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Träfflista för sökning "hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) hsv:(Gastroenterologi) srt2:(1990-1999)"

Sökning: hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) hsv:(Gastroenterologi) > (1990-1999)

  • Resultat 51-60 av 88
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  • Dunji, B. S., et al. (författare)
  • Green banana protection of gastric mucosa against experimentally induced injuries in rats
  • 1993
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. - : Informa UK Limited. - 0036-5521 .- 1502-7708. ; 28:10, s. 894-898
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The protective capacities of fresh green (unripe) sweet bananas and of phosphatidylcholine and pectin (banana ingredients) against acute (ethanol- or indomethacin-induced) and chronic (indomethacin-induced) gastric mucosal lesions were evaluated in rats. Banana pulp was mixed with saline and given by gavage, as a pretreatment in a single dose. The identical protocol was used for pectin and phosphatidylcholine solution, and the dosages were adjusted to equal the amount of ingredients in the banana mixture, but higher concentrations were also given. The banana suspension reduced acute lesions, as did pectin and phosphatidylcholine in higher concentrations, but in concentrations as in fresh fruit no protective effects were observed except by pectin against indomethacin injury. In the model of chronic ulcers the banana suspension provided an incomplete and temporary protective effect. We conclude that the protective capacity of fresh green sweet bananas cannot be confined to only one active component. Pectin and phosphatidylcholine may protect gastric mucosa by strengthening the mucous-phospholipid layer, but the mechanism of protection afforded by bananas has to be further elucidated.
  • Eker, C, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical spectral characterisation of colonic mucosal lesions using autofluorescence and delta aminolevulinic acid sensitisation
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Gut. - : BMJ. - 1468-3288 .- 0017-5749. ; 44:4, s. 511-518
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and aims-Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) from colonic mucosa was measured in vivo with and without delta aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in an attempt to differentiate between neoplasia and non-neoplasia in real time during colonoscopy. Methods-Spectra from 32 adenomas, 68 normal sites, and 14 hyperplastic polyps in 41 patients were obtained with a point monitoring system. Twenty one of the patients had been given a low dose of ALA as a photosensitiser before the examination. Light of 337, 405, or 436 nm wavelength was used as excitation. Stepwise multivariate Linear regression analysis was performed. Results-With 337 nm excitation, 100% sensitivity and 96% specificity was obtained between normal mucosa and adenomas. Seventy seven per cent of the hyperplastic polyps were classified as non-neoplastic. When exciting with 405 and 436 nm, the possibility of distinguishing different types of tissue was considerably better in the ALA patients than in the non-ALA patients. Conclusions-The in vivo point measurements imply that a good discrimination between normal tissue and adenomatous polyps can be obtained using the LIF technique. Excitation at 337 nm and at 405 nm or 436 nm using ALA gives good results. LIF also shows potential for distinguishing adenomatous from hyperplastic polyps. The number of detection wavelengths could be reduced if chosen properly.
  • Elzouki, Abdul-Nasser, et al. (författare)
  • Serine protease inhibitors in patients with chronic viral hepatitis
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Journal of Hepatology. - 0168-8278. ; 27:1, s. 42-48
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study aimed to determine whether deficiency of the major serine protease inhibitors (alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) or alpha1-antichymotrypsin (ACT)) is associated with increased risk for chronic hepatitis B or C virus (HBV or HCV) infection. METHODS: We studied 709 adults with chronic liver disease who had undergone liver biopsy during the 14-year period 1978-92. Anti-HCV testing was carried out with second-generation ELISA and immunoblot assays (RIBA 2). HBV markers were tested with commercially available radioimmunoassays. ACT and AAT concentrations in plasma were measured with electroimmunoassay and immune nephelometry. Plasma samples were screened for the AAT PiZ deficiency with ELISA technique and phenotyped by isoelectric focusing. The 229Pro-->Ala mutation for ACT deficiency was identified by PCR techniques. RESULTS: Of the 709 patients, 132 (18.6%) were positive for anti-HCV according to RIBA 2. PiZ AAT deficiency was found in 44 (6.2%) of patients (one PiZZ, 38 PiMZ, and PiSZ), while subnormal ACT levels were found in 33 (4.6%) patients, frequencies that were higher than expected in the general population (p=0.0375 and p<0.0001, respectively). Of the PiZ-carriers, 8/44 (18%) were found to be anti-HCV positive according to RIBA 2, as compared to 123/662 (19%) non-PiZ-carriers (p>0.05). One of these patients had cirrhosis, four chronic active hepatitis, and three chronic persistent hepatitis. In contrast, 17/33 (51.5%) of the patients with subnormal ACT were anti-HCV positive (OR=5.2, CI=2.6-10.6; p<0.0001). No relationship was found between HBV infection and AAT deficiency or subnormal ACT levels. Only one patient with subnormal ACT levels was heterozygous for the 229Pro-->Ala mutation of ACT deficiency. There was no significant difference in the histological findings when the patients with subnormal ACT levels or PiZ allele were subgrouped according to HCV status. CONCLUSIONS: There is no overrepresentation of chronic HBV or HCV in heterozygous AAT deficiency, although an association with more severe liver disease in such patients cannot be excluded. In contrast, low plasma levels of ACT that may be acquired or hereditary, due to mutations other than 229Pro-->Ala, are frequent in HCV infection.
  • Gerdin, Bengt, 1947-, et al. (författare)
  • Localisation of hyaluronan in the human intestinal wall.
  • 1991
  • Ingår i: Gut. - 0017-5749 .- 1468-3288. ; 32:7, s. 760-2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • By using biotin labelled proteoglycan core protein and an avidin enzyme system, hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid) was visualised in specimens of human jejunum. Intense staining for hyaluronan was seen in the loose connective tissue of the villi and of lamina propria while the epithelial layer was unstained. The muscularis mucosae showed only faint staining. The accumulation of hyaluronan in the subepithelial layer of the jejunal mucosa indicates that the previously reported high jejunal secretion of hyaluronan is due to passive diffusion from the subepithelial interstitium. The physicochemical characteristics conferred by hyaluronan may be important for the villi function.
  • Grander, D, et al. (författare)
  • Factors influencing the response to interferon therapy in chronic hepatitis C. Studies on viral genotype and induction of 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase in the liver and peripheral blood cells
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. - : Informa UK Limited. - 1502-7708 .- 0036-5521. ; 31:6, s. 604-611
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The mechanism behind the antiviral action of interferon (IFN) therapy in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is not well understood, and, furthermore, few factors have been shown to be good predictors of a favourable response to IFN treatment in chronic HCV infection. METHODS: Freshly explanted liver cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 80 patients with chronic HCV infection were used to study the capacity of IFN to induce the enzyme 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (2'5'-AS) in vitro. The HCV genotype was determined in 53 patients. The induction of 2'5'-AS was correlated to the results of IFN-alpha treatment in 36 patients. RESULTS: Normalization of transaminases during IFN treatment was significantly associated with 2'5'-AS levels in liver cells cultured in the absence of IFN. A similar tendency, although not statistically significant, was found for IFN-induced levels of 2'5'-AS in liver cells. No such associations were found when PBMC were analysed. Six patients showed a sustained biochemical response. These six did not deviate significantly from the remaining patients with regard to base-line or IFN-induced levels of 2'5'-AS in liver cells or PBMC. Eradication of HCV RNA during IFN treatment did not correlate with 2'5'-AS levels in liver cells. Comparison of HCV genotype and clinical response showed that patients with genotype 3a had the most favourable outcome. No association was found between liver histology and treatment outcome. CONCLUSION: These data imply that direct effects of IFN on liver cells are of importance for the response to IFN treatment.
  • Herías, M V, et al. (författare)
  • Escherichia coli K5 capsule expression enhances colonization of the large intestine in the gnotobiotic rat.
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Infection and immunity. - : American Society for Microbiology. - 0019-9567 .- 1098-5522. ; 65:2, s. 531-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The role of capsule expression in the capacity of Escherichia coli to colonize in the large intestinal environment was studied in a gnotobiotic rat model. The rats were given perorally a mixture of two mutant strains differing in K5 expression. After 2 weeks, the rats were sacrificed, and subsequently intestinal contents, intestinal mucosae, and mesenteric lymph nodes were homogenized and bacterial numbers were quantified. Two E. coli mutant pairs were used, the first pair (972-998) lacking the O-specific side chain and the second pair (973-997) carrying the O75 lipopolysaccharide. The K5+ mutants established themselves at a higher level than the K5- mutants (10(9) versus 10(6) CFU/g [P < 0.001] for the first pair and 10(9) versus 10(8) CFU/g [P < 0.01] for the second pair, respectively). The results were confirmed by serology showing a K5+ phenotype for practically all isolates. The bacterial population associated with the mucosa was similar to that in the luminal contents with respect to the proportions of the respective mutants, and translocation occurred in numbers proportional to the intestinal population densities of the respective mutants. All mutants were able to express type 1 as well as P fimbriae. After colonization, the expression of P fimbriae remained high whereas only a minority of the isolates expressed type 1 fimbriae. The results suggest that capsule expression and P fimbriae enhance intestinal colonization by E. coli and that these virulence factors, by increasing bacterial densities in the intestine, secondarily increase translocation.
  • Hertervig, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Prevalence and diagnostic role
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. - : Informa UK Limited. - 1502-7708 .- 0036-5521. ; 30:7, s. 693-698
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA), originally found to be associated with vasculitis, have been reported to be present in chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Most often the ANCA staining pattern is of the perinuclear type (p-ANCA), although nuclear and cytoplasmic stainings are seen. Single studies have shown some of the antibodies to react with lactoferrin or cathepsin G; however, most studies have not been able to determine a main antigenic specificity. We studied the prevalence of ANCA in sera from 155 patients with ulcerative colitis, 128 patients with Crohn's disease, and 51 patients with coeliac disease. The presence of ANCA was correlated to disease activity, extent, and age of onset of the diseases. Furthermore, we tried to characterize the antigen specificity by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), using elastase, lactoferrin, myeloperoxidase, proteinase 3, and cathepsin G as antigens. METHODS: The sera were screened for ANCA by indirect immunofluorescence. Anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) were analysed on HEp2 cells, and ELISA for specific ANCA was performed using the antigens mentioned. RESULTS: Most of the sera with positive immunofluorescence had the p-ANCA type of pattern. Seventy-eight of 155 (50.3%) of the patients with ulcerative colitis were ANCA-positive, compared with 31 of 128 (24.2%) of patients with Crohn's disease (p < 0.001). However, in the subgroup with Crohn's colitis, 16 of 44 (36.4%) were ANCA-positive. Only 4 of 51 patients (7.7%) with coeliac disease showed positive immunofluorescence (p < 0.001 compared with ulcerative colitis). Less than 10% of the samples were positive in the specific ELISA assays; thus other than the most well known granule proteins can be the target for ANCA in ulcerative colitis. CONCLUSION: ANCA occur significantly more often in ulcerative colitis than in Crohn's disease. However, the prevalence of ANCA is rather high in Crohn's colitis. ANCA are thus of limited value in differentiating Crohn's colitis from ulcerative colitis. ANCA found in inflammatory bowel disease are different from those associated with vasculitis. The antigen(s) responsible remain to be determined.
  • Hertervig, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • The Expression of Glutathione Transferase μ in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. - : Informa UK Limited. - 1502-7708 .- 0036-5521. ; 29:8, s. 729-735
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Glutathione transferases (GST) are a group of multifunctional enzymes important in the detoxification of many electrophiles and, in addition, fatty acid hydroperoxides, thus limiting tissue damage from oxidative free radical attack. Of the four classes of GST (alpha, mu, pi, and theta), a class mu isoenzyme, GST mu, is dominantly inherited and is expressed in approximately half of the population. GST mu expression was examined in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and correlated to clinical course, extension, and age of onset of the diseases. METHODS: GST mu can be measured as GST activity against trans-stilbene oxide. This GST activity was measured in whole blood in 179 patients with ulcerative colitis, 109 patients with Crohn's disease, and 449 age-matched controls. RESULTS: Frequencies of GST mu expression were as follows: controls (n = 449, 51.2%), mild ulcerative colitis (n = 76, 47.3%), moderate ulcerative colitis (n = 43, 46.5%), and severe ulcerative colitis (characterized by colectomy) (n = 60, 36.7%). This trend was, however, not significant (p = 0.094). Patients with onset of the colitis before the age of 30 years (n = 91) had a lower frequency of GST mu expression (35.2%) than patients with a later onset (n = 88, 52.3%) (p < 0.05). This difference was more pronounced among the colectomized patients (19.4% versus 55.2%) (p < 0.01). In Crohn's disease, patients with colitis had a lower frequency of GST mu expression (n = 29, 31.0%) than controls; however, this was not statistically significant (p = 0.055). No difference was found with regard to age of onset. CONCLUSION: We conclude that in patients with ulcerative colitis, lack of GST mu is related to early age of onset and a more severe clinical course leading to colectomy.
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