult asthma : an international longitudinal study
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. - 1073-449X .- 1535-4970. ; 176:8, s. 735-741
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rationale: Cleaning work and professional use of certain cleaning products have been associated with asthma, but respiratory effects of nonprofessional home cleaning have rarely been studied. Objectives: To investigate the risk of new-onset asthma in relation to the use of common household cleaners. Methods: Within the follow-up of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey in 10 countries, we identified 3,503 persons doing the cleaning in their homes and who were free of asthma at baseline. Frequency of use of 15 types of cleaning products was obtained in a face-to-face interview at follow-up. We studied the incidence of asthma defined as physician diagnosis and as symptoms or medication usage at follow-up. Associations between asthma and the use of cleaning products were evaluated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards or log-binomial regression analysis. Measurements and Main Results: The use of cleaning sprays at least weekly (42% of participants) was associated with the incidence of asthma symptoms or medication (relative risk [RR], 1.49; 95% confidence interval [Cl], 1.12-1.99) and wheeze (RR, 1.39; 95% Cl, 1.06-1.80). The incidence of physician-diagnosed asthma was higher among those using sprays at least 4 days per week (RR, 2.11; 95% Cl, 1.15-3.89). These associations were consistent for subgroups and not modified by atopy. Dose-response relationships (P < 0.05) were apparent for the frequency of use and the number of different sprays. Risks were predominantly found for the commonly used glass-cleaning, furniture, and air-refreshing sprays. Cleaning products not applied in spray form were not associated with asthma. Conclusions: Frequent use of common household cleaning sprays may be an important risk factor for adult asthma.
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13.
  • Kogevinas, M., et al. (författare)
  • Exposure to substances in the workplace and new-onset asthma: an international prospective population-based study (ECRHS-II)
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Lancet. - 1474-547X. ; 370:9584, s. 336-41
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The role of exposure to substances in the workplace in new-onset asthma is not well characterised in population-based studies. We therefore aimed to estimate the relative and attributable risks of new-onset asthma in relation to occupations, work-related exposures, and inhalation accidents. METHODS: We studied prospectively 6837 participants from 13 countries who previously took part in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (1990-95) and did not report respiratory symptoms or a history of asthma at the time of the first study. Asthma was assessed by methacholine challenge test and by questionnaire data on asthma symptoms. Exposures were defined by high-risk occupations, an asthma-specific job exposure matrix with additional expert judgment, and through self-report of acute inhalation events. Relative risks for new onset asthma were calculated with log-binomial models adjusted for age, sex, smoking, and study centre. FINDINGS: A significant excess asthma risk was seen after exposure to substances known to cause occupational asthma (Relative risk=1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.3, p=0.017). Risks were highest for asthma defined by bronchial hyper-reactivity in addition to symptoms (2.4, 1.3-4.6, p=0.008). Of common occupations, a significant excess risk of asthma was seen for nursing (2.2, 1.3-4.0, p=0.007). Asthma risk was also increased in participants who reported an acute symptomatic inhalation event such as fire, mixing cleaning products, or chemical spills (RR=3.3, 95% CI 1.0-11.1, p=0.051). The population-attributable risk for adult asthma due to occupational exposures ranged from 10% to 25%, equivalent to an incidence of new-onset occupational asthma of 250-300 cases per million people per year. INTERPRETATION: Occupational exposures account for a substantial proportion of adult asthma incidence. The increased risk of asthma after inhalation accidents suggests that workers who have such accidents should be monitored closely.
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14.
  • Mirabelli, M. C., et al. (författare)
  • Occupational risk factors for asthma among nurses and related healthcare professionals in an international study
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Occup Environ Med. - 1470-7926. ; 64:7, s. 474-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: The authors examined the relations between self-reported work tasks, use of cleaning products and latex glove use with new-onset asthma among nurses and other healthcare workers in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS II). METHODS: In a random population sample of adults from 22 European sites, 332 participants reported working in nursing and other related healthcare jobs during the nine-year ECRHS II follow-up period and responded to a supplemental questionnaire about their principal work settings, occupational tasks, products used at work and respiratory symptoms. Poisson regression models with robust error variances were used to compare the risk of new-onset asthma among healthcare workers with each exposure to that of respondents who reported professional or administrative occupations during the entire follow-up period (n = 2481). RESULTS: Twenty (6%) healthcare workers and 131 (5%) members of the referent population reported new-onset asthma. Compared to the referent group, the authors observed increased risks among hospital technicians (RR 4.63; 95% CI 1.87 to 11.5) and among those using ammonia and/or bleach at work (RR 2.16; 95% CI 1.03 to 4.53). CONCLUSIONS: In the ECRHS II cohort, hospital technicians and other healthcare workers experience increased risks of new-onset current asthma, possibly due to specific products used at work.
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15.
  • Sunyer, Jordi, et al. (författare)
  • Lung function decline, chronic bronchitis, and occupational exposures in young adults
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Am J Respir Crit Care Med. ; 172:9, s. 1139-45.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rationale: Occupational exposures to vapors, gas, dust, or fumes have been shown to be a risk factor of airway obstruction in cross-sectional studies in the general population.Objectives: Our aim was to study the relationships between specific occupations and occupational exposures during a 9-yr follow-up period and changes in lung function and symptoms of chronic bronchitis.Methods: Subjects from the general population aged 20 to 45 yr were randomly selected in 1991-1993 within the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Follow-up took place from 1998 to 2002 among 4,079 males and 4,461 females in 27 study centers. A total of 3,202 men and 3,279 women twice completed lung function measurements. Job history during follow-up was linked to a job exposure matrix and consequently translated into cumulative exposure estimates.Main Results: Individuals exposed to dusts, gases, and fumes during the period of follow-up did not have a steeper decline of FEV(1) than did individuals with consistently white-collar occupations without occupational exposures (relative change among men and women, + 1.4 and -3.1 ml/yr, respectively; p > 0.2), nor an increase of prevalence or incidence of airway obstruction defined as an FEV(1)/FVC ratio of less than 0.7. The incidence of chronic phlegm increased in men exposed to mineral dust (relative risk, 1.94 [1.29-2.91]) and gases and fumes (relative risk, 1.53 [0.99-2.36]), which was not modified by smoking.Conclusion: Occupational exposures to dusts, gases, and fumes occurring during the 1990s are associated with incidence of chronic bronchitis, although these did not impair lung function in a population of relatively young age.
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16.
  • Lillienberg, Linnea, 1942, et al. (författare)
  • A population-based study on welding exposures at work and respiratory symptoms.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: The Annals of occupational hygiene. - 0003-4878. ; 52:2, s. 107-15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the first European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS I), an excess asthma risk was associated with high exposure to gases and fumes, mineral and biological dusts. In a 9-year follow-up study (ECRHS II), the aim was to study if welding at work increases the risk of asthma symptoms, wheeze and chronic bronchitis symptoms. The study also aimed to identify specific welding risk factors. In a random population sample of individuals from 22 European centres in 10 countries, 316 males reported welding at work during the follow-up period. These individuals responded to a supplemental questionnaire about frequency of welding, use of different methods and materials, welding environment and respiratory protection. Cumulative exposure to welding fumes for the follow-up period was estimated by using a database on welding fume exposures. Log-binomial regression models were used to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for prevalence of asthma symptoms or asthma medication, wheeze and chronic bronchitis symptoms in relation to welding methods and welded materials as well as estimated cumulative welding fume exposure compared to an external reference group. In the study population of 316 males, 62% performed welding <1 h day(-1), 23% 1-3 h day(-1) and 15% >4 h day(-1). Welding was a common task in many occupations and only 7% of the individuals actually called themselves welders and flame cutters, while the largest groups doing welding worked in construction or were motor, agricultural and industrial mechanics and fitters. Welding at work was not associated with an increased prevalence of asthma symptoms or wheeze but there was an association with chronic bronchitis symptoms (PR = 1.33, 1.00-1.76). Using assigned cumulative exposure in tertiles showed that the lowest exposed tertile had the highest PR of bronchitis symptoms. Chronic bronchitis symptoms was significantly higher in those frequently welding in galvanized steel or iron (PR = 2.14, 1.24-3.68) and in those frequently manual welding stainless steel (PR = 1.92, 1.00-3.66). There was also an increase in the prevalence of wheeze in individuals welding painted metal (PR = 1.66, 0.99-2.78; PR = 1.83, 0.90-3.71). Welding with manual metal arc technique <1 day week(-1) showed a prevalence risk of 1.69 for wheeze (CI = 1.16-2.46). In conclusion, the present study shows an association between welding in galvanized material and stainless steel and chronic bronchitis symptoms. There was also an increased prevalence of wheeze and welding in painted metal. The results support that welding in coated material is a respiratory hazard underscoring the importance of preventive actions.
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