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Träfflista för sökning "hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) hsv:(Gastroenterologi) srt2:(1990-1999)"

Sökning: hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) hsv:(Gastroenterologi) > (1990-1999)

  • Resultat 31-40 av 88
  • Föregående 123[4]567...9Nästa
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  • Wängberg, Bo, 1953, et al. (författare)
  • Accumulation of natural killer cells after hepatic artery embolisation in the midgut carcinoid syndrome.
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: British journal of cancer. - 0007-0920. ; 71:3, s. 617-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Eleven patients with disseminated midgut carcinoid tumour disease were subjected to hepatic artery embolisation. In six patients, lymphocytosis with a predominance of NK cells occurred and the cytotoxic activity of isolated lymphocytes increased. A relation between NK cell accumulation and subsequent radiological and biochemical response was observed, and it is suggested that anti-tumour mechanisms other than ischaemia may contribute to the therapeutic response in these patients.
  • Wängberg, Bo, 1953, et al. (författare)
  • Are enterochromaffinlike cell tumours reversible? An experimental study on gastric carcinoids induced in Mastomys by histamine2-receptor blockade.
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: Regulatory peptides. - 0167-0115. ; 56:1, s. 19-33
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A rapid induction of enterochromaffinlike (ECL) cell tumours has been shown in Praomys (Mastomys) natalensis subjected to histamine2-receptor blockade. In the present study the reversibility of ECL cell proliferation induced by acid inhibition was investigated. Short-term treatment (8 weeks) with the histamine2-receptor antagonist loxtidine caused a moderate hypergastrinemia, accompanied by a minor increase in histamine contents and a 2-fold increased volume density of the endocrine cells in gastric oxyntic mucosa. Eight weeks after withdrawal of treatment the volume density of endocrine cells was normalised as were the tissue levels of histamine, indicating a total reversibility of ECL cell hyperplasia. Long-term treatment (24 weeks) caused severe changes in the endocrine cell population of the oxyntic mucosa with neoplasia (5/21), dysplasia (11/21) and nodular hyperplasia (5/21). The endocrine cell density increased twofold and tissue histamine levels fourfold. 24 weeks after cessation of treatment, the endocrine cell density had decreased to 136% of controls, while histamine concentrations were normalised. The frequency of invasive carcinoids after recovery (4/23) differed only slightly from that seen after treatment for 24 weeks (5/21). Dysplastic lesions were only seen in 1/23 and hyperplastic lesions were of less severe type after recovery. The results demonstrate that ECL cell hyperplasia and dysplasia, induced by acid inhibition, are reversible after cessation of treatment. However, ECL cell tumours did not disappear, within the given observation period. One may therefore speculate that ECL cell proliferation is no longer reversible once the neoplastic (transformed) phenotype has developed.
  • Yeung, Moorix Mo-Wai (författare)
  • Specific and nonspecific immune mechanisms in human gut : a comparative study of normal and ulcerative colitis intestine
  • 1996
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • The intestine, with its large mucosal surface area, digests and absorbs food nutrients and maintains a beneficial microbial flora in the colon. Local protective immune responses against intestinal pathogens ensure the survival of the individual. These immune reactions are both specific and non-specific in nature. The intestinal epithelium is single-layered and constantly renewed with differentiating epithelial cells moving from the crypt to the luminal surface. Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) are interspersed between the epithelial cells. Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a life-threatening chronic inflammation affecting colon.In this study three molecules belonging to the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family, namely CEA proper, nonspecific cross-reacting antigen 50/90 (NCA 50/90) and biliary glycoprotein (BGP), were found to be specifically localized to the apical surface of colonic epithelial cells. Full expression of these molecules occurs when the cells reach the upper 1/3 of the crypts and are maintained on the mature cells at the luminal surface. Ultrastructurally, CEA, NCA50/90 and BGP are localized to microvesicles and microfilaments of the fuzzy coat/glycocalyx as well as to the microvilli of the epithelial cells. Their unique localization and documented bacterial binding capacities suggest that they have a role in innate immunity.Functional analysis of IEL in normal jejunum, ileum and colon revealed that IEL are in vivo activated T-lymphocytes expressing mRNA for the cytokines IL-1β, IL-2, IL-8, IFNγ and TNFα and that jejunal IEL have T-cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 dependent cytolytic capacity. As many as 10% of IEL actively produce IFNγ. CD4+TCRαβ+IEL, CD8+TCRαβ+IEL and CD4-CD8-TCRαβ+IEL all had a TH1/cytotoxic cytokine profile. IEL could be further stimulated in vitro to express IL-10, TNFβ and TGFβ1, to proliferate and to secrete IFNγ. Thus, active protection and/or regulation of the epithelium via cell-mediated immune reactions are prominent in the gut.UC colon was characterized by a marked lymphocyte infiltration in the lamina propria, 10-50 times the normal level. Most lymphocytes were present in follicle-like cell aggregates containing both T- and B-cells. An unexpected finding was that γδT-cells constituted about 15% of the cells in the aggregates. Such cells are only found intraepithelially in normal gut. γδT-cells of both the intestinal- (TCR-Vδ1/Vγ8) and blood type (TCR-Vδ2/Vγ9) were seen. T-cells in UC colon were activated but nonproliferating and had a down-regulated TCR/CD3 complex. RT-PCR and quantitative immunohistochemistry for cytokine mRNA (n=11) and protein respectively, revealed that the T-cells in UC colon did not produce IL-2, in marked contrast to T-cells in normal colon and to ileal T-cells from UC patients. This was a selective defect since TNFα, IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-8 and TGFβ1 were similarly expressed in normal colon. No TH2 cytokines were seen. Lamina propria leukocytes in UC colon expressed IL-6, a cytokine not found in normal colon. The epithelial cells of UC colon were activated expressing MHC class II antigens, heat shock proteins and the co-stimulatory molecule B7.1/CD80.Our study demonstrates that UC is an immunological disease. The immunopathological picture seen in UC colon probably reflects an inappropriate down-regulation of local immune responses perhaps due to a selective loss of the key cytokine IL-2 in a situation of extreme antigenic stress.
  • Ahlman, B., et al. (författare)
  • Short-term starvation alters the free amino acid content of human intestinal mucosa
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: Clinical Science. - : Portland Press. - 0143-5221 .- 1470-8736. ; 86:6, s. 653-662
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • 1. The effects of short-term starvation and refeeding on the free amino acid concentrations of the intestinal mucosa were characterized in male subjects (n=6), using endoscopically obtained biopsy specimens from the duodenum and from all four segments of the colon.2. The alterations in the amino acid concentrations in response to short-term starvation were overall uniform in both duodenal and colonic mucosa as well as in plasma. Most amino acids decreased, whereas branched-chain amino acids increased.3. In the colon, glutamic acid and glutamine decreased during the starvation period, whereas they remained unaltered in the duodenum. This was the major difference in response to short-term starvation between the amino acid concentrations in the intestinal mucosa of the duodenum and colon.4. Refeeding for 3 days normalized the amino acid concentrations except for glutamic acid, asparagine and histidine, which remained low in the colon, and threonine, which showed an overshoot in both parts of the intestine. S. The changes in mucosal amino acid concentrations seen in response to starvation and refeeding were uniform in the four segments of the colon. This suggests that sampling from the rectum/sigmoid colon will give representative values for the free amino acid concentrations of the entire large intestine.
  • Ahrné, Siv, et al. (författare)
  • The normal Lactobacillus flora of healthy human rectal and oral mucosa.
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Journal of applied microbiology. - 1364-5072. ; 85:1, s. 88-94
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Lactobacillus flora of the rectal and oral mucosa was sampled from 42 healthy volunteers. Species identification was carried out by numerically comparing API 50CH fermentation patterns with type strains, using an SJ-similarity cut-off level of 79%. For the largest groups, identity was further confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridizations against the type strain of the species. Seventeen lactobacilli clusters were defined, of which most were found both on rectal and oral mucosa. The largest taxa were Lactobacillus plantarum, Lact. rhamnosus and Lact. paracasei ssp. paracasei, which were isolated from 52%, 26% and 17% of the individuals, respectively. Most isolates were tested for their capacity to adhere to the human colonic cell line HT-29 in the absence and presence of methyl-alpha-D-mannoside. Mannose-sensitive adherence to HT-29 cells was encountered in two-thirds of the Lact. plantarum isolates, but infrequently among isolates of other taxa. The results suggest that Lact. plantarum is a major colonizer of the human gastrointestinal mucosa, and that its capacity to adhere to mannose-containing receptors may be of some ecological importance.
  • Anan, Intissar, et al. (författare)
  • Colonic endocrine cells in patients with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy.
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - 0954-6820 .- 1365-2796. ; 245:5, s. 469-73
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To establish whether the endocrine cell number is affected in the colon in Japanese FAP patients.SETTING: Department of Medicine, Umeå University Hospital and Department of Internal Medicine and Pathology, University Hospital, Kumamoto, Japan.SUBJECTS: Autopsy colon tissue specimens from 11 FAP patients and nine controls as well as 12 control biopsy specimens were included in the study.MEASUREMENTS: Endocrine cells in the colon were detected by immunohistochemistry and quantified by computerized image analysis.RESULTS: The autopsy material showed a slight autolysis. Neither enteroglucagon nor pancreatic polypeptide positive cells could be detected in the autopsy material, but were present in biopsy material. There was no statistical difference between autopsy and biopsy specimens regarding the number of peptide YY (PYY), somatostatin and serotonin cells. No significant differences were noted in PYY, somatostatin and serotonin immunoreactive cells in FAP patients compared to autopsy controls, though PYY cells tended to be decreased and serotonin and somatostatin cells tended to be increased in FAP patients.CONCLUSION: The difference between the Swedish and Japanese patients in the endocrine cell content points to the possibility of involvement of other factors than the endocrine cell depletion of the colon might be involved in the pathogenesis of gastro-intestinal dysfunction in FAP. The tendency of PYY to decrease in Japanese FAP might contribute to the development of diarrhoea in these patients.
  • Anan, Intissar, et al. (författare)
  • Colonic enteric nervous system in patients with familial amyloidotic neuropathy.
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Acta Neuropathologica. - 0001-6322 .- 1432-0533. ; 98:1, s. 48-54
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The colonic enteric nervous system was investigated in autopsy specimens from 12 patients with familial amyloidotic neuropathy (FAP) and 9 controls. The infiltration of amyloid deposits in the enteric nervous system was studied by double staining for amyloid and nerve elements. The myenteric plexus was immunostained for protein gene product (PGP) 9.5, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), substance P and nitric oxide synthase (NOS). The immunostained nerve elements were quantified by computerised image analysis. Double staining revealed that there was no amyloid infiltration in the ganglia, or in the nerve fibres in the colonic enteric nervous system of FAP patients. The relative volume density of PGP 9.5-immunoreactive nerve fibres in both the circular and the longitudinal muscle layers in FAP patients did not differ significantly from that of controls. The relative volume density of VIP-immunoreactive nerve fibres in the circular muscle layer was significantly decreased in FAP patients compared with controls, but not in the longitudinal layer. The number of VIP-immunoreactive neurons/mm2 myenteric ganglia was significantly decreased in FAP patients. There were no statistical differences in the relative volume density for substance P- and NOS-immunoreactive nerve fibres between FAP patients and controls, nor was there any difference between FAP patients and controls regarding the number of NOS- and substance P-immunoreactive neurons/mm2 myenteric ganglia. It is concluded that the colonic enteric nervous system as a whole is intact and is not damaged by amyloid infiltration. The present observation of a reduction of VIP-immunoreactive nerve fibres and neurons in myenteric plexus of FAP patients might be one of the factors that contribute to the motility disorders seen in FAP patients.
  • Andersson, K, et al. (författare)
  • Depletion of enterochromaffin-like cell histamine increases histidine decarboxylase and chromogranin A mRNA levels in rat stomach by a gastrin-independent mechanism.
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. - 1502-7708. ; 31:10, s. 65-959
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Gastrin activates histidine decarboxylase (HDC) and increases HDC and chromogranin A (CGA) mRNA levels in histamine-producing enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells in the rat stomach. We have studied how histamine depletion by subcutaneous infusion of the HDC inhibitor alpha-fluoromethyl-histidine (alpha-FMH) affects how ECL cells respond to hypergastrinemia in terms of HDC and CGA mRNA levels. METHODS: In one experiment rats received alpha-FMH for 24 h. In another experiment rats received alpha-FMH, omeprazole (perorally), or a combination of the two drugs for 10 days. In a third experiment antrectomized rats were treated with alpha-FMH for 48 h. The circulating gastrin level, oxyntic mucosal histamine concentration, HDC activity, and HDC and CGA mRNA levels were determined. RESULTS: alpha-FMH for 24 h increased the HDC and CGA mRNA levels without increasing the serum gastrin concentration. alpha-FMH for 10 days increased the serum gastrin concentration twofold. alpha-FMH + omeprazole resulted in the same serum gastrin concentration as after omeprazole alone (eightfold increase). HDC mRNA levels were higher after alpha-FMH + omeprazole than after omeprazole alone. alpha-FMH alone induced an HDC mRNA level that was similar in magnitude to that observed after omeprazole, although the serum gastrin concentration after alpha-FMH was much lower. In antrectomized rats alpha-FMH increased the HDC and CGA mRNA levels without increasing the serum gastrin concentration. CONCLUSION: ECL-cell histamine depletion will increase mRNA levels for HDC and CGA by a gastrin-independent mechanism, possibly involving abolished histamine autofeedback inhibition.
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  • Föregående 123[4]567...9Nästa
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