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  • Gómez Vecchio, Tomás, et al. (författare)
  • Classification of Adverse Events Following Surgery in Patients With Diffuse Lower-Grade Gliomas
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Oncology. - : Frontiers Media S.A.. - 2234-943X. ; 11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Recently, the Therapy-Disability-Neurology (TDN) was introduced as a multidimensional reporting system to detect adverse events in neurosurgery. The aim of this study was to compare the novel TDN score with the Landriel–Ibanez classification (LIC) grade in a large cohort of patients with diffuse lower-grade glioma (dLGG). Since the TDN score lacks validation against patient-reported outcomes, we described health-related quality of life (HRQoL) change in relation to TDN scores in a subset of patients.Methods: We screened adult patients with a surgically treated dLGG World Health Organization (WHO) grade 2 and 3 between 2010 and 2020. Up until 2017, it consists of a retrospective cohort (n = 158). From 2017 and onwards, HRQoL was registered using EuroQoL-5-dimension, three levels of response (EQ-5D 3L) questionnaire at baseline and 3 months follow-up, in a prospectively recruited cohort (n = 102). Both the LIC grade and TDN score were used to classify adverse events.Results: In total, 231 patients were included. In 110/231 (47.6%) of the surgical procedures, a postoperative complication was registered. When comparing the TDN score to LIC grades, only a minor shift towards complications of higher order could be observed. EQ-5D 3L was reported for 45 patients. Patients with complications related to surgery had pre- to postoperative changes in EQ-5D 3L index values (n = 27; mean 0.03, 95% CI −0.06 to 0.11) that were comparable to patients without complications (n = 18; mean −0.06, 95% CI −0.21 to 0.08). In contrast, patients with new-onset neurological deficit had a deterioration in HRQoL at follow-up, with a mean change in the EQ-5D 3L index value of 0.11 (n = 13, 95% CI 0.0 to 0.22) compared to −0.06 (n = 32, 95% CI −0.15 to 0.03) for all other patients.Conclusions: In patients with dLGG, TDN scores compared to the standard LIC tend to capture more adverse events of higher order. There was no clear relation between TDN severity and HRQoL. However, new-onset neurological deficit caused impairment in HRQoL. For the TDN score to better align with patient-reported outcomes, more emphasis on neurological deficit and function should be considered.
  • Hammarfjord, Oscar, et al. (författare)
  • Surgical treatment of recurring ameloblastoma, are there options?
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery. - : Elsevier BV. - 0266-4356 .- 1532-1940. ; 51:8, s. 762-766
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Our aim was to evaluate the treatment given to patients with intraosseus ameloblastomas with special emphasis on recurrence and the outcomes of primary and secondary resection. Forty-eight patients who were treated for intraosseous ameloblastoma at 8 centres across Sweden met the inclusion criteria. They showed typical distribution of age, sex, site of lesion, and characteristic presenting features. Eleven of the 48 were initially treated with radical resection and none recurred. Twenty-two of the remaining 37 who were initially treated by conservative resection presented with recurrences. Sixteen of the 22 then had conservative secondary resections, which resulted in further recurrence in 6 patients. Initial radical resection is therefore superior to conservative management as far as recurrences are concerned. We argue, however, that a conservative surgical approach is adequate for many intraosseous ameloblastomas with limited extension, because relapse can be followed by radical resection if clinically indicated in selected cases.
  • Thurin, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Proton therapy for low-grade gliomas in adults : A systematic review
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Clinical neurology and neurosurgery (Dutch-Flemish ed. Print). - : Elsevier BV. - 0303-8467 .- 1872-6968. ; 174, s. 233-238
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • For adult patients with diffuse low-grade glioma (LGG) proton therapy is an emerging radiotherapy modality. The number of proton facilities is rapidly increasing. However, there is a shortage of published data concerning the clinical effectiveness compared to photon radiotherapy and potential proton-specific toxicity. This study aimed to systematically review and summarize the relevant literature on proton therapy for adult LGG patients, including dosimetric comparisons, the type and frequency of acute and long-term toxicity and the clinical effectiveness. A systematic search was performed in several medical databases and 601 articles were screened for relevance. Nine articles were deemed eligible for in-depth analysis using a standardized data collection form by two independent researchers. Proton treatment plans compared favorably to photon-plans regarding dose to uninvolved neural tissue. Fatigue (27-100%), alopecia (37-85%), local erythema (78-85%) and headache (27-75%) were among the most common acute toxicities. One study reported no significant long-term cognitive impairments. Limited data was available on long-term survival. One study reported a 5-year overall survival of 84% and 5-year progression-free survival of 40%. We conclude that published data from clinical studies using proton therapy for adults with LGG are scarce. As the technique becomes more available, controlled clinical studies are urgently warranted to determine if the potential benefits based on comparative treatment planning translate into clinical benefits.
  • Wennergren, Göran, 1947 (författare)
  • Medicinarminnen som fängslar
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Läkartidningen. - 0023-7205. ; 116
  • Recension (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)
  • Thulin, Helena, et al. (författare)
  • Defecation disturbances after cystectomy for urinary bladder cancer
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: BJU International. - : Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 1464-4096 .- 1464-410X. ; 108:2, s. 196-203
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • What’s known on the subject? and What does the study add?Functional gastrointestinal symptoms and problems are common after radical cystectomy with urinary diversion. This study adds new important epidemiological data on this group of symptoms. OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare long-term defecation disturbances in patients who had undergone a cystectomy due to urinary bladder cancer with non-continent urostomies, continent reservoirs and orthotopic neobladder urinary diversions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: During their follow-up we attempted to contact all men and women aged 30–80 years who had undergone cystectomy and urinary diversion at seven Swedish hospitals. During a qualitative phase we identified defecation disturbances as a distressful symptom and included this item in a study-specific questionnaire together with free-hand comments. The patients completed the questionnaire at home. Outcome variables were dichotomized and the results are presented as relative risks with 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: The questionnaire was returned from 452 (92%) of 491 identified patients. Up to 30% reported problems with the physiological emptying process of stool (bowel movement, sensory rectal function, awareness of need for defecation, motoric rectal and anal function, straining ability). A sense of decreased straining capacity was reported by 20% of the men and women with non-continent urostomy and 14% and 8% of those with continent reservoirs and orthotopic neobladders, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Of the cystectomized individuals 30% reported problems with the physiological emptying process of stool (bowel movement, sensory rectal function, awareness of need for defecation, motoric rectal and anal function, straining ability). Those wanting to improve the situation for bladder cancer survivors may consider communicating before surgery the possibility of stool-emptying problems, and asking about them after surgery.
  • Svensson, Katrin, et al. (författare)
  • Hypoxia triggers a proangiogenic pathway involving cancer cell microvesicles and PAR-2-mediated heparin-binding EGF signaling in endothelial cells.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. - : Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. - 1091-6490 .- 0027-8424. ; 108:32, s. 13147-13152
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Highly malignant tumors, such as glioblastomas, are characterized by hypoxia, endothelial cell (EC) hyperplasia, and hypercoagulation. However, how these phenomena of the tumor microenvironment may be linked at the molecular level during tumor development remains ill-defined. Here, we provide evidence that hypoxia up-regulates protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2), i.e., a G-protein-coupled receptor of coagulation-dependent signaling, in ECs. Hypoxic induction of PAR-2 was found to elicit an angiogenic EC phenotype and to specifically up-regulate heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF). Inhibition of HB-EGF by antibody neutralization or heparin treatment efficiently counteracted PAR-2-mediated activation of hypoxic ECs. We show that PAR-2-dependent HB-EGF induction was associated with increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2, and inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation attenuated PAR-2-dependent HB-EGF induction as well as EC activation. Tissue factor (TF), i.e., the major initiator of coagulation-dependent PAR signaling, was substantially induced by hypoxia in several types of cancer cells, including glioblastoma; however, TF was undetectable in ECs even at prolonged hypoxia, which precludes cell-autonomous PAR-2 activation through TF. Interestingly, hypoxic cancer cells were shown to release substantial amounts of TF that was mainly associated with secreted microvesicles with exosome-like characteristics. Vesicles derived from glioblastoma cells were found to trigger TF/VIIa-dependent activation of hypoxic ECs in a paracrine manner. We provide evidence of a hypoxia-induced signaling axis that links coagulation activation in cancer cells to PAR-2-mediated activation of ECs. The identified pathway may constitute an interesting target for the development of additional strategies to treat aggressive brain tumors.
  • Adolfsson, Jan, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical characteristics and primary treatment of prostate cancer in Sweden between 1996 and 2005 : Data from the national prostate cancer register in Sweden
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology. - Stockholm : Taylor & Francis. - 0036-5599 .- 1651-2065. ; 41:6, s. 456-477
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. The incidence of prostate cancer is rising rapidly in Sweden and there is a need to better understand the pattern of diagnosis, tumor characteristics and treatment. Material and methods. Between 1996 and 2005, all new cases of adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland were intended to be registered in the National Prostate Cancer Register (NPCR). This register contains information on diagnosing unit, date of diagnosis, cause of diagnosis, tumor grade, tumor stage according to the TNM classification in force, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels at diagnosis and primary treatment given within the first 6 months after diagnosis. Results. In total, 72 028 patients were registered, comprising >97% of all pertinent incident cases of prostate cancer in the Swedish Cancer Register (SCR). During the study period there was a considerable decrease in median age at the time of diagnosis, a stage migration towards smaller tumors, a decrease in median serum PSA values at diagnosis, a decrease in the age-standardized incidence rate of men diagnosed with distant metastases or with a PSA level of >100 ng/ml at diagnosis and an increase in the proportion of tumors with Gleason score ≤6. Relatively large geographical differences in the median age at diagnosis and the age-standardized incidence of cases with category T1c tumors were observed. Treatment with curative intent increased dramatically and treatment patterns varied according to geographical region. In men with localized tumors and a PSA level of <20 ng/ml at diagnosis, expectant treatment was more commonly used in those aged ≥75 years than in those aged <75 years. Also, the pattern of endocrine treatment varied in different parts of Sweden. Conclusions. All changes in the register seen over time are consistent with increased diagnostic activity, especially PSA testing, resulting in an increased number of cases with early disease, predominantly tumors in category T1c. The patterns of diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer vary considerably in different parts of Sweden. The NPCR continues to be an important source for research, epidemiological surveillance of the incidence, diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer
  • Alevronta, Eleftheria, et al. (författare)
  • Dose-response relationships of intestinal organs and excessive mucus discharge after gynaecological radiotherapy
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 16:4 April
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The study aims to determine possible dose-volume response relationships between the rectum, sigmoid colon and small intestine and the ‘excessive mucus discharge’ syndrome after pelvic radiotherapy for gynaecological cancer. Methods and materials From a larger cohort, 98 gynaecological cancer survivors were included in this study. These survivors, who were followed for 2 to 14 years, received external beam radiation therapy but not brachytherapy and not did not have stoma. Thirteen of the 98 developed excessive mucus discharge syndrome. Three self-assessed symptoms were weighted together to produce a score interpreted as ‘excessive mucus discharge’ syndrome based on the factor loadings from factor analysis. The dose-volume histograms (DVHs) for rectum, sigmoid colon, small intestine for each survivor were exported from the treatment planning systems. The dose-volume response relationships for excessive mucus discharge and each organ at risk were estimated by fitting the data to the Probit, RS, LKB and gEUD models. Results The small intestine was found to have steep dose-response curves, having estimated dose-response parameters: γ : 1.28, 1.23, 1.32, D : 61.6, 63.1, 60.2 for Probit, RS and LKB respectively. The sigmoid colon (AUC: 0.68) and the small intestine (AUC: 0.65) had the highest AUC values. For the small intestine, the DVHs for survivors with and without excessive mucus discharge were well separated for low to intermediate doses; this was not true for the sigmoid colon. Based on all results, we interpret the results for the small intestine to reflect a relevant link. Conclusion An association was found between the mean dose to the small intestine and the occurrence of ‘excessive mucus discharge’. When trying to reduce and even eliminate the incidence of ‘excessive mucus discharge’, it would be useful and important to separately delineate the small intestine and implement the dose-response estimations reported in the study.
  • Almqvist, Erik G., et al. (författare)
  • Factors influencing insulin sensitivity in patients with mild primary hyperparathyroidism before and after parathyroidectomy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation. - : Informa UK Limited. - 1502-7686 .- 0036-5513. ; 72:2, s. 92-99
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives. Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is associated with cardiovascular disease. The aims of this study were to investigate lipid and glucose metabolism in mild PHPT, and to identify whether insulin sensitivity correlates with circulating levels of adiponectin, SHBG, and osteocalcin before and after parathyroidectomy (PTX). Materials and methods. Forty-five patients with PHPT were examined before and 1 year after PTX. Circulating levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, insulin, glucose, adiponectin, SHBG, osteocalcin, and erythropoietin were measured. Results. At baseline, the mean serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were above the upper reference limit or in the upper normal range, and insulin sensitivity was reduced as assessed using the HOMA index. One year after parathyroidectomy, serum lipids as well as HOMA index and erythropoietin were unchanged while adiponectin had increased (p < 0.05), and SHBG and osteocalcin had decreased (p < 0.05 and p < 0.0001, respectively). HOMA index correlated negatively with circulating levels of adiponectin, SHBG and osteocalcin. In multiple regression analysis SHBG was the most important predictor of insulin sensitivity, both pre- and postoperatively. Conclusion. Untreated mild PHPT is associated with a moderate derangement of lipid and glucose metabolism. As previously shown in population-based cohorts, insulin sensitivity is positively associated with circulating concentrations of adiponectin, SHBG and osteocalcin. One year after PTX, the mean level of adiponectin was increased, but the levels of SHBG and osteocalcin had decreased and the levels of serum lipids and the insulin sensitivity remained unchanged as compared with baseline.
  • Burgu, Berk, et al. (författare)
  • An unusual cause of infantile gynecomastia: sertoli cell tumor.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology. - 1536-3678. ; 33:3, s. 238-40
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Prepubertal testicular masses are relatively rare. Sertoli cell tumors account for 2% of prepubertal testicular tumors and very few have occurred in the first decade of life. Gynecomastia can be seen in approximately 5% of patients with testicular mass. We present an 8-month-old boy admitted with bilateral gynecomastia and unilateral testicular mass.
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