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  • Lai, Kuei-Hung, et al. (författare)
  • Cytotoxic Lanostanoids from Poria cocos
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of natural products (Print). - 0163-3864 .- 1520-6025. ; 79:11, s. 2805-2813
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Six new and 16 known lanostanoids were isolated from the sclerotia of Poria cocos. The structures of the new isolates were elucidated to be 16α-hydroxy-3-oxo-24-methyllanosta-5,7,9(11),24(31)-tetraen-21-oic acid (1), 3β,16α,29-trihydroxy-24-methyllanosta-7,9(11),24(31)-trien-21-oic acid (2), 3β,16α,30-trihydroxy-24-methyllanosta-7,9(11),24(31)-trien-21-oic acid (3), 3β-acetoxy-16α,24β-dihydroxylanosta-7,9(11),25-trien-21-oic acid (4), 3β,16α-dihydroxy-7-oxo-24-methyllanosta-8,24(31)-dien-21-oic acid (5), and 3α,16α-dihydroxy-7-oxo-24-methyllanosta-8,24(31)-dien-21-oic acid (6), based on extensive spectroscopic analyses. The absolute configuration of 4 was determined using Mosher's method. The antiproliferative activity of the isolated compounds (except 3 and 4) was evaluated against four leukemic cell lines (Molt 4, CCRF-CEM, HL 60, and K562). Dehydropachymic acid (9), dehydroeburicoic acid (12), pachymic acid (14), and lanosta-7,9(11),24-trien-21-oic acid (20) exhibited an antiproliferative effect on the CCRF-CEM cancer cell line with IC50 values of 2.7, 6.3, 4.9, and 13.1 μM, respectively. Both dehydropachymic acid (9) and dehydroeburicoic acid (12) showed antiproliferative effects against Molt 4 (IC50 13.8 and 14.3 μM) and HL 60 (IC50 7.3 and 6.0 μM) leukemic cell lines. Primary computational analysis using a chemical global positioning system for natural products (ChemGPS-NP) on the active lanostanoids from P. cocos suggested that targets other than topoisomerases may be involved in the antiproliferative activity.
  • Larsson, Max, et al. (författare)
  • Distribution of transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP) isoforms in the rat spinal cord.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Neuroscience. - : Elsevier. - 0306-4522 .- 1873-7544. ; 248, s. 180-193
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The transmembrane α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs) are a family of auxiliary AMPA receptor subunits that differentially modulate trafficking and many functional properties of the receptor. To investigate which TARP isoforms may be involved in AMPA receptor-mediated spinal synaptic transmission, we have mapped the localization of five of the known TARP isoforms, namely γ-2 (also known as stargazin), γ-3, γ-4, γ-7 and γ-8, in the rat spinal cord. Immunoblotting showed expression of all isoforms in the spinal cord to varying degrees. At the light microscopic level, immunoperoxidase labeling of γ-4, γ-7 and γ-8 was found throughout spinal gray matter. In white matter, γ-4 and γ-7 immunolabeling was observed in astrocytic processes and in mature oligodendrocytes. In pepsin-treated spinal cord, γ-7 often colocalized with GluA2 immunopositive puncta in the deep dorsal horn as well as in the ventral horn, but not in the superficial dorsal horn. Postembedding immunogold labeling was further used to assess the synaptic localization of γ-2, γ-7 and γ-8 in the dorsal horn. Synaptic immunogold labeling of γ-2 was sparse throughout the dorsal horn, with some primary afferent synapses weakly labeled, whereas relatively strong γ-7 immunogold labeling was found at deep dorsal horn synapses, including at synapses formed by low-threshold mechanosensitive primary afferent terminals. Prominent immunogold labeling of γ-8 was frequently detected at synapses established by primary afferent fibers. The spinal localization patterns of TARP isoforms reported here suggest that AMPA receptors at spinal synaptic populations and in glial cells may exhibit different functional characteristics owing to differences in auxiliary subunit composition.
  • Lindquist, Catarina (författare)
  • Physiology and Pharmacology of GABAA receptors: The Brakes in the Brain
  • 2005
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Inhibitory neurotransmission in the brain is mostly mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors. These receptors are involved in both phasic inhibition (point-to-point inhibition, synaptic transmission) and tonic inhibition (diffuse form of inhibition, brain homeostasis). In this thesis the functional and pharmacological properties of GABAA receptors expressed in brain slices or in Sf 9 cells were studied. GABAA receptors expressed extrasynaptically are believed to be involved in tonic inhibition. In hippocampal dentate gyrus granule cells we identified and characterized three types of extrasynaptic receptor types (GABARex) that varied in their affinity for GABA, maximal single-channel conductance and sensitivity to drugs. For the first time we showed how the GABA concentration determines the conductance of GABAA receptors in brain tissue. There is thus a direct link between the extracellular GABA concentration and the level of the tonic inhibition, providing dynamic control. It is only within the last ten years or so that the tonic inhibition was discovered and only recently has it gained widespread interest. One reason is that it has become quite clear that the first site of action and probably often the most important site of action of drugs are the extrasynaptic receptors. We found that a drug now in clinical trials (THIP) at the clinically relevant concentration activates these extrasynaptic receptors. It has been assumed that spontaneous openings of the receptors are only functionally significant in receptor complexes containing the epsilon-subunit or mutations. We show that alpha/beta and alpha/beta/gamma?receptors can open spontaneously and be modified by drugs. The capacity to open spontaneously may be vital for fast responses such as at synapses. This suggests that the functional properties of receptors located at synapses and outside of synapses (extrasynaptic receptors: GABARex) differ. Those at synapses open rapidly (ms) whereas those at extrasynaptic sites open after a delay of ten to hundreds of seconds. This functional difference is very important in terms of brain function as it ensures fast flow of information (synaptic transmission) but in a controlled way that is set by the gain and the time window for synaptic transmission integration via the tonic inhibition. By using the compound SR95531, we constructed a model that accounts for activation and inhibition of both phasic- and tonic-like currents in an expression system. This model can be used to calculate what concentrations of the inhibitor to use to specifically block certain GABARex receptors in brain tissue to study how a particular population of GABARex contributes to the tonic inhibition and how it affects both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission.
  • Llona-Minguez, Sabin, et al. (författare)
  • Discovery of the First Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Human dCTP Pyrophosphatase 1
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. - 0022-2623 .- 1520-4804. ; 59:3, s. 1140-1148
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The dCTPase pyrophosphatase 1 (dCTPase) regulates the intracellular nucleotide pool through hydrolytic degradation of canonical and noncanonical nucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs). dCTPase is highly expressed in multiple carcinomas and is associated with cancer cell sternness. Here we report on the development of the first potent and selective dCTPase inhibitors that enhance the cytotoxic effect of cytidine analogues in leukemia cells. Boronate 30 displays a promising in vitro ADME profile, including plasma and mouse microsomal half-lives, aqueous solubility, cell permeability and CYP inhibition, deeming it a suitable compound for in vivo studies.
  • Llona-Minguez, Sabin, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of Triazolothiadiazoles as Potent Inhibitors of the dCTP Pyrophosphatase 1
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. - : AMER CHEMICAL SOC. - 0022-2623 .- 1520-4804. ; 60:5, s. 2148-2154
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The dCTP pyrophosphatase 1 (dCTPase) is involved in the regulation of the cellular dNTP pool and has been linked to cancer progression. Here we report on the discovery of a series of 3,6-disubstituted triazolothiadiazoles as potent dCTPase inhibitors. Compounds 16 and 18 display good correlation between enzymatic inhibition and target engagement, together with efficacy in a cellular synergy model, deeming them as a promising starting point for hit -to-lead development.
  • Lundberg, Stina (författare)
  • Examining Female Resilience to Early Environmental Influences : Short- and long-term consequences on behaviour, HPA axis activity and alcohol intake after prolonged maternal separation
  • 2017
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Early-life experiences are an important factor influencing further development of the individual. Adverse experiences early in life, such as various kinds of abuse or neglect, are types of early-life stress that can adversely affect an individuals health, as well as contribute to the development of an array of disorders later in life. Most prominent is the increased risk for psychiatric disorders, primarily depression, anxiety-related and substance use disorders. Many of the implicated disorders also exhibit sex-dependent differences in prevalence and severity. Thus, it is important to consider sex-dependent effects when modeling early-life stress and its consequences. A common animal model for early-life stress is prolonged maternal separation (MS). MS is an umbrella term for different manipulations of the early environment of rodent pups. In this thesis, a prolonged MS condition with separation of rat litters from their dams for six hours per day during the first three weeks of life (MS360) was used. In male offspring MS360 have been associated with early-life stress and negative effects apparent during both adolescence and adulthood. The literature regarding female offspring is not as substantial as for the males, but it seems that females’ exhibit less pronounced or no effect after prolonged MS independent of separation time. In addition, the studies that have examined female offspring have done so in adulthood and thus, short-term consequences of prolonged MS possibly present during adolescence have not been investigated. The aim of this thesis is to provide a broad investigation into the consequences of prolonged MS in female offspring, in both adolescence and adulthood. As stated above, MS360 was used as the adverse rearing condition in this thesis. As control, daily short MS (15 min; MS15) was used; this ensured that all animals were handled equally, except for the length of separation. Any detected differences are thus due to the length of separation only. Three categories of assessments were used to evaluate short- and long-term consequences: 1) hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis assessments, 2) behavioral assessments and 3) assessment of voluntary alcohol consumption. HPA axis reactivity was assessed in adolescent and adult offspring by blood sampling before and after challenge. HPA activity was also evaluated after long-term alcohol consumption by measurement of the fecal corticosterone content. Behavior was assessed in adolescence by registration of social play behavior and in adulthood by generation of behavioral profiles in the multivariate concentric square fieldTM (MCSF). Alcohol consumption was evaluated using the modified intermittent alcohol access schedule with the two- (20% alcohol) and three- bottle (5% and 20% alcohol) free-choice paradigms. Female offspring did not differ depending on rearing condition in HPA reactivity in adolescence or adulthood. However, after the long-term alcohol intake, MS360 females had increased levels of corticosterone in their feces compared to MS15 females. No difference was detected in adolescent social play among female offspring and only a minor alteration was detected in the adult behavioral profile, where MS360 females had increased risk assessment compared to MS15 females. No effect of rearing condition was seen during the two-bottle choice paradigm of alcohol intake, while whole- group differences over time were discovered. Alcohol intake and preference were highest the first week of access and directly after a two-week deprivation period, apart from those time-points, intake and preference were maintained on a stable level. In the three-bottle choice, an interaction with rearing condition was revealed for the total alcohol preference, however this only translated to a minor group-dependent difference. In conclusion, females reared under a prolonged MS paradigm exhibited no or only minor basal changes in HPA axis reactivity, behavior and alcohol consumption. However, after long-term alcohol intake females subjected to prolonged MS had increased corticosterone excretion into feces. That differences only emerge after long-term perturbation can be a sign that females have higher buffering capabilities than males after early-life adversity, as modeled through prolonged MS, and thus require additional challenges before consequences become apparent. This thesis highlights the importance of considering sex when studying the impact of early-life stress, and that the choice of animal model needs to be considered carefully in relation to the research question posed.
  • Ma, Jian Nong, et al. (författare)
  • Estrogen Receptor Beta Selective Agonists as Agents to Treat Chemotherapeutic-Induced Neuropathic Pain
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: ACS Chemical Neuroscience. - : The American Chemical Society (ACS). - 1948-7193. ; 7:9, s. 1180-1187
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain (CINP) remains a major unmet medical need. Estrogen receptor beta (ERβ)-selective agonists represent a novel strategy for treating CINP because they are neuroprotective and may also have anticancer activity. We confirmed that ERβ-selective agonists have antiallodynic effects in the spinal nerve ligation model of neuropathic pain. We then showed that structurally diverse ERβ-selective agonists also relieved allodynia in CINP caused by taxol, oxaliplatin, and vincristine. These effects were receptor subtype specific and mediated by ERβ receptors as ERα-selective and nonselective estrogen agonists were inactive, a mixture of an ERβ and ERα agonist was inactive, and ERβ-selective antagonists blocked the effects of the ERβ-selective agonists. The efficacy and potency of ERβ-agonists was greater in male rats than females. To address the possibility that AC-186 might stimulate proliferation of cancers, rendering it unsuitable for treating CINP, we evaluated proliferative effects of AC-186 on prostate cancer cells and found it inhibited growth (LNCaP cells) or had no effect (PC3 cells) on these cells. Thus, ERβ-selective agonists exhibit potential for treating CINP.
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