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Träfflista för sökning "hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Medicinska och farmaceutiska grundvetenskaper) hsv:(Farmaceutiska vetenskaper) srt2:(2000-2009)"

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  • Lacroix, Brigitte, 1978-, et al. (författare)
  • A Pharmacodynamic Markov Mixed-Effects Model for Determining the Effect of Exposure to Certolizumab Pegol on the ACR20 Score in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0009-9236 .- 1532-6535. ; 86:4, s. 387-395
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The American College of Rheumatology 20% preliminary definition of improvement of rheumatoid arthritis (ACR20) is widely used in clinical trials to assess response to treatment. The objective of this analysis was to develop an exposure-response model of ACR20 in subjects treated with certolizumab pegol, and to predict clinical outcome following various treatment schedules. At each visit, subjects were classified as being ACR20 responders, ACR20 non-responders, or having dropped out. A Markov mixed-effect model was developed to investigate the drug effect on the transitions between the 3 defined states. Increasing certolizumab pegol exposure predicted an increasing probability of becoming a responder and remaining a responder, as well as a reduced probability of dropping out of treatment. Simulations of the ACR20 response rate support dosing regimens of 400 mg at weeks 0, 2 and 4 followed by 200 mg every 2 weeks, or alternative maintenance regimen of 400 mg every 4 weeks.
  • Löfmark, Sonja, et al. (författare)
  • Clindamycin-induced enrichment and long-term persistence of resistant Bacteroides spp. and resistance genes
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 0305-7453 .- 1460-2091. ; 58:6, s. 1160-1167
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: The aim was to study the long-term consequences of 1 week clindamycin administration regarding selection and persistence of resistance, resistance determinants and diversity of the Bacteroides spp. in the intestinal microflora. Methods: A total of 1306 Bacteroides isolates were collected from constitutively cultured faecal samples during a 2 year period from eight healthy volunteers. The strains were identified by biochemical and genotyping methods. MIC values were determined by the agar dilution method and presence of resistance genes was screened by real-time PCR. Results: Ecological changes in the intestinal microflora persisting up to 24 months were recorded after a 7 day clindamycin administration to four healthy volunteers. Compared to a control group, not exposed to clindamycin, an enrichment and stabilization of resistant Bacteroides strains and resistance determinants were discovered up to 2 years after clindamycin exposure. Conclusions: The results indicate that even a short-term antibiotic administration can cause long-term alterations in the commensal microbiota of individual subjects, detectable 2 years after dosing. The recorded selection and persistence of resistant strains and resistance genes, illustrates the importance of increasing our knowledge of the role of the abundant intestinal microbial community as a reservoir for spread of resistance.
  • Magnusson, Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of pentoxifylline and its metabolites on platelet aggregation in whole blood from healthy humans
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Pharmacology. - : Elsevier BV. - 0014-2999 .- 1879-0712. ; 581:3, s. 290-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is known that pentoxifylline inhibits platelet aggregation in vitro, but the effects from pentoxifylline and its main metabolites: 3,7-dimetyl-1(5 hydroxyhexyl)xanthine (R-M1 and S-M1), 3,7-dimetyl -1(4-carboxybutyl)xanthine (M4), 3,7-dimetyl -1(3-carboxypropyl)xanthine (M5), on platelet aggregation in whole blood in vitro and in vivo have not been studied. We found that pentoxifylline, rac-M1, R-M1, S-M1 and M4 significantly inhibit ADP induced platelet aggregation in whole blood in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner, R-M1 being the most potent followed by rac-M1, S-M1, pentoxifylline, and M4. In this series of experiments the effects on aggregation induced ATP-release were less pronounced and were only significant after treatment with pentoxifylline, rac-M1 and R-M1, but the potency order appears to be the same. Since the metabolites are not available for use in humans, and also since each substance would be extensively metabolised in vivo, we made an attempt to estimate the relative contribution of each substance to the total effect of pentoxifylline in vivo. Previously published concentrations of pentoxifylline and these metabolites in humans, after administration of pentoxifylline, were used in combination with the potency ratios from this study. The findings from these calculations were that the main effect in vivo comes from S-M1 followed by pentoxifylline, the other metabolites contribute less than 10% each. In conclusion: in the following potency order R-M1, rac-M1, pentoxifylline, S-M1 and M4 all have significant effects on platelet aggregation in whole blood in vitro. However, it appears that the main effects in vivo are caused by S-M1 and pentoxifylline.
  • Wallin, Johan E., et al. (författare)
  • A tool for neutrophil guided dose adaptation in chemotherapy
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine. - : Elsevier BV. - 0169-2607 .- 1872-7565. ; 93:3, s. 283-291
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chemotherapy dosing in anticancer treatment is a balancing act between achieving concentrations that are effective towards the malignancy and that result in acceptable side-effects. Neutropenia is one major side-effect of many antitumor agents, and is related to an increased risk of infection. A model capable of describing the time-course of myelosuppression from administered drug could be used in individual dose selection. In this paper we describe the transfer of a previously developed semi-mechanistic model for myelosuppression from NONMEM to a dosing tool in MS Excel, with etoposide as an example. The tool proved capable to solve a differential equation system describing the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, with estimation performance comparable to NONMEM. In the dosing tool the user provides neutrophil measures from a previous treatment course and request for the dose that results in a desired nadir in the upcoming course through a Bayesian estimation procedure.
  • Krigsman, Kristin, et al. (författare)
  • Refill non-adherence to repeat prescriptions leads to treatment gaps or to high extra costs.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Pharmacy World & Science. - : Springer Netherlands. - 0928-1231 .- 1573-739X. ; 29:1, s. 19-24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To determine the nature and extent of undersupply and the economic consequences of oversupply of medication among non-adherent patients. METHODS: This study used copies of repeat prescriptions (= multiple dispensations), collected during 1 week in 2002 at 16 Swedish community pharmacies. For patients with a refill adherence below 80%, treatment gaps were defined as the number of days they had no drug available. The cost of drug oversupply (i.e., refill adherence > 120%) was calculated from the prices of the drug packages dispensed. RESULTS: The number of collected repeat prescriptions was 3,636. The median of treatment gaps among patients with a refill adherence below 80% was 53 days per 90-100 days treatment period and the corresponding median for oversupply was 40 days. The cost of oversupply for exempt patients (i.e., patients who have paid 1,800 SEK (Euro 196; US$ 243) per year for medicines) was 32,000 SEK (Euro 3,500; US$ 4,300) higher than for non-exempt patients. An extrapolation to all Sweden indicates that exemption from charges leads to an additional oversupply of about 142 million SEK (Euro 15 million; US$ 19 million) per year above that of non-exempt patients. CONCLUSION: Both undersupply and oversupply of prescribed medicines are common in Sweden. Patients with a refill adherence below 80% seem to have less than half of the prescribed treatment available. Oversupply or drug stockpiling occurs more frequently among exempt than among non-exempt patients, and this oversupply leads to high unnecessary costs.
  • Andersen, Grethe, et al. (författare)
  • Quantitative measurement of the levels of melanocortin receptor subtype 1, 2, 3 and 5 and pro-opio-melanocortin peptide gene expression in subsets of human peripheral blood leucocytes
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology. - Oxford : Wiley. - 0300-9475 .- 1365-3083. ; 61:3, s. 279-284
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Levels of the melanocortin receptor (MCR) 1, 2, 3 and 5 subtypes and pro-opio-melanocortin (POMC) protein mRNA were measured by the real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction method in CD4+ T helper (Th) cells, CD8+ T cytotoxic cells, CD19+ B cells, CD56+ natural killer (NK) cells, CD14+ monocytes and CD15+ granulocytes from healthy donors. We found high levels of all of the MC1, 2, 3 and 5R subtype mRNA in Th cells and moderate levels in NK cells, monocytes and granulocytes. POMC peptide mRNA was found in all examined leucocyte subsets, but only low levels were present in granulocytes. Our findings suggest a co-ordinating role for MCR subtypes and their naturally occurring ligands in the co-operation between innate and adaptive immunity. Moreover, our findings are compatible with earlier finding of MCR-mediated tolerance induction in Th cells.
  • Kadi, Fawzi (författare)
  • Cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the action of testosterone on human skeletal muscle : a basis for illegal performance enhancement
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Pharmacology. - Basingstoke : Nature Publ. Group. - 0007-1188 .- 1476-5381. ; 154:3, s. 522-528
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The popularity of testosterone among drug users is due to its powerful effects on muscle strength and mass. Important mechanisms behind the myotrophic effects of testosterone were uncovered both in athletes using steroids for several years and in short-term controlled studies. Both long-term and short-term steroid usage accentuates the degree of fibre hypertrophy in human skeletal muscle by enhancing protein synthesis. A mechanism by which testosterone facilitates the hypertrophy of muscle fibres is the activation of satellite cells and the promotion of myonuclear accretion when existing myonuclei become unable to sustain further enhancement of protein synthesis. Interestingly, long-term steroid usage also enhances the frequency of fibres with centrally located myonuclei, which implies the occurrence of a high regenerative activity. Under the action of testosterone, some daughter cells generated by satellite cell proliferation may escape differentiation and return to quiescence, which help to replenish the satellite cell reserve pool. However, whether long-term steroid usage induces adverse effects of satellite cells remains unknown. Testosterone might also favour the commitment of pluripotent precursor cells into myotubes and inhibit adipogenic differentiation. The effects of testosterone on skeletal muscle are thought to be mediated via androgen receptors expressed in myonuclei and satellite cells. Some evidence also suggests the existence of an androgen-receptor-independent pathway. Clearly, testosterone abuse is associated with an intense recruitment of multiple myogenic pathways. This provides an unfair advantage over non-drug users. The long-term consequences on the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle are unknown.
  • Abu-Bakar, A'edah, et al. (författare)
  • Regulation of CYP2A5 gene by the transcription factor nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Drug Metabolism And Disposition. - : American Society for Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics (ASPET). - 0090-9556 .- 1521-009X. ; 35:5, s. 787-794
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have previously shown that cadmium, a metal that alters cellular redox status, induces CYP2A5 expression in nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 wild-type (Nrf2(-/-)) mice but not in the knockout (Nrf2(-/-)) mice. In the present studies, the potential role of Nrf2 in cadmium-mediated regulation of Cyp2a5 gene was investigated in mouse primary hepatocytes. Cadmium chloride (CdCl2) caused a time-dependent induction of the CYP2A5 at mRNA, protein, and activity levels, with a substantial increase observed within 3 h of exposure. Immunoblotting showed cadmium-dependent nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 within 1 h of exposure. Cotransfection of mouse primary hepatocytes with Cyp2a5 promoter-luciferase reporter plasmids and Nrf2 expression plasmid resulted in a 3-fold activation of Cyp2a5 promoter-mediated transcription relative to the control. Deletion analysis of the promoter localized the Nrf2 responsive region to an area from -2656 to -2339 base pair. Computer-based sequence analysis identified two putative stress response elements (StRE) within the region at positions -2514 to -2505 and -2386 to -2377. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that interaction of the more proximal StRE with Nrf2 was stimulated by CdCl2. Finally, site-directed mutagenesis of the proximal StRE in Cyp2a5 promoter-luciferase reporter plasmids abolished Nrf2 mediated induction. Collectively, the results indicate that Nrf2 activates Cyp2a5 transcription by directly binding to the StRE in the 5'-flanking region of the gene. This acknowledges Cyp2a5 as the first phase I xenobiotic-metabolizing gene identified under the control of the StRE-Nrf2 pathway with a potential role in adaptive response to cellular stress.
  • Ackermann, Paul, et al. (författare)
  • An opioid system in connective tissue : A study of Achilles tendon in the rat
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry. - : SAGE Publications. - 0022-1554 .- 1551-5044. ; 49:11, s. 1387-1395
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The occurrence of endogenous opioids and their receptors in rat achilles tendon was analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC), radioimmunoassay (RIA), and in vitro binding assays. The investigation focused on four enkephalins, dynorphin B, and nociceptin/orphanin FQ. Nerve fibers immunoreactive to all enkephalins (Met-enkephalin, Leu-enkephalin, Met-enkephalin-Arg-Gly-Lys, Met-enkephalin-Arg-Phe) were consistently found in the loose connective tissue and the paratenon, whereas dynorphin B and nociceptin/orphanin FQ could not be detected. The majority of enkephalin-positive nerve fibers exhibited varicosities predominantly seen in blood vessel walls. Measurable levels of Met-enkephalin-Arg-Phe and nociceptin/orphanin FQ were found in tendon tissue using RIA, whereas dynorphin B could not be detected. In addition to the endogenous opioids identified, delta -opioid receptors on nerve fibers were also detected by IHC. Binding assays to characterize the opioid binding sites showed that they were specific and saturable for [H-3]-naloxone (K-d 7.01 +/- 0.98 nM; B-max 23.52 +/- 2.23 fmol/mg protein). Our study demonstrates the occurrence of an opioid system in rat achilles tendon, which may be assumed to be present also in other connective tissues of the locomotor apparatus. This system may prove to be a useful target for pharmacological therapy in painful and inflammatory conditions by new drugs acting selectively in the periphery.
  • Adane, M., et al. (författare)
  • The use of extragranular disintegrants in multiple-unit tablet formulations : effect on compressibility, compactibility and disintegration
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of drug delivery science and technology. - 1773-2247. ; 17:4, s. 279-284
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Multiple-unit tablets formed from mixtures of microcrystalline cellulose pellets and disintegrants (Ac-Di-Sol, Primojel or Kollidon CL) by compaction were investigated with the aim of controlling tablet tensile strength and disintegration time. The effects of pellet porosity, compaction pressure, and type and amount of disintegrant were studied. Primojel made the pellets less prone to deformation during compression, while the other two disintegrants had very minor effects on the compression behavior. Ac-Di-Sol and Primojel generally increased the tablet tensile strength, whereas the effect of Kollidon CL was dependent on the initial pellet porosity. Kollidon CL was found to significantly reduce the disintegration time, but the other two disintegrants had variable efficacy, and for the low-porosity pellets significantly increased the disintegration time. These results are interpreted as resulting from the interplay between the mechanical characteristics of the pellets and the mechanisms of action of the disintegrants.
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