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Träfflista för sökning "hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) hsv:(Gastroenterologi) srt2:(1990-1999)"

Sökning: hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) hsv:(Gastroenterologi) > (1990-1999)

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  • Föregående 1...3456[7]89Nästa
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  • Johansson, Jan, et al. (författare)
  • Radioisotope evaluation of the esophageal remnant and the gastric conduit after gastric pull-up esophagectomy
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Surgery. - 0039-6060. ; 125:3, s. 297-303
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The act of swallowing after gastric pull-up esophagectomy has not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate deglutition in the esophageal remnant and in the gastric conduit in patients who have undergone this operation.METHODS: The residual radionuclide activity was measured 15 seconds after a swallow in the esophageal remnant and at intervals up to a maximum of 120 minutes after a swallow in the gastric conduit. The scintigraphic rate of transit of a bolus in both areas was compared in patients who had anastomosis in the neck (n = 15) versus patients who had anastomosis in the chest (n = 19). Comparisons were also made between patients with and without symptoms of dysphagia. The scintigraphic measurements were also correlated with anastomotic diameters, measured with use of a volumetric balloon insufflation method, at 3, 6, and 12 months after operation.RESULTS: There were no significant differences in esophageal residual radionuclide activity at 15 seconds after a swallow in the groups with anastomosis in the neck versus anastomosis in the chest, with 30% residual activity up to 12 months after operation in both groups (P = .24). In the patients as a whole the 50% gastric conduit emptying time of 44 to 61 minutes did not change during the first postoperative year (P = .12). There was no association between anastomotic diameter and residual activity in the remaining esophagus (P < .126). Moderate and severe dysphagia was reported in only a few patients, and there was no correlation between dysphagic symptoms and retention in the residual esophagus or slower emptying in the gastric conduit.CONCLUSIONS: The amount of peristaltic activity in the remaining esophagus after esophagectomy with gastric replacement is unaffected by the level of the anastomosis. The gastric conduit empties slowly in all patients, and there is no correlation between the rate of emptying and either anastomotic diameter or symptoms of dysphagia.
  • Liu, D. L, et al. (författare)
  • Beneficial-effects of Platelet-activating-factor Receptor Antagonist Web-2170 On 90-minute Hepatic Inflow Interruption
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepathology. - 1473-5687. ; 6:11, s. 1015-1022
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To study the effects of different doses of platelet activating factor receptor antagonist WEB 2170 on animal survival, haemodynamics, reperfusion and ultrastructural changes in the ischaemic liver in rats undergoing 90-min total hepatic inflow interruption (THII). Design: Sixty-five rats were divided into five groups. All animals underwent 90-min THII. Group 1 served as controls. Group 2 underwent THII alone. Group 3 received an intravenous injection of 1 mg/kg WEB 2170 prior to THII. Group 4 received a bolus injection of 3 mg/kg WEB 2170 before THII. Group 4 received a bolus injection of 3 mg/kg WEB 2170 before THII. Group 5 received 3 mg/kg WEB 2170 before, during and after THII. The liver reperfusion index using laser Doppler flowmetry, the time of ischaemic liver initiative reperfusion, and scanning electron microscopy were performed to evaluate the results of different dose schedules. Setting: Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden. Results: Animal survival rate, liver reperfusion index, the time of ischaemic liver initiative reperfusion and ultrastructural damage of the ischaemic liver were markedly improved in the groups treated with WEB 2170 compared with the non-treated 90-min THII group. The best result was obtained in the group receiving the three separate doses. Conclusion: In the 90-min THII model, WEB 2170 protects the liver from ischaemia-reperfusion injury and the spread of damage to the post-stasis splanchnic organs. These beneficial effects may be extended to hepatic transplantation or major resections of the liver.
  • Liu, D. L, et al. (författare)
  • Intra-operative laser-induced photodynamic therapy in the treatment of experimental hepatic tumours
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepathology. - 1473-5687. ; 7:11, s. 1073-1080
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To examine the effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) on experimental liver tumours in rats. Design: An experimental liver tumour model was used. Each of a group of Fats had two tumours simultaneously inoculated into its liver. The tumour located in the left hepatic robe was used for PDT, and the other one, in the median lobe, as a control. The haem precursor delta-amino laevulinic acid (ALA), at a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight, was injected 60 min before laser irradiation. Rats in group I received ALA through a femoral vein. Those in group II received ALA through the portal vein. Group III had an injection of ALA solution through the portal vein plus hepatic inflow occlusion. Three and 6 days after the treatment, the rats were killed, and the tumours were measured, and ultrastructural changes were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Setting: Lund University Medical Laser Centre, Lund, Sweden. Results: The mean tumour volume of the treated tumours increased by factors of 1.9, 1.5 and 1.7 in groups I, II and III, respectively, compared with the pretreatment baseline value. However, the mean tumour volume in the control tumours increased by factors of 9.5, 4.3 and 4.8 in the respective groups. Under the light microscope, marked necrosis of the treated tumour and the surrounding liver tissue was observed. Scanning electron microscopy revealed heavy damage to the cells and vessels in the treated tumour. Conclusion: PDT with ALA is an effective treatment modality for rat liver tumours.
  • Love, A, et al. (författare)
  • Hepatitis G virus infections in Iceland
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Journal of Viral Hepatitis. - : Wiley. - 1365-2893 .- 1352-0504. ; 6:3, s. 255-260
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study describes the prevalence of hepatitisG virus (HGV) in Iceland, in blood donors and in persons with parenteral risk factors. Among 370 randomly selected Icelandic blood donors, the prevalence of HGV viraemia was 3.8%, whereas the prevalence of HGV antibodies in the same donor group was found to be 13.2%, thus indicating that at least 17% of blood donors in Iceland had previously been exposed to HGV. Previous exposure was seen in all age groups and also in older blood donors. Among intravenous drug users (IVDUs), the prevalence of HGV was much higher. Among 109 hepatitisC virus (HCV) antibody-positive serum samples collected in the years 1992-1997, 33. 9% were polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive for HGV and 48.6% had HGV antibodies. Thus, the pattern of HGV in IVDUs was similar to findings among IVDUs in other western countries. HGV viraemia was detected neither in 10 patients with haemophilia nor in five dialysis patients. However, six of the 10 haemophilic patients and one of the five dialysis patients had HGV antibody. In conclusion, unlike hepatitis C, which seems to have been introduced into Iceland relatively recently and has remained virtually confined to IVDUs, exposure to HGV is common among all age groups in the general population, suggesting that the virus has been prevalent in Iceland for much longer, making additional routes of transmission probable.
  • Löfberg, Robert, et al. (författare)
  • Oral budesonide versus prednisolone in patients with extensive and left sided ulcerative colitis
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Gastroenterology. - : Elsevier BV. - 1528-0012 .- 0016-5085. ; 110:6, s. 1713-1718
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Systemic glucocorticosteroids (GCSs) have proven efficacy in active ulcerative colitis but cause undesired systemic side effects. Therefore, new GCSs with high topical activity and a high rate of metabolism may be of clinical value in this condition. The aim of this study was to explore the efficacy and safety of the topically acting GCS budesonide in an oral controlled-release formulation in extensive or left-sided, mild to moderately active ulcerative colitis. METHODS: A 9-week, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial was performed, and treatments with 10 mg budesonide or 40 mg prednisolone daily, both gradually tapered, were compared. Endoscopic improvement and effect on endogenous plasma cortisol were assessed. RESULTS: Thirty-four patients were administered budesonide, and 38 patients were administered prednisolone. Mean endoscopic scores improved significantly in both groups but without difference between the groups. Five patients in the budesonide group and 7 patients in the prednisolone group deteriorated and were withdrawn from the study. Morning plasma cortisol levels were suppressed in the prednisolone group (entry, 449 nmol/L; 2 weeks, 116 nmol/L; 4 weeks, 195 nmol/L) but were unchanged in the budesonide group. CONCLUSIONS: The GCS budesonide administered in an oral controlled-release formulation seems to give an overall treatment result in active ulcerative colitis approaching that of prednisolone but without suppression of plasma cortisol levels. This concept merits further evaluation.
  • Mathiesen, U L, et al. (författare)
  • Also with a restrictive transfusion policy, screening with second-generation anti-hepatitis C virus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay would have reduced post-transfusion hepatitis C after open-heart surgery
  • 1993
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. - : Informa UK Limited. - 1502-7708 .- 0036-5521. ; 28:7, s. 581-584
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The incidence of post-transfusion hepatitis non-A, non-B (PTH-NANB) was prospectively assessed among open-heart surgery patients from the southeast region of Sweden before the introduction of antihepatitis C virus (HCV) blood donor screening. Blood samples for alanine aminotransferase analysis were drawn before and 2, 3, and 4 months after transfusion. Surgery was performed in four centres. Of 190 transfused and followed-up patients 2 (1.1%) contracted PTH-NANB, both operated on at the centre with significantly fewer transfusions than the other centres. One patient had antibodies to HCV detected by first-generation (C100-3) and later by second-generation anti-HCV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA-2) and by positive second-generation recombinant immunoblot assay (4-RIBA). The other patient, although negative by first-generation anti-HCV ELISA, was positive by second-generation ELISA and by 4-RIBA. Both patients were hepatitis C-viremic by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All the six donors implicated in the two hepatitis cases were first-generation anti-HCV-negative, but two, one for each patient, were positive by second-generation anti-HCV ELISA. This finding was confirmed by positive 4-RIBA in only 1 donor, the other being 'indeterminate'. However, in both donors hepatitis C viremia was found by PCR. This study shows that the second-generation anti-HCV ELISA will further reduce the risk for PTH-NANB/C and draws attention to the problem of evaluation of confirmatory tests.
  • Mathiesen, U L, et al. (författare)
  • Anti-hepatitis C virus screening will reduce the incidence of post-transfusion hepatitis C also in low-risk areas
  • 1992
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. - : Informa UK Limited. - 1502-7708 .- 0036-5521. ; 27:6, s. 443-448
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The incidence of post-transfusion hepatitis non-A, non-B (PTH-NANB) was prospectively assessed in two areas in the southeast region of Sweden. Patients undergoing hip arthroplasty were studied with blood sampling for alanine aminotransferase analysis before and at 2, 3, and 4 months after transfusion. Of the patients 97% and 82% were transfused and received a mean of 5.5 and 3.4 units in Linkoping and Oskarshamn, respectively. None of 38 patients in Oskarshamn but 4 of 144 patients (2.8%) in Linkoping contracted PTH-NANB. Two of these four patients developed antibodies against hepatitis C virus (HCV) by the first-generation anti-HCV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (C100). The other two patients remained negative by this test. HCV infection was, however, indicated in all four patients by positive second-generation anti-HCV ELISA confirmed by positive second-generation recombinant immunoblot assay (4-RIBA). Three of the patients were positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Serum from one blood donor to the four hepatitis patients (altogether three donors) was found positive by first- and second-generation anti-HCV ELISA and 4-RIBA and was also PCR-positive. Three other blood donors, who did not transmit hepatitis, were anti-HCV ELISA (C100)-positive. This study shows that if anti-HCV ELISA had been available at the start of the trial, all cases of PTH would have been avoided at the expense of only 0.7% transfusion units discarded. Routine anti-HCV ELISA testing of all transfusion units will reduce the incidence of PTH-C even in low-risk areas.
  • Monstein, H J, et al. (författare)
  • Cholecystokinin-A and cholecystokinin-B/gastrin receptor mRNA expression in the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas of the rat and man. A polymerase chain reaction study
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. - : Informa UK Limited. - 1502-7708 .- 0036-5521. ; 31:4, s. 383-390
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK) are thought to exert trophic effects on the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. Two types of receptors have been cloned, CCK-A and CCK-B/ gastrin. We have examined the occurrence of CCK-A and CCK-B receptor mRNA in the brain, digestive tract, pancreas, and kidney of the rat and man by Northern blot and reverse transcribed polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). METHODS: Total RNA was isolated from rat tissues and reverse transcribed into cDNA. cDNA from brain, kidney, and pancreas of the rat and man and from human whole stomach were commercially available. Northern blot and a PCR technique based on Taq polymerase-antibody interaction and using CCK-A and CCK-B receptor-specific primers, followed by Southern blot analysis, were the methods used. RESULTS: By means of Northern blots, CCK-A receptor mRNA was detected in rat fundus mucosa and pancreas but not in the remaining GI tract or brain. By means of RT-PCR, CCK-A receptor mRNA was demonstrated in the brain and the mucosa of the fundus, antrum, duodenum, and colon, kidney, pancreas and pancreatic islets. CCK-B receptor mRNA was detected by Northern blot analysis in the brain and the fundus mucosa but not in the rest of the digestive tract and not in the pancreas, pancreatic islets, or kidney. By RT-PCR, expression of CCK-B receptor mRNA could also be detected in antrum mucosa. In man, CCK-A receptor mRNA was detected in the brain, stomach, pancreas, and kidney, whereas CCK-B receptor mRNA was found in the brain, stomach, and pancreas but not in the kidney. Cloning and DNA-sequence analysis of the PCR-amplified rat and human CCK-A and CCK-B receptor DNA fragments, which cover the protein-encoding regions of the intracellular loop C3, showed complete sequence homology as compared with published rat and human sequences. CONCLUSIONS: It appears unlikely that CCK will have effects in the ileum, at least not effects mediated by CCK-A receptors. It also appears unlikely that physiologic concentrations of gastrin in the circulation will promote growth (or exert other effects) in the pancreas, duodenum, ileum, and colon, since CCK-B receptor mRNA is not expressed or is poorly expressed in these tissues.
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