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Träfflista för sökning "hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Medicinska och farmaceutiska grundvetenskaper) hsv:(Farmaceutiska vetenskaper) srt2:(2000-2009)"

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  • Alm, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Exposure to brominated flame retardant PBDE-99 affects cytoskeletal protein expression in the neonatal mouse cerebral cortex
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Neurotoxicology. - : Elsevier BV. - 0161-813X .- 1872-9711. ; 29:4, s. 628-637
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are environmental contaminants found in human and animal tissues worldwide. Neonatal exposure to the flame retardant 2,2', 4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE-99) disrupts normal brain development in mice, and results in disturbed spontaneous behavior in the adult. The mechanisms underlying the late effects of early exposure are not clear. To gain insight into the initial neurodevelopmental damage inflicted by PBDE-99, we investigated the short-term effects of PBDE-99 on protein expression in the developing cerebral cortex of neonatal mice, and the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of PBDE-99 in primary cultures of fetal rat cortical cells. We used two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) to analyze protein samples isolated from the cortex of NMRI mice 24h after exposure to a single oral dose of 12 mg/kg PBDE-99 on post-natal day 10. Protein resolution was enhanced by sample pre-fractionation. In the cell model, we determined cell viability using the trypan blue exclusion assay, and apoptosis using immunocytochemical detection of cleaved caspase-3. We determined the identity of 111 differentially expressed proteins, 32 (29%) of which are known to be cytoskeleton-related. Similar to previous findings in the striatum, we found elevated levels of the neuron growth-associated protein Gap43 in the cortex. In cultured cortical cells, a high concentration of PBDE-99 (30 microM) induced cell death without any apparent increase in caspase-3 activity. These results indicate that the permanent neurological damage induced by PBDE-99 during the brain growth spurt involve detrimental effects on cytoskeletal regulation and neuronal maturation in the developing cerebral cortex.
  • Alm, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Proteomic evaluation of neonatal exposure to 2,2,4,4,5-pentabromodiphenyl ether
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives. - : Environmental Health Perspectives. - 0091-6765 .- 1552-9924. ; 114:2, s. 254-259
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Exposure to the brominated flame retardant 2,2 ,4,4 ,5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE-99) during the brain growth spurt disrupts normal brain development in mice and results in disturbed spontaneous behavior in adulthood. The neurodevelopmental toxicity of PBDE-99 has been reported to affect the cholinergic and catecholaminergic systems. In this study we use a proteomics approach to study the early effect of PBDE-99 in two distinct regions of the neonatal mouse brain, the striatum and the hippocampus. A single oral dose of PBDE-99 (12 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle was administered to male NMRI mice on neonatal day 10, and the striatum and the hippocampus were isolated. Using two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), we found 40 and 56 protein spots with significantly (p < 0.01) altered levels in the striatum and the hippocampus, respectively. We used matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF-MS) to determine the protein identity of 11 spots from the striatum and 10 from the hippocampus. We found that the levels of proteins involved in neurodegeneration and neuroplasticity (e.g., Gap-43/neuromodulin, stathmin) were typically altered in the striatum, and proteins involved in metabolism and energy production [e.g., alpha-enolase; gamma-enolase; ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, beta subunit (Atp5b); and alpha-synuclein] were typically altered in the hippocampus. Interestingly, many of the identified proteins have been linked to protein kinase C signaling. In conclusion, we identify responses to early exposure to PBDE-99 that could contribute to persistent neurotoxic effects. This study also shows the usefulness of proteomics to identify potential biomarkers of developmental neurotoxicity of organohalogen compounds.
  • Alsiö, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of nandrolone decanoate on gene expression in endocrine systems related to the adverse effects of anabolic androgenic steroids
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology. - : Wiley. - 1742-7835 .- 1742-7843. ; 105:5, s. 307-314
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Elite athletes, body builders and adolescents misuse anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) in order to increase muscle mass or to enhance physical endurance and braveness. The high doses misused are associated with numerous adverse effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of chronic supratherapeutic AAS treatment on circulating hormones and gene expression in peripheral tissues related to such adverse effects. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure expression levels of in total 37 genes (including peptide hormones, cell membrane receptors, nuclear receptors, steroid synthesising enzymes and other enzymes) in the pituitary, testes, adrenals, adipose tissue, kidneys and liver of male Sprague-Dawley rats after 14-day administration of the AAS nandrolone decanoate, 3 or 15 mg/kg. Plasma glucose and levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), adiponectin, corticosterone, ghrelin, insulin and leptin were also measured. We found several expected effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, while the treatment also caused a number of other not previously identified changes in circulating factors and gene transcription levels such as the dose-dependent reduction of the beta(3)-adrenergic receptor in adipose tissue, reduction of both circulating and mRNA levels of adiponectin, up-regulation of both hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA-reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in de novo synthesis of cholesterol, and the receptor for ACTH in the adrenals. The results provide evidence for wide ranging effects of AAS on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, adipose tissue and substrates of the renal control of blood pressure.
  • Alsmark, U. Cecilia, et al. (författare)
  • Horizontal gene transfer in eukaryotic parasites : a case study of Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Horizontal Gene Transfer. - Totowa, NJ : Humana Press. - 9781603278522 - 9781603278539 ; , s. 489-500
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Over the past few years it has become apparent that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has played an important role in the evolution of pathogenic prokaryotes. What is less clear is the exact role that HGT has played in shaping the metabolism of eukaryotic organisms. The main problems are the reliable inference of HGT on a genomic scale as well as the functional assignment of genes in these poorly studied organisms. We have screened the completed genomes of the protists Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis for cases of HGT from prokaryotes. Using a fast primary screen followed by a conservative phylogenetic approach, we found 68 and 153 recent cases of HGT in the respective organisms. The majority of transferred genes that fall into functional categories code for enzymes involved in metabolism. We found a broad range of prokaryotic lineages represented among the donors, but organisms that share similar environmental niches with E. histolytica and T. vaginalis, such as the gut and the vaginal mucosa, dominate.
  • Alterman, Mathias, et al. (författare)
  • P1/P1' modified HIV protease inhibitors as tools in two new sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor screening assays
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. - : Elsevier. - 0928-0987 .- 1879-0720. ; 13:2, s. 203-212
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The commonly used HIV-1 protease assays rely on measurements of the effect of inhibitions on the hydrolysis rate of synthetic peptides. Recently an assay based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was introduced. We have taken advantage of the fact that the SPR signal is proportional to the mass of the analyte interacting with the immobilised molecule and developed two new improved efficient competition assay methods. Thus, high molecular weight binders were used as amplifiers of the surface plasmon resonance signal. Linkers were attached by a Heck reaction to the para-positions of the P1/P1′ benzyloxy groups of a linear C2-symmetric C-terminal duplicated inhibitor to enable (a) biotin labelling or (b) direct immobilisation of the inhibitor to the biosensor surface matrix. The interaction properties of a series of 17 structurally diverse inhibitors was assessed and compared to previously reported data. The most sensitive assay was obtained by immobilising the enzyme and amplifying the signal with an antibody, giving a detection range between 0.1 nM and 10 μM. Immobilisation of the inhibitor resulted in a stable and durable surface but a narrower detection range (1–100 nM). The two competition assays are anticipated to be very suitable for fast screening of potential HIV inhibitors.
  • Amini, Ahmad, et al. (författare)
  • Quantitative analysis of polypeptide pharmaceuticals by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis. - : Elsevier BV. - 0731-7085 .- 1873-264X. ; 46:3, s. 411-417
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An accurate method based on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) has been developed for quantitative analysis of calcitonin and insulin in different commercially available pharmaceutical products. Tryptic peptides derived from these polypeptides were chemically modified at their C-terminal lysine-residues with 2-methoxy-4,5-dihydro-imidazole (light tagging) as standard and deuterated 2-methoxy-4,5-dihydro-imidazole (heavy tagging) as internal standard (IS). The heavy modified tryptic peptides (4D-Lys tag), differed by four atomic mass units from the corresponding light labelled counterparts (4H-Lys tag). The normalized peak areas (the ratio between the light and heavy tagged peptides) were used to construct a standard curve to determine the concentration of the analytes. The concentrations of calcitonin and insulin content of the analyzed pharmaceutical products were accurately determined, and less than 5% error was obtained between the present method and the manufacturer specified values. It was also found that the cysteine residues in CSNLSTCVLGK from tryptic calcitonin were converted to lanthionine by the loss of one sulfhydryl group during the labelling procedure.
  • Andaloussi, Mounir, et al. (författare)
  • A convenient synthesis of linear pyridinoimidazo[1,2-a] pyridine and pyrroloimidazo[1,2-a] pyridine cores
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Tetrahedron Letters. - : Elsevier BV. - 0040-4039 .- 1359-8562. ; 48:47, s. 8392-8395
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Two new imidazo[1,2-a] pyridine derivatives, pyridinoimidazo[1,2-a] pyridine (10) and pyrroloimidazo[1,2-a] pyridine (16), were synthesised from 2-amino-4-methyl-5-nitropyridine (1) by linear cyclisation, making use of dimethylformamide dimethylacetal (DMFDMA) as an agent of vinylamine functionalisation. This report describes first the formation of pyridine and pyrroloimidazopyridine from (1), and then the formation of pyridine-fused and pyrrolo-fused pyridine by the Friedlander method and reductive cyclisation followed by treatment of the resulting adduct with chloroacetaldehyde.
  • Andersson, Hanna, Dr. 1979-, et al. (författare)
  • Ligands to the (IRAP)/AT4 receptor encompassing a 4-hydroxydiphenylmethane scaffold replacing Tyr2
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. - : Elsevier BV. - 0968-0896 .- 1464-3391. ; 16:14, s. 6924-6935
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Analogues of the hexapeptide angiotensin IV (Ang IV, Val(1)-Tyr(2)-Ile(3)-His(4)-Pro(5)-Phe(6)) encompassing a 4-hydroxydiphenylmethane scaffold replacing Tyr(2) and a phenylacetic or benzoic acid moiety replacing His(4)-Pro(5)-Phe(6) have been synthesized and evaluated in biological assays. The analogues inhibited the proteolytic activity of cystinyl aminopeptidase (CAP), frequently referred to as the insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP), and were found less efficient as inhibitors of aminopeptidase N (AP-N). The best Ang IV mimetics in the series were approximately 20 times less potent than Ang IV as IRAP inhibitors. Furthermore, it was found that the ligands at best exhibited a 140 times lower binding affinity to the membrane-bound IRAP/AT4 receptor than Ang IV. Although the best compounds still exert lower activities than Ang IV, it is notable that these compounds comprise only two amino acid residues and are considerably less peptidic in character than the majority of the Ang IV analogues previously reported as IRAP inhibitors in the literature.
  • Andersson, Helén, 1982-, et al. (författare)
  • Low levels of the air pollutant 1-nitropyrene induce DNA damage, increased levels of reactive oxygen species and endoplasmic reticulum stress in human endothelial cells
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Toxicology. - : Elsevier BV. - 0300-483X .- 1879-3185. ; 262:1, s. 57-64
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Both epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that exposure to high levels of air pollution is a risk factor associated with cardiovascular disease. Traffic emission is a major source of exposure to persistent air pollutants such as nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs). 1-Nitropyrene (1-NP), one of the most abundant nitro-PAHs in diesel exhausts, was selected as a model nitro-PAH for the present study. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of 1-NP in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the metabolic pathways involved. The nitroreductase inhibitor dicoumarol and the coplanar aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand PCB 126 were used to modulate the metabolism of 1-NP. The results revealed that low levels (< or =10microM) of 1-NP induced DNA damage, increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased protein expression of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress chaperone GRP78. A decrease in cell viability was only observed following exposure to a higher level of 1-NP (15microM). Inhibition of nitroreductive metabolism by dicoumarol attenuated the induction of DNA damage, intracellular ROS levels and GRP78 expression. This suggests that the effects of 1-NP on HUVEC were mediated by metabolites mainly formed at nitroreduction. Our findings suggest that the human blood vessel endothelium is a sensitive target tissue for the major nitro-PAH constituent in diesel exhaust.
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