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Sökning: WFRF:(Zock J. P.)

  • Resultat 11-20 av 39
  • Föregående 1[2]34Nästa
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11.
  • Olivieri, M., et al. (författare)
  • Effects of smoking bans on passive smoking exposure at work and at home. The European Community respiratory health survey
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Indoor Air. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0905-6947 .- 1600-0668. ; 29:4, s. 670-679
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This longitudinal study investigated whether smoking bans influence passive smoking at work and/or at home in the same subjects. Passive smoking at work and/or at home was investigated in random population samples (European Community Respiratory Health Survey) in 1990-1995, with follow-up interviews in 1998-2003 and 2010-2014. National smoking bans were classified as partial (restricted to public workplaces) or global (extended to private workplaces). Multivariable analysis was accomplished by three-level logistic regression models, where level-1, level-2, and level-3 units were, respectively, questionnaire responses, subjects, and centers. Passive smoking at work was reported by 31.9% in 1990-1995, 17.5% in 1998-2003, and 2.5% in 2010-2014. Concurrently, passive smoking at home decreased from 28.9% to 18.2% and 8.8%. When controlling for sex, age, education, smoking status, and ECHRS wave, the odds of passive smoking at work was markedly reduced after global smoking bans (OR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.25-0.81), particularly among non-smokers, while the protective effect of global smoking bans on passive smoking at home was only detected in non-smokers. Smoking bans both in public and private workplaces were effective in reducing passive smoking at work in Europe. However, given the inefficacy of smoking bans in current smokers' dwellings, better strategies are needed to avoid smoking indoors.
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12.
  • Pape, Kathrine, et al. (författare)
  • Parental occupational exposure pre- and post-conception and development of asthma in offspring
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 0300-5771 .- 1464-3685. ; 49:6, s. 1856-1869
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: While direct effects of occupational exposures on an individual's respiratory health are evident, a new paradigm is emerging on the possible effects of preconception occupational exposure on respiratory health in offspring. We aimed to study the association between parental occupational exposure starting before conception and asthma in their offspring (at 0-15 years of age).Methods: We studied 3985 offspring participating in the Respiratory Health in Northern Europe, Spain and Australia (RHINESSA) generation study. Their mothers or fathers (n = 2931) previously participated in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS). Information was obtained from questionnaires on parental job history pre- and post-conception which was linked to an asthma-specific job-exposure matrix (JEM). We assessed the association between parental occupational exposure and offspring asthma, applying logistic regression models, clustered by family and adjusted for study centre, offspring sex, parental characteristics (age, asthma onset, place of upbringing, smoking) and grandparents' level of education.Results: Parental occupational exposure to microorganisms, pesticides, allergens or reactive chemicals pre-conception or both pre- and post-conception was not related to offspring asthma; in general, subgroup analyses confirmed this result. However, maternal exposure both pre- and post-conception to allergens and reactive chemicals was associated with increased odds for early-onset asthma in offspring (0-3 years of age); odds ratio 1.70 (95% CI: 1.02-2.84) and 1.65 (95% CI: 0.98-2.77), respectively.Conclusions: This study did not find evidence that parental occupational exposure, defined by an asthma JEM before conception only or during pre- and post-conception vs non-exposed, was associated with offspring asthma.
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13.
  • Radon, Katja, et al. (författare)
  • Occupation and adult onset of rhinitis in the general population
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Occupational and Environmental Medicine. - 1351-0711 .- 1470-7926. ; 65:1, s. 38-43
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: Occupational exposures have been associated with an increased risk of new-onset rhinitis in apprentices. However, population-based prospective data are scarce and do not cover new onset of rhinitis later in life. The authors studied the association between occupational exposure and adult onset of rhinitis prospectively. Methods: The data of 4994 participants (age at follow-up 28-57 years) from 27 centres of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II who were symptom-free at baseline were analysed. As outcome at follow-up self-reported (a) nasal allergies ("allergic rhinitis'') and (b) runny, blocked nose for 12 months a year ("perennial rhinitis'') were used. Occupational exposures at any time during follow-up were defined by job title. Results: The cumulative incidence of allergic rhinitis, perennial rhinitis and both conditions was 12%, 11% and 3%, respectively. Compared to office workers, male medical professionals were at increased risk of new onset of allergic rhinitis (OR 3.0; 95% CI 1.4 to 6.4). Odds ratios were reduced in metal workers not involved in metal making or treating (0.3; 95% CI 0.1 to 0.7). For perennial rhinitis ORs were significantly increased in cleaners (1.4; 95% CI 1.0 to 2.1). Conclusions: Cleaners and medical professionals may be at increased risk for adult-onset rhinitis.
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14.
  • Shaheen, S., et al. (författare)
  • The relation between paracetamol use and asthma : a GA2LEN European case-control study
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 32:5, s. 1231-1236
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Studies from the UK and USA suggest that frequent use of paracetamol (acetaminophen) may increase the risk of asthma, but data across Europe are lacking. As part of a multicentric case-control study organised by the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2)LEN), it was examined whether or not frequent paracetamol use is associated with adult asthma across Europe. The network compared 521 cases with a diagnosis of asthma and reporting of asthma symptoms within the last 12 months with 507 controls with no diagnosis of asthma and no asthmatic symptoms within the last 12 months across 12 European centres. All cases and controls were selected from the same population, defined by age (20-45 yrs) and place of residence. In a random effects meta-analysis, weekly use of paracetamol, compared with less frequent use, was strongly positively associated with asthma after controlling for confounders. There was no evidence for heterogeneity across centres. No association was seen between use of other analgesics and asthma. These data add to the increasing and consistent epidemiological evidence implicating frequent paracetamol use in asthma in diverse populations.
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15.
  • Carsin, A. E., et al. (författare)
  • Serum Total Immunoglobulin E Is a Surrogate of Atopy in Adult-Onset Asthma: A Longitudinal Study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology. - 1018-2438 .- 1423-0097. ; 160:4, s. 387-392
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Studies have shown that serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels are higher in asthmatics. However, the role of the serum total IgE level, independently from atopy, in adult asthma is not understood. We studied the associations between serum total IgE, the number of sensitizations and the sum of specific IgEs and new-onset asthma using longitudinal data from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Methods: Serum total and specific IgE to 4 common inhalant allergens were measured at baseline in 9,175 participants, with a follow-up of 9 years. Individuals with asthma history and/or asthma symptoms were excluded. Atopy was defined as the presence of at least one specific IgE >= 0.35 kU/l. Total and specific IgEs were regressed against new-onset asthma using multivariate logistic regression with a random intercept for the study centre. Results: Two hundred and ninety-seven participants had developed asthma during follow-up (incidence rate 5.7 per 1,000 person- years). A 10% higher level of total IgE was associated with a 12% increased risk of new-onset asthma (p = 0.005). However, after adjustment for the number of positive specific IgEs [odds ratio (OR) for multiple sensitization 1.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-2.88] and the sum of allergen-specific IgEs (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.00-1.40), the association between total IgE and asthma disappeared (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.91-1.10). Seventeen percent of new-onset asthma cases could be attributed to atopy, and this estimate was not largely modified when the total IgE level was simultaneously taken into account. Conclusions: After taking into account the number and intensity of 4 specific IgEs, the serum total IgE level was not associated with new-onset asthma in adults.
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18.
  • Olivieri, M., et al. (författare)
  • Healthy hire effect, job selection and inhalation exposure among young adults with asthma
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 36:3, s. 517-523
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of the present study was to assess whether asthma onset prior to entering the workforce influences whether a person holds a subsequent job with asthma-related inhalation exposures. The data of 19,784 adults from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey were analysed. For each respondent, a current or previously held job was linked to a job exposure matrix assigning high, low or no exposure to dust, gases or fumes. Jobs were also categorised according to the risk of exposures related to occupational asthma. Associations between asthma and subsequent occupational exposures were assessed using logistic regression models, with a random intercept for study centre and fixed adjustment for age, sex, type of study sample and smoking status. Of the respondents, 8% (n=1,619) reported asthma with onset before completion of full-time education. This population was at decreased risk of having a job with high (odds ratio 0.79; 95% confidence interval 0.68-0.92) or low (0.91; 0.80-1.03) exposure to dust, gases or fumes. The associations were consistent across exposure types (dusts, gases or fumes) and for jobs with a high risk of occupational asthma. Adults with asthma onset prior to entering the workforce may be less likely to hold jobs involving inhalation exposures.
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20.
  • Svanes, C, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term reliability in reporting of childhood pets by adults interviewed twice, 9 years apart. Results from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey I and II
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Indoor Air. - 0905-6947 .- 1600-0668. ; 18:2, s. 84-92
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Investigation of long-term effects of childhood pet exposure is usually based on retrospective information provided by adults, while there is little knowledge about the reliability in adult reporting of childhood events. We analyzed 8287 adults interviewed about childhood pets twice, on average nine years apart, in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Agreement between the surveys in reporting of childhood cats, dogs and birds were investigated with kappa statistics, and potential effects of disease status on agreement were analyzed with kappa statistics and multiple logistic regressions. Cats, dogs and birds in childhood were reported by 44, 41 and 38%, respectively. Cohen's kappa for agreement in adult reporting of childhood pets was 0.714 (95% CI=0.698-0.729) for cat, 0.709 (0.691-0.722) for dog, and 0.606 (0.591-0.626) for bird. Thus, agreement was significantly higher for reporting of cat and dog than for bird. Adult wheeze, asthma or atopy did not influence agreement. Neither did adult cat sensitization influence agreement in adult reporting of childhood cat. Childhood factors such as moving house <5 years, or growing up as a single child, in a large family or in a rural area, were associated with poorer agreement, while adult factors were unrelated to agreement. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Long-term reliability in adult reporting of childhood pets was substantial, and not influenced by disease status. Thus, collection of information about childhood pets from adults appears to be reliable for the purpose of studying adult allergic disease. Future studies should consider that the reliability was higher for a more important childhood event and influenced by childhood rather than adult characteristics. Imperfect reliability contributed to underestimation of the effects of pets on adult allergy; i.e. with a kappa of 0.71, a true odds ratio (OR) of 0.80 would be attenuated to 0.86. Future studies should account for non-differential misclassification error.
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  • Resultat 11-20 av 39
  • Föregående 1[2]34Nästa

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