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  • Lebwohl, Benjamin, et al. (författare)
  • Psychiatric disorders in patients with a diagnosis of celiac disease during childhood from 1973 to 2016
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. - : Elsevier. - 1542-3565 .- 1542-7714. ; 19:10, s. 2093-2101.e13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Few studies have explored the link between childhood celiac disease and long-term psychiatric comorbidities. We performed a population-based cohort study of associations between childhood celiac disease and psychiatric disorders and investigated whether risk persists into adulthood.METHODS: We performed a nationwide study in Sweden using data from the ESPRESSO cohort. In this cohort, 19,186 children with a diagnosis of biopsy-verified celiac disease from 1973 through 2016 were identified from Sweden's 28 pathology departments. Each patient was matched with as many as 5 reference children (controls, n=94,249). Data on psychiatric disorders were obtained from the patient register. We used Cox proportional modeling to estimate hazard ratios (HRs).RESULTS: During a median follow-up time of 12.3 years, 3174 children (16.5%) with celiac disease received a new diagnosis of a psychiatric disorder, compared with 13,286 controls (14.1%). Corresponding incidence rates were 12.2 per 1000 person-years (95% Cl, 11.8-12.7) vs 10.3 per 1000 person-years (95% Cl, 10.2-10.5). Childhood celiac disease was associated with a 19% increase in risk of any psychiatric disorder (95% Cl, 1.14-1.23); the increase in risk was observed in all childhood age groups. The highest HRs were seen in the first year after celiac diagnosis (HR, 1.70; 95% Cl, 1.41-2.05). The risk increase persisted into adulthood (older than 18 years: HR, 1.11; 95% Cl, 1.04-1.17). We found increased risks of mood disorders (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.12-1.28), anxiety disorders (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.06-1.19), eating disorders (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.18-1.51), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.20-1.39), and autism spectrum disorder (HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.32-1.64). We found no statistically significant risk increase for psychotic disorders, psychoactive substance misuse, behavioral disorders, personality disorders, suicide attempt, or suicide. Celiac disease was also linked to an increased use of psychiatric drugs (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.24-1.43). A conditional logistic regression found that psychiatric disorders were also more common prior to diagnosis of celiac disease (odds ratio, 1.56; 95% Cl, 1.39-1.76).CONCLUSIONS: Childhood celiac disease is associated with increased risk of subsequent psychiatric disorders, which persists into adulthood. Mental health surveillance should be integral in the care of celiac disease.
  • Stenström, Pernilla, et al. (författare)
  • Perfusion monitoring using laser speckle contrast imaging during endorectal pull-through for Hirschsprung's disease
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pediatric Surgery Case Reports. - : Elsevier. - 2213-5766. ; 76, s. 1-4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Surgical treatment of Hirschsprung's disease commonly involves resection of the aganglionic segment of the colon and endorectal pull-through. Postoperative complications include anastomotic leakage and/or stricture, both believed to be caused by inadequate perfusion of the mobilized bowel or high tension in the anastomosis, but this has never been investigated. In this case, laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) was used for the first time to monitor colonic perfusion during endorectal pull-through. A 6-week-old child with a 24-cm aganglionosis underwent laparoscopic-assisted endorecto pull-through with mobilization of the left colonic flexure to be able to reach the anus. LSCI perfusion monitoring showed that perfusion was 41% in the tip of the colon without tension, and was reduced 17% by a stretching force of 2 N. In conclusion, perfusion of the colonic end can be monitored by LSCI during surgery for Hirschsprung's disease. This provides new opportunities to evaluate the effects of such surgical interventions in the future.
  • Trolle Lagerros, Ylva, et al. (författare)
  • Risk of Delayed Discharge and Reoperation of Gastric Bypass Patients with Psychiatric Comorbidity : a Nationwide Cohort Study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Obesity Surgery. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 0960-8923 .- 1708-0428. ; 30:7, s. 2511-2518
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundGastric bypass (GBP) surgery is considered a safe and effective treatment for obesity. However, there is uncertainty regarding the impact of preexisting psychiatric comorbidity on GBP complications. We have investigated whether a psychiatric diagnosis before GBP surgery is associated with delayed discharge (the odds of being in the 90th percentile of length of stay) and rate of reoperation in a nationwide Swedish cohort.MethodsPatients undergoing GBP surgery during 2008–2012 were identified and followed up through the National Patient Register and the Prescribed Drug Register. Logistic regression models were fitted to the studied outcomes.ResultsAmong the 22,539 patients identified, a prior diagnosis of bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, depression, neurotic disorders, ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), substance use disorder, eating disorder, personality disorder, or self-harm since 1997 (n = 9480) was found to be associated with delayed discharge after GBP surgery (odds ratio [OR] = 1.47, confidence interval [CI] 1.34–1.62), especially in patients with psychiatric hospitalization exceeding 1 week in the 2 years preceding GBP surgery (OR = 2.06, CI 1.30–3.28), compared with those not hospitalized within psychiatry. Likewise, patients with a prior psychiatric diagnosis were more likely to be reoperated within 30 days (OR = 1.25, CI 1.11–1.41), with twice the likelihood OR 2.23 (CI 1.26–3.92) for patients with psychiatric hospitalization of up to a week in the 2 years preceding GBP surgery, compared with patients who had not been hospitalized within psychiatry.ConclusionsA psychiatric diagnosis before GBP surgery was associated with delayed discharge and increased likelihood of reoperation within 30 days. Patients with a prior psychiatric diagnosis may, therefore, need additional attention and support.
  • Wolthers, Benjamin Ole, et al. (författare)
  • Insulin-dependent diabetes : a chronic complication to acute pancreatitis in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Pediatric Blood & Cancer. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1545-5009 .- 1545-5017. ; 66:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Pancreatitis is a frequent toxicity to acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treatment, significantly associated with asparaginase use, and may be followed by severe complications such as acute hyperglycaemia, need for mechanical ventilation, pseudocysts, and death. Here, we provide novel data on seven patients diagnosed with diabetes after pancreatitis and still requiring insulin treatment after a median follow-up of 4.2 years (range: 1.7-9.2). We describe the clinical course of pancreatitis and illustrate the association between pancreatic pseudocysts, older age, and development of insulin-dependent diabetes. Together, this study documents the persisting burden of pancreatitis in childhood ALL and underlines the need for plasma glucose level monitoring.
  • Abdelrahman, Islam, 1982-, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of Glandular Liposculpture as a Single Treatment for Grades I and II Gynaecomastia
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. - : Springer. - 0364-216X .- 1432-5241. ; 42:2, s. 1222-1230
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundGynaecomastia is a benign enlargement of the male breast, of which the psychological burden on the patient can be considerable, with the increased risk of disorders such as depression, anxiety, and social phobia. Minimal scarring can be achieved by liposuction alone, though it is known to have a limited effect on the dense glandular and fibroconnective tissues. We know of few studies published on “liposuction alone”, so we designed this study to evaluate the outcome of combining liposuction with glandular liposculpturing through two axillary incisions as a single treatment for the management of grades I and II gynaecomastia.MethodsWe made a retrospective analysis of 18 patients with grade I or II gynaecomastia who were operated on by combined liposuction and glandular liposculpturing using a fat disruptor cannula, without glandular excision, during the period 2014–2016. Patient satisfaction was assessed using the Breast Evaluation Questionnaire (BEQ), which is a 5-point Likert scale (1 = very dissatisfied; 2 = dissatisfied; 3 = neither; 4 = satisfied; 5 = very satisfied). The post-operative aesthetic appearance of the chest was evaluated by five independent observers on a scale from 1 to 5 (5 = considerable improvement).ResultsThe patient mean (SD) overall satisfaction score was 4.7 (0.7), in which 92% of the responders were “satisfied” to “very satisfied”. The mean (SD) BEQ for all questions answered increased from 2.1 (0.2) “dissatisfied” preoperatively to 4.1 (0.2) “satisfied” post-operatively. The observers’ mean (SD) rate for the improvement in the shape of the front chest wall was 4.1 (0.7). No haematomas were recorded, one patient developed a wound infection, and two patients complained of remnants of tissue. The median (IQR) body mass index was 27.4 (26.7–29.4), 11 patients had gynaecomastia grade I, and 7 patients grade II. The median (IQR) volume of aspirated fat was 700 ml (650–800), operating time was 67 (65–75) minutes, 14 patients had general anaesthesia, and hospital charges were US$ 538 (481–594).ConclusionsCombined liposuction and liposculpturing using the fat disruptor cannula resulted in satisfied patients and acceptable outcomes according to the observers’ ratings. It could be a useful alternative with an outcome that corresponds to that of more expensive methods.
  • Aleman, Soo, et al. (författare)
  • A Risk for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Persists Long-term After Sustained Virologic Response in Patients With Hepatitis C-Associated Liver Cirrhosis
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Clinical Infectious Diseases. - : Oxford University Press. - 1537-6591 .- 1058-4838. ; 57:2, s. 230-236
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. The long-term effect of sustained virologic response (SVR) to antiviral therapy on the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), liver complications, liver-related death, and overall death in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients with liver cirrhosis is not fully known. Methods. These risks were evaluated during long-term follow-up in 351 patients with HCV-related cirrhosis. One hundred ten patients with SVR, 193 with non-SVR, and 48 who were untreated were included in a multicenter cohort that was initiated in 2001 and prospectively followed up for a mean of 5.3 (SD, 2.8) years. Complementary follow-up data from national registries were used to minimize the loss of patients during follow-up. Results. Six patients with SVR developed HCC at 0.04, 0.64, 2.4, 7.4, 7.4, and 7.6 years, respectively, after achieving SVR. The incidences of HCC, any liver complication, liver-related death, and overall death per 100 person-years were significantly lower in SVR time with 1.0, 0.9, 0.7, and 1.9, compared to 2.3, 3.2, 3.0, and 4.1 in non-SVR and 4.0, 4.9, 4.5, and 5.1 in untreated time. The long-term consequences did not decline significantly after >3 years versus during the first 3 years of follow-up. Conclusions. The risk for HCC, liver decompensation, and death in patients with liver cirrhosis related to HCV was markedly reduced after SVR, but a long-term risk of developing HCC remains for up to 8 years. Cirrhotic patients with HCV who achieve SVR should therefore maintain long-term surveillance for HCC. Future studies aimed to better identify those with remaining long-term risk for HCC are needed.
  • Backemar, Lovisa, et al. (författare)
  • The Influence of Comorbidity on Health-Related Quality of Life After Esophageal Cancer Surgery
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Annals of Surgical Oncology. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1068-9265 .- 1534-4681. ; 27:8, s. 2637-2645
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundEsophageal cancer surgery reduces patients’ health-related quality of life (HRQoL). This study examined whether comorbidities influence HRQoL in these patients.MethodsThis prospective cohort study included esophageal cancer patients having undergone curatively intended esophagectomy at St Thomas’ Hospital London in 2011–2015. Clinical data were collected from patient reports and medical records. Well-validated cancer-specific and esophageal cancer-specific questionnaires (EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-OG25) were used to assess HRQoL before and 6 months after esophagectomy. Number of comorbidities, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification (ASA), and specific comorbidities were analyzed in relation to HRQoL aspects using multivariable linear regression models. Mean score differences with 95% confidence intervals were adjusted for potential confounders.ResultsAmong 136 patients, those with three or more comorbidities at the time of surgery had poorer global quality of life and physical function and more fatigue compared with those with no comorbidity. Patients with ASA III–IV reported more problems with the above HRQoL aspects and worse social function and pain compared with those with ASA I–II. Cardiac comorbidity was associated with worse global quality of life and dyspnea, while pulmonary comorbidities were related to coughing. Patients assessed both before and 6 months after surgery (n = 80) deteriorated in most HRQoL aspects regardless of comorbidity status, but patients with several comorbidities had worse physical function and fatigue and more trouble with coughing compared with those with fewer comorbidities.ConclusionComorbidity appears to negatively influence HRQoL before esophagectomy, but appears not to severely impact 6-month recovery of HRQoL.
  • Backman, Olof, et al. (författare)
  • Gastric Bypass Surgery Reduces De Novo Cases of Type 2 Diabetes to Population Levels : A Nationwide Cohort Study From Sweden
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Annals of Surgery. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0003-4932 .- 1528-1140. ; 269:5, s. 895-902
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine long-term changes in pharmacological treatment of type 2 diabetes after primary Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, in patients with and without pharmacological treatment of diabetes preoperatively.SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Several studies have shown that gastric bypass has good effect on diabetes, at least in the short-term. This study is a nationwide cohort study using Swedish registers, with basically no patients lost to follow-up during up to 7 years after surgery.METHODS: The effect of RYGB on type 2 diabetes drug treatment was evaluated in this nationwide matched cohort study. Participants were 22,047 adults with BMI ≥30 identified in the nationwide Scandinavian Surgical Obesity Registry, who underwent primary RYGB between 2007 and 2012. For each individual, up to 10 general population comparators were matched on birth year, sex, and place of residence. Prescription data were retrieved from the nationwide Swedish Prescribed Drug Register through September 2015. Incident use of pharmacological treatment was analyzed using Cox regression.RESULTS: Sixty-seven percent of patients with pharmacological treatment of type 2 diabetes before surgery were not using diabetes drugs 2 years after surgery and 61% of patients were not pharmacologically treated up to 7 years after surgery. In patients not using diabetes drugs at baseline, there were 189 new cases of pharmacological treatment of type 2 diabetes in the surgery group and 2319 in the matched general population comparators during a median follow-up of 4.6 years (incidence: 21.4 vs 27.9 per 10,000 person-years; adjusted hazard ratio 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.67-0.89; P < 0.001).CONCLUSIONS: Gastric bypass surgery not only induces remission of pharmacological treatment of type 2 diabetes but also protects from new onset of pharmacological diabetes treatment. The effect seems to persist in most, but not all, patients over 7 years of follow-up.
  • Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala, et al. (författare)
  • Intake of Coffee, Decaffeinated Coffee, or Tea Does Not Affect Risk for Pancreatic Cancer : Results From the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer Study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. - : Elsevier. - 1542-3565 .- 1542-7714. ; 11:11, s. 1486-1492
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Few modifiable risk factors have been implicated in the etiology of pancreatic cancer. There is little evidence for the effects of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or tea intake on risk of pancreatic cancer. We investigated the association of total coffee, caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and tea consumption with risk of pancreatic cancer.METHODS: This study was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer cohort, comprising male and female participants from 10 European countries. Between 1992 and 2000, there were 477,312 participants without cancer who completed a dietary questionnaire, and were followed up to determine pancreatic cancer incidence. Coffee and tea intake was calibrated with a 24-hour dietary recall. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were computed using multivariable Cox regression.RESULTS: During a mean follow-up period of 11.6 y, 865 first incidences of pancreatic cancers were reported. When divided into fourths, neither total intake of coffee (HR, 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83-1.27; high vs low intake), decaffeinated coffee (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.76-1.63; high vs low intake), nor tea were associated with risk of pancreatic cancer (HR, 1.22, 95% CI, 0.95-1.56; high vs low intake). Moderately low intake of caffeinated coffee was associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer (HR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.02-1.74), compared with low intake. However, no graded dose response was observed, and the association attenuated after restriction to histologically confirmed pancreatic cancers.CONCLUSIONS: Based on an analysis of data from the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer cohort, total coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and tea consumption are not related to the risk of pancreatic cancer.
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