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  • Föregående 123[4]
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31.
  • Bakolis, I, et al. (författare)
  • House dust-mite allergen exposure is associated with serum specific IgE but not with respiratory outcomes
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Indoor Air. - 0905-6947 .- 1600-0668. ; 25:3, s. 235-244
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Exposure to house dust has been associated with asthma in adults, and this is commonly interpreted as a direct immunologic response to dust-mite allergens in those who are IgE sensitized to house dust-mite. Mattress house dust-mite concentrations were measured in a population-based sample of 2890 adults aged between 27 and 56 years living in 22 centers in 10 countries. Generalized linear mixed models were employed to explore the association of respiratory symptoms with house dust-mite concentrations, adjusting for individual and household confounders. There was no overall association of respiratory outcomes with measured house dust-mite concentrations, even in those who reported they had symptoms on exposure to dust and those who had physician-diagnosed asthma. However, there was a positive association of high serum specific IgE levels to HDM (>3.5 kUA /l) with mattress house dust-mite concentrations and a negative association of sensitization to cat with increasing house dust-mite concentrations. In conclusion, there was no evidence that respiratory symptoms in adults were associated with exposure to house dust-mite allergen in the mattress, but an association of house mite with strong sensitization was observed.
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32.
  • Bakolis, I, et al. (författare)
  • Respiratory health and endotoxin : associations and modification by CD14/-260 genotype
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 39:3, s. 573-581
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Exposure to endotoxin has been associated with increased respiratory symptoms and decrements in lung function in occupational settings but little is known about health effects of domestic exposure in adults. We describe the association of respiratory disease, IgE sensitisation, bronchial reactivity and lung function with mattress endotoxin levels in adults and determine whether these associations are modified by polymorphisms in CD14.Endotoxin levels in mattress dust from a population based sample of 972 adults were measured. Associations were examined using generalized linear mixed models, adjusting for individual and household confounders. Effect modification of these associations by CD14/-260 (rs2569190) was assessed.Mattress endotoxin levels varied from 0.1 to 402.6 EU·mg(-1). Although there was no overall association of lung function with endotoxin exposure, there was evidence that the association of FEV1 and FVC with endotoxin was modified by CD14/-260 genotype (p for interaction 0.005 and 0.013 respectively). There was no evidence that symptoms, IgE sensitisation or bronchial reactivity was associated with mattress endotoxin levels.In this large epidemiological study of adults there was no evidence that mattress endotoxin level was associated with respiratory symptoms or IgE sensitisation but the association of lung function with endotoxin levels may be modified by CD14-genotype.
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33.
  • Kogevinas, M., et al. (författare)
  • Exposure to substances in the workplace and new-onset asthma: an international prospective population-based study (ECRHS-II)
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Lancet. - 1474-547X. ; 370:9584, s. 336-41
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The role of exposure to substances in the workplace in new-onset asthma is not well characterised in population-based studies. We therefore aimed to estimate the relative and attributable risks of new-onset asthma in relation to occupations, work-related exposures, and inhalation accidents. METHODS: We studied prospectively 6837 participants from 13 countries who previously took part in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (1990-95) and did not report respiratory symptoms or a history of asthma at the time of the first study. Asthma was assessed by methacholine challenge test and by questionnaire data on asthma symptoms. Exposures were defined by high-risk occupations, an asthma-specific job exposure matrix with additional expert judgment, and through self-report of acute inhalation events. Relative risks for new onset asthma were calculated with log-binomial models adjusted for age, sex, smoking, and study centre. FINDINGS: A significant excess asthma risk was seen after exposure to substances known to cause occupational asthma (Relative risk=1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.3, p=0.017). Risks were highest for asthma defined by bronchial hyper-reactivity in addition to symptoms (2.4, 1.3-4.6, p=0.008). Of common occupations, a significant excess risk of asthma was seen for nursing (2.2, 1.3-4.0, p=0.007). Asthma risk was also increased in participants who reported an acute symptomatic inhalation event such as fire, mixing cleaning products, or chemical spills (RR=3.3, 95% CI 1.0-11.1, p=0.051). The population-attributable risk for adult asthma due to occupational exposures ranged from 10% to 25%, equivalent to an incidence of new-onset occupational asthma of 250-300 cases per million people per year. INTERPRETATION: Occupational exposures account for a substantial proportion of adult asthma incidence. The increased risk of asthma after inhalation accidents suggests that workers who have such accidents should be monitored closely.
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34.
  • Mirabelli, M. C., et al. (författare)
  • Occupational risk factors for asthma among nurses and related healthcare professionals in an international study
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Occup Environ Med. - 1470-7926. ; 64:7, s. 474-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: The authors examined the relations between self-reported work tasks, use of cleaning products and latex glove use with new-onset asthma among nurses and other healthcare workers in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS II). METHODS: In a random population sample of adults from 22 European sites, 332 participants reported working in nursing and other related healthcare jobs during the nine-year ECRHS II follow-up period and responded to a supplemental questionnaire about their principal work settings, occupational tasks, products used at work and respiratory symptoms. Poisson regression models with robust error variances were used to compare the risk of new-onset asthma among healthcare workers with each exposure to that of respondents who reported professional or administrative occupations during the entire follow-up period (n = 2481). RESULTS: Twenty (6%) healthcare workers and 131 (5%) members of the referent population reported new-onset asthma. Compared to the referent group, the authors observed increased risks among hospital technicians (RR 4.63; 95% CI 1.87 to 11.5) and among those using ammonia and/or bleach at work (RR 2.16; 95% CI 1.03 to 4.53). CONCLUSIONS: In the ECRHS II cohort, hospital technicians and other healthcare workers experience increased risks of new-onset current asthma, possibly due to specific products used at work.
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35.
  • Sunyer, Jordi, et al. (författare)
  • Lung function decline, chronic bronchitis, and occupational exposures in young adults
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Am J Respir Crit Care Med. ; 172:9, s. 1139-45.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rationale: Occupational exposures to vapors, gas, dust, or fumes have been shown to be a risk factor of airway obstruction in cross-sectional studies in the general population.Objectives: Our aim was to study the relationships between specific occupations and occupational exposures during a 9-yr follow-up period and changes in lung function and symptoms of chronic bronchitis.Methods: Subjects from the general population aged 20 to 45 yr were randomly selected in 1991-1993 within the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Follow-up took place from 1998 to 2002 among 4,079 males and 4,461 females in 27 study centers. A total of 3,202 men and 3,279 women twice completed lung function measurements. Job history during follow-up was linked to a job exposure matrix and consequently translated into cumulative exposure estimates.Main Results: Individuals exposed to dusts, gases, and fumes during the period of follow-up did not have a steeper decline of FEV(1) than did individuals with consistently white-collar occupations without occupational exposures (relative change among men and women, + 1.4 and -3.1 ml/yr, respectively; p > 0.2), nor an increase of prevalence or incidence of airway obstruction defined as an FEV(1)/FVC ratio of less than 0.7. The incidence of chronic phlegm increased in men exposed to mineral dust (relative risk, 1.94 [1.29-2.91]) and gases and fumes (relative risk, 1.53 [0.99-2.36]), which was not modified by smoking.Conclusion: Occupational exposures to dusts, gases, and fumes occurring during the 1990s are associated with incidence of chronic bronchitis, although these did not impair lung function in a population of relatively young age.
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36.
  • Kim, Jeong-Lim, et al. (författare)
  • Predictors of respiratory sickness absence: An international population-based study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Industrial Medicine. - 0271-3586 .- 1097-0274. ; 56:5, s. 541-549
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Respiratory tract-related occupational disability is common among adults of working age. We examined occupational vapors, gas, dust, or fume (VGDF) exposure as a predictor of disability, based on respiratory sickness absence among the actively employed, at an early point at which prevention may be most relevant. Methods: Currently employed European Community Respiratory Health Survey II participants (n=6,988) were classified into three mutually exclusive, condition/symptom-based categories: physician-diagnosed asthma, self-reported rhinitis, and wheeze/breathlessness (n=4,772). Logistic regression analysis estimated the odds of respiratory sickness absence (past 12 months) by VGDF exposure. Results: In the condition/symptom groups, 327 (6.9%) reported respiratory sickness absence. Exposure to VGDF was associated with increased odds of respiratory sickness absence: asthma odds ratio [OR] 2.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-3.6), wheeze/breathlessness OR 2.2 (95% CI 1.01-4.8); rhinitis OR 1.9 (95% CI 1.02-3.4). Conclusion: One in 15 currently employed with asthma, breathlessness, or rhinitis reported respiratory sickness absence. VGDF exposure doubled the odds of respiratory sickness absence, suggesting a focus for disability prevention. Am. J. Ind. Med. 56:541-549, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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37.
  • Lillienberg, Linnea, 1942, et al. (författare)
  • A population-based study on welding exposures at work and respiratory symptoms.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: The Annals of occupational hygiene. - 0003-4878. ; 52:2, s. 107-15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the first European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS I), an excess asthma risk was associated with high exposure to gases and fumes, mineral and biological dusts. In a 9-year follow-up study (ECRHS II), the aim was to study if welding at work increases the risk of asthma symptoms, wheeze and chronic bronchitis symptoms. The study also aimed to identify specific welding risk factors. In a random population sample of individuals from 22 European centres in 10 countries, 316 males reported welding at work during the follow-up period. These individuals responded to a supplemental questionnaire about frequency of welding, use of different methods and materials, welding environment and respiratory protection. Cumulative exposure to welding fumes for the follow-up period was estimated by using a database on welding fume exposures. Log-binomial regression models were used to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for prevalence of asthma symptoms or asthma medication, wheeze and chronic bronchitis symptoms in relation to welding methods and welded materials as well as estimated cumulative welding fume exposure compared to an external reference group. In the study population of 316 males, 62% performed welding <1 h day(-1), 23% 1-3 h day(-1) and 15% >4 h day(-1). Welding was a common task in many occupations and only 7% of the individuals actually called themselves welders and flame cutters, while the largest groups doing welding worked in construction or were motor, agricultural and industrial mechanics and fitters. Welding at work was not associated with an increased prevalence of asthma symptoms or wheeze but there was an association with chronic bronchitis symptoms (PR = 1.33, 1.00-1.76). Using assigned cumulative exposure in tertiles showed that the lowest exposed tertile had the highest PR of bronchitis symptoms. Chronic bronchitis symptoms was significantly higher in those frequently welding in galvanized steel or iron (PR = 2.14, 1.24-3.68) and in those frequently manual welding stainless steel (PR = 1.92, 1.00-3.66). There was also an increase in the prevalence of wheeze in individuals welding painted metal (PR = 1.66, 0.99-2.78; PR = 1.83, 0.90-3.71). Welding with manual metal arc technique <1 day week(-1) showed a prevalence risk of 1.69 for wheeze (CI = 1.16-2.46). In conclusion, the present study shows an association between welding in galvanized material and stainless steel and chronic bronchitis symptoms. There was also an increased prevalence of wheeze and welding in painted metal. The results support that welding in coated material is a respiratory hazard underscoring the importance of preventive actions.
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38.
  • Peralta, Gabriela P., et al. (författare)
  • Body mass index and weight change are associated with adult lung function trajectories : the prospective ECRHS study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Thorax. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 0040-6376 .- 1468-3296. ; 75:4, s. 313-320
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported an association between weight increase and excess lung function decline in young adults followed for short periods. We aimed to estimate lung function trajectories during adulthood from 20-year weight change profiles using data from the population-based European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS).METHODS: We included 3673 participants recruited at age 20-44 years with repeated measurements of weight and lung function (forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)) in three study waves (1991-93, 1999-2003, 2010-14) until they were 39-67 years of age. We classified subjects into weight change profiles according to baseline body mass index (BMI) categories and weight change over 20 years. We estimated trajectories of lung function over time as a function of weight change profiles using population-averaged generalised estimating equations.RESULTS: In individuals with normal BMI, overweight and obesity at baseline, moderate (0.25-1 kg/year) and high weight gain (>1 kg/year) during follow-up were associated with accelerated FVC and FEV1 declines. Compared with participants with baseline normal BMI and stable weight (±0.25 kg/year), obese individuals with high weight gain during follow-up had -1011 mL (95% CI -1.259 to -763) lower estimated FVC at 65 years despite similar estimated FVC levels at 25 years. Obese individuals at baseline who lost weight (<-0.25 kg/year) exhibited an attenuation of FVC and FEV1 declines. We found no association between weight change profiles and FEV1/FVC decline.CONCLUSION: Moderate and high weight gain over 20 years was associated with accelerated lung function decline, while weight loss was related to its attenuation. Control of weight gain is important for maintaining good lung function in adult life.
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39.
  • Svanes, Øistein, et al. (författare)
  • Cleaning at Home and at Work in Relation to Lung Function Decline and Airway Obstruction
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. - 1073-449X .- 1535-4970. ; 197:9, s. 1157-1163
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rationale: Cleaning tasks may imply exposure to chemical agents with potential harmful effects to the respiratory system, and increased risk of asthma and respiratory symptoms among professional cleaners and in persons cleaning at home has been reported. Long-term consequences of cleaning agents on respiratory health are, however, not well described.Objectives: This study aimed to investigate long-term effects of occupational cleaning and cleaning at home on lung function decline and airway obstruction.Methods: The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) investigated a multicenter population-based cohort at three time points over 20 years. A total of 6,235 participants with at least one lung function measurement from 22 study centers, who in ECRHS II responded to questionnaire modules concerning cleaning activities between ECRHS I and ECRHS II, were included. The data were analyzed with mixed linear models adjusting for potential confounders.Measurements and Main Results: As compared with women not engaged in cleaning (ΔFEV1 = −18.5 ml/yr), FEV1 declined more rapidly in women responsible for cleaning at home (−22.1; P = 0.01) and occupational cleaners (−22.4; P = 0.03). The same was found for decline in FVC (ΔFVC = −8.8 ml/yr; −13.1, P = 0.02; and −15.9, P = 0.002; respectively). Both cleaning sprays and other cleaning agents were associated with accelerated FEV1 decline (−22.0, P = 0.04; and −22.9, P = 0.004; respectively). Cleaning was not significantly associated with lung function decline in men or with FEV1/FVC decline or airway obstruction.Conclusions: Women cleaning at home or working as occupational cleaners had accelerated decline in lung function, suggesting that exposures related to cleaning activities may constitute a risk to long-term respiratory health.
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