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Sökning: WFRF:(Zock Jan Paul)

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  • Föregående 12[3]
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  • Svanes, Cecilie, et al. (författare)
  • Do asthma and allergy influence subsequent pet keeping? An analysis of childhood and adulthood
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - 0091-6749 .- 1097-6825. ; 118:3, s. 691-698
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Asthma and allergy might influence the choice of keeping pets, leading to apparent protective effects of pets on allergic disease. Objective: We investigated the effects of asthma and allergy on subsequent pet keeping in childhood and adulthood. Methods: Information about asthma and pet keeping at ages 0 to 4, 5 to 15, 20 to 44, and 26 to 56 years was provided by 9812 subjects participating in the 9-year follow-up of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Results: In childhood asthma debut at younger than 5 years was associated with less cat keeping at 5 to 15 years (odds ratio [OR], 0.60; 95% CI, 0.44-0.82), an effect only observed when the parents did not have asthma or allergy (P-interaction = .045). Childhood asthma did not influence adult pet ownership, unless there were adult symptoms. Adults less often acquired cats at follow-up if they had 3 or more asthma symptoms (OR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.64-0.95), were taking asthma medication (OR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.31-0.74), had hay fever (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.620.91), had atopy (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.61-0.91), or had specific IgE to cat (OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.39-0.82) at baseline. Adults who already had pets usually continued keeping the same type of pet, except that the presence of 3 or more asthma symptoms was associated with less subsequent dog keeping (OR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.53-0.89). Pet removal between surveys to reduce allergen was reported by 4.7%. Conclusion: Selective avoidance subsequent to asthma or allergy was observed for childhood cat keeping and adult cat acquisition. Avoidance would produce an apparent protective effect of cats on childhood asthma (large OR, 0.83). Avoidance was generally not observed for dogs or birds. Clinical implications: A part of the protective effects of childhood cats on asthma and allergy can be attributed to selective avoidance.
  • Tarazona, Jose V., et al. (författare)
  • Improving the Risk Assessment of Pesticides through the Integration of Human Biomonitoring and Food Monitoring Data : A Case Study for Chlorpyrifos
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Toxics. - : MDPI AG. - 2305-6304. ; 10:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The risk assessment of pesticide residues in food is a key priority in the area of food safety. Most jurisdictions have implemented pre-marketing authorization processes, which are supported by prospective risk assessments. These prospective assessments estimate the expected residue levels in food combining results from residue trials, resembling the pesticide use patterns, with food con-sumption patterns, according to internationally agreed procedures. In addition, jurisdictions such as the European Union (EU) have implemented large monitoring programs, measuring actual pesticide residue levels in food, and are supporting large-scale human biomonitoring programs for confirming the actual exposure levels and potential risk for consumers. The organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos offers an interesting case study, as in the last decade, its acceptable daily intake (ADI) has been reduced several times following risk assessments by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This process has been linked to significant reductions in the use authorized in the EU, reducing consumers’ exposure progressively, until the final ban in 2020, accompanied by setting all EU maximum residue levels (MRL) in food at the default value of 0.01 mg/kg. We present a comparison of estimates of the consumer’s internal exposure to chlorpyrifos based on the urinary marker 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), using two sources of monitoring data: monitoring of the food chain from the EU program and biomonitoring of European citizens from the HB4EU project, supported by a literature search. Both methods confirmed a drastic reduction in exposure levels from 2016 onwards. The margin of exposure approach is then used for conducting retrospective risk assessments at different time points, considering the evolution of our understanding of chlorpyrifos toxicity, as well as of exposure levels in EU consumers following the regulatory decisions. Concerns are presented using a color code, and have been identified for almost all studies, particularly for the highest exposed group, but at different levels, reaching the maximum level, red code, for children in Cyprus and Israel. The assessment uncertainties are highlighted and integrated in the identification of levels of concern.
  • Tischer, Christina, et al. (författare)
  • Predictors of microbial agents in dust and respiratory health in the Ecrhs
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: BMC Pulmonary Medicine. - 1471-2466 .- 1471-2466. ; 15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Dampness and mould exposure have been repeatedly associated with respiratory health. However, less is known about the specific agents provoking or arresting health effects in adult populations. We aimed to assess predictors of microbial agents in mattress dust throughout Europe and to investigate associations between microbial exposures, home characteristics and respiratory health. Methods: Seven different fungal and bacterial parameters were assessed in mattress dust from 956 adult ECRHS II participants in addition to interview based home characteristics. Associations between microbial parameters and the asthma score and lung function were examined using mixed negative binomial regression and linear mixed models, respectively. Results: Indoor dampness and pet keeping were significant predictors for higher microbial agent concentrations in mattress dust. Current mould and condensation in the bedroom were significantly associated with lung function decline and current mould at home was positively associated with the asthma score. Higher concentrations of muramic acid were associated with higher mean ratios of the asthma score (aMR 1.37, 95% CI 1.17-1.61). There was no evidence for any association between fungal and bacterial components and lung function. Conclusion: Indoor dampness was associated with microbial levels in mattress dust which in turn was positively associated with asthma symptoms.
  • Tjalvin, Gro, et al. (författare)
  • Maternal preconception exposure to cleaning agents and disinfectants and offspring asthma
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : ERS Publications. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 56:Suppl 64
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: There is growing concern about health effects of cleaning agents. Emerging research suggests adverse health effects of exposures prior to conception.Aim: To study childhood asthma in relation to mother’s occupational exposure to indoor cleaning before conception and around pregnancy.Methods: The multi-centre two-generation RHINE/RHINESSA study investigated asthma and wheeze with onset <10 years in 3318 adults. Exposure of their mothers to indoor cleaning agents and disinfectants starting before conception, in the 2-year period around conception and pregnancy, or after birth, was defined from mothers’ occupational history in combination with an asthma-specific job exposure matrix. Examples of exposed groups are cleaners, cooks, and nurses. Ordinary and mixed effects logistic regression analyses accounted for family clustering and study centre, and adjusted for maternal education.Results: Mother’s exposure to indoor cleaning starting before conception and continuing (n=610;47%) was associated with offspring’s childhood asthma: adjusted Odds Ratio (OR)=1.6 (95%CI 1.1-2.3), childhood asthma with nasal allergies: 1.8 (1.1-2.8), and childhood wheeze: 2.0 (1.3-3.1). Exposure starting around the time of conception and pregnancy (n=77;6%) was associated with childhood asthma: 2.3 (1.0-5.3) and childhood asthma with nasal allergies: 2.5 (1.0-6.4).Conclusions: Maternal occupational exposure to indoor cleaning pre-conception, or around the time of conception and pregnancy, may be a risk factor for childhood asthma in offspring. Considering potential implications for women in childbearing age using cleaning agents, and their children, mechanistic research and replication in cohort studies are needed.
  • Valkonen, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Microbial characteristics in homes of asthmatic and non-asthmatic adults in the ECRHS cohort
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Indoor Air. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0905-6947 .- 1600-0668. ; 28:1, s. 16-27
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Microbial exposures in homes of asthmatic adults have been rarely investigated; specificities and implications for respiratory health are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to investigate associations of microbial levels with asthma status, asthma symptoms, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), and atopy. Mattress dust samples of 199 asthmatics and 198 control subjects from 7 European countries participating in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II study were analyzed for fungal and bacterial cell wall components and individual taxa. We observed trends for protective associations of higher levels of mostly bacterial markers. Increased levels of muramic acid, a cell wall component predominant in Gram-positive bacteria, tended to be inversely associated with asthma (OR's for different quartiles: II 0.71 [0.39-1.30], III 0.44 [0.23-0.82], and IV 0.60 [0.31-1.18] P for trend .07) and with asthma score (P for trend .06) and with atopy (P for trend .02). These associations were more pronounced in northern Europe. This study among adults across Europe supports a potential protective effect of Gram-positive bacteria in mattress dust and points out that this may be more pronounced in areas where microbial exposure levels are generally lower.
  • Zock, Jan-Paul, et al. (författare)
  • Distribution and determinants of house dust mite allergens in Europe : the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - 0091-6749 .- 1097-6825. ; 118:3, s. 682-690
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Several studies in European homes have described allergen levels from the house dust mite species Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and to a lesser extent Dermatophagoides farinae, but geographic comparisons of exposure levels and risk factors have been hampered by a lack of standardized methods. Objective: To study the distribution and determinants of the major house dust mite allergens Der p 1 and Der f 1 in 10 European countries using a common protocol. Methods: During home visits with 3580 participants of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II from 22 study centers, mattress dust was sampled and analyzed for Der p 1, Der f 1, and Der 2 allergen. Information on housing characteristics was obtained by both observations and interview. Results: Der 1 and Der 2 allergens were detectable (>= 0.1 mu g/g) in 68% and 53% of the samples, respectively. Large differences in allergen levels between study centers were observed, and geographic patterns for Der p 1 and Der f 1 were different. Low winter temperatures reduced Der p 1 rather than Der f 1. Important risk factors for high allergen levels included an older mattress, a lower floor level of the bedroom, limited ventilation of the bedroom, and dampness for Der p 1 but not for Der f 1. Conclusion: There are large qualitative and quantitative differences of house dust mite allergen levels in Europe, which can partly be explained by geographic and housing characteristics. Clinical implications: Mite allergen exposure may be reduced by replacing the mattress regularly and increasing ventilation of the bedroom, particularly in winter.
  • Zock, Jan-Paul, et al. (författare)
  • The use of household cleaning sprays and adult asthma : an international longitudinal study
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. - 1073-449X .- 1535-4970. ; 176:8, s. 735-741
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rationale: Cleaning work and professional use of certain cleaning products have been associated with asthma, but respiratory effects of nonprofessional home cleaning have rarely been studied. Objectives: To investigate the risk of new-onset asthma in relation to the use of common household cleaners. Methods: Within the follow-up of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey in 10 countries, we identified 3,503 persons doing the cleaning in their homes and who were free of asthma at baseline. Frequency of use of 15 types of cleaning products was obtained in a face-to-face interview at follow-up. We studied the incidence of asthma defined as physician diagnosis and as symptoms or medication usage at follow-up. Associations between asthma and the use of cleaning products were evaluated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards or log-binomial regression analysis. Measurements and Main Results: The use of cleaning sprays at least weekly (42% of participants) was associated with the incidence of asthma symptoms or medication (relative risk [RR], 1.49; 95% confidence interval [Cl], 1.12-1.99) and wheeze (RR, 1.39; 95% Cl, 1.06-1.80). The incidence of physician-diagnosed asthma was higher among those using sprays at least 4 days per week (RR, 2.11; 95% Cl, 1.15-3.89). These associations were consistent for subgroups and not modified by atopy. Dose-response relationships (P < 0.05) were apparent for the frequency of use and the number of different sprays. Risks were predominantly found for the commonly used glass-cleaning, furniture, and air-refreshing sprays. Cleaning products not applied in spray form were not associated with asthma. Conclusions: Frequent use of common household cleaning sprays may be an important risk factor for adult asthma.
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  • Resultat 21-28 av 28
  • Föregående 12[3]

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