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Träfflista för sökning "AMNE:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP Medicinska och farmaceutiska grundvetenskaper Immunologi inom det medicinska området) "

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1.
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2.
  • Amoudruz, Petra, et al. (författare)
  • Maternal country of birth and previous pregnancies are associated with breast milk characteristics
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. - 0905-6157 .- 1399-3038. ; 20:1, s. 19-29
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Populations in high infectious exposure countries are at low risk of some immune-mediated diseases such as Crohn’s disease and allergy. This low risk is maintained upon immigration to an industrialized country, but the offspring of such immigrants have a higher immune-mediated disease risk than the indigenous population. We hypothesize that early life exposures in a developing country shape the maternal immune system, which could have implications for the offspring born in a developed country with a low infectious load. The aim of this study was to investigate if exposures in childhood (indicated by country of origin) and subsequent exposures influence immunologic characteristics relevant to stimulation of offspring. Breast milk components among 64 mothers resident in Sweden, 32 of whom immigrated from a developing country, were examined using the ELISA and Cytometric Bead Array methods. Immigrants from a developing country had statistically significantly higher levels of breast milk interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8 and transforming growth factor-β1. A larger number of previous pregnancies were associated with down-regulation of several substances, statistically significant for soluble CD14 and IL-8. The results suggest that maternal country of birth may influence adult immune characteristics, potentially relevant to disease risk in offspring. Such a mechanism may explain the higher immune-mediated disease risk among children of migrants from a developing to developed country. Older siblings may influence disease risk through the action of previous pregnancies on maternal immune characteristics.
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3.
  • Bhandage, Amol K., 1988- (författare)
  • Glutamate and GABA signalling components in the human brain and in immune cells
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are the principal excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system (CNS). They both can activate their ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. Glutamate activates ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGlu - AMPA, kainate and NMDA receptors) and GABA activates GABA-A receptors which are modulated by many types of drugs and substances including alcohol. Using real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, I have shown that iGlu and/or GABA-A receptor subunits were expressed in the hippocampus dentate gyrus (HDG), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DL-PFC), central amygdala (CeA), caudate and putamen of the human brain and their expression was altered by chronic excessive alcohol consumption. It indicates that excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission may have been altered in the brain of human alcoholics. It is possible that changes in one type of neurotransmitter system may drive changes in another. These brain regions also play a role in brain reward system. Any changes in them may lead to changes in the normal brain functions.Apart from the CNS, glutamate and GABA are also present in the blood and can be synthesised by pancreatic islet cells and immune cells. They may act as immunomodulators of circulating immune cells and can affect immune function through glutamate and GABA receptors. I found that T cells from human, rat and mouse lymph nodes expressed the mRNAs and proteins for specific GABA-A receptor subunits. GABA-evoked transient and tonic currents recorded using the patch clamp technique demonstrate the functional GABA-A channel in T cells. Furthermore, the mRNAs for specific iGlu, GABA-A and GABA-B receptor subunits and chloride cotransporters were detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from men, non-pregnant women, healthy and depressed pregnant women. The results indicate that the expression of iGlu, GABA-A and GABA-B receptors is related to gender, pregnancy and mental health and support the notion that glutamate and GABA receptors may modulate immune function. Intra- and interspecies variability exists in the expression and it is further influenced by physiological conditions.
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4.
  • Greiff, Lennart, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of topical platelet activating factor on the guinea-pig tracheobronchial mucosa in vivo
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0001-6772. ; 160:4, s. 387-391
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Platelet activating factor (PAF) has been reported to produce a variety of airway effects including epithelial damage and increased airway-lung absorption of hydrophilic tracers. The present study examines effects of PAF on the guinea-pig tracheobronchial mucosa in vivo. Vehicle with and without PAF (4.0 and 8.0 nmol) was superfused onto the tracheobronchial mucosa. The levels of 125I-albumin, previously given intravenously, were determined in tracheobronchial lavage fluids as an index of mucosal exudation of plasma. The mucosa was also examined by scanning electron microscopy. In separate animals, 99mTc-DTPA (a low molecular weight, 492 Da, hydrophilic tracer) was superfused onto the mucosal surface through an oro-tracheal catheter, together with vehicle or PAF (8.0 nmol). A gamma camera determined the disappearance rate of 99mTc-DTPA from the airways as an index of mucosal absorption. PAF produced dose-dependent mucosal exudation of plasma up to 20-fold greater than control (P < 0.001). However, PAF did not damage the epithelium and the absorption ability of the airway mucosa was unaffected. The results, in contrast to previous reports, suggest that PAF may not readily damage the airway mucosa even at large exudative doses of the agent. The present finding support the view that the plasticity of the epithelial junctions allows the creation of valve-like paracellular pathways for unidirectional clearance of extravasated plasma into the airway lumen. We suggest that endogenous PAF may participate in first line respiratory defence reactions by causing lumenal entry of bulk plasma without harming the epithelium.
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5.
  • Heyman, Lovisa (författare)
  • Berries in Prevention of Metabolic Disease – focus on obesity, diabetes and gut microbiota
  • 2015
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The increasing prevalence of obesity is a worldwide health problem closely linked to diet and lifestyle factors. Obesity is associated with increased risk of several metabolic disorders including insulin resistance, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes. Hence, there is a great need to identify dietary strategies for the prevention of obesity and related diseases. This thesis investigates the potential of different berries to mediate beneficial health effects in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity and prediabetes. We found that supplementation with lingonberries, blackcurrants and bilberries reduced body weight gain, insulin resistance, low-grade inflammation and hepatic lipid accumulation in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet. Supplementation with raspberries, crowberries, blackberries or prunes had no or small effects, whereas açai berries promoted development of obesity and fatty liver compared to the control group receiving high-fat diet without berries. Global hepatic gene expression analysis revealed that the phenotype in the lingonberry and bilberry groups was coupled to an anti-inflammatory effect, including downregulation of acute-phase proteins and inflammatory mediators. Mice receiving açai displayed an upregulation of steatosis markers and genes related to lipid synthesis, in line with the exacerbation of high-fat-induced fatty liver in these mice. The HELP-tagging assay was used to identify differentially methylated CpG sites in the lingonberry group compared to the high-fat control group. Lingonberries induced genome-wide and specific alterations of DNA methylation, however the significance of these findings remains to be established. Furthermore, different batches of lingonberries were found to have different capacity to prevent obesity. However lingonberries prevented low-grade inflammation, metabolic endotoxemia and modified the gut microbiota of high-fat fed mice, including increasing the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. These findings were independent of effects on body weight gain and achieved regardless of the source of berries. The capacity of lingonberries to counteract negative outcomes of an unhealthy diet should be further evaluated in humans, including assessment of anti-inflammation and microbiota modulation. The generated knowledge about berries and their effects on metabolism may be useful in designing future dietary strategies aimed at preventing metabolic disease.
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6.
  • Saulo, Eleonor C., et al. (författare)
  • Willingness and ability to pay for artemisinin-based combination therapy in rural Tanzania
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Malaria Journal. - London : BioMed Central. - 1475-2875 .- 1475-2875. ; 7, s. 227-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to analyse willingness to pay (WTP) and ability to pay (ATP) for ACT for children below five years of age in a rural setting in Tanzania before the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria. Socio-economic factors associated with WTP and expectations on anti-malaria drugs, including ACT, were also explored. Methods Structured interviews and focus group discussions were held with mothers, household heads, health-care workers and village leaders in Ishozi, Gera and Ishunju wards in north-west Tanzania in 2004. Contingent valuation method (CVM) was used with "take-it-or-leave-it" as the eliciting method, expressed as WTP for a full course of ACT for a child and households' opportunity cost of ACT was used to assess ATP. The study included descriptive analyses with multivariate adjustment for potential confounding factors. Results Among 265 mothers and household heads, 244 (92%, CI = 88%–95%) were willing to pay Tanzanian Shillings (TSh) 500 (US$ 0.46) for a child's dose of ACT, but only 55% (49%–61%) were willing to pay more than TSh 500. Mothers were more often willing to pay than male household heads (adjusted odds ratio = 2.1, CI = 1.2–3.6). Socio-economic status had no significant effect on WTP. The median annual non-subsidized ACT cost for clinical malaria episodes in an average household was calculated as US$ 6.0, which would represent 0.9% of the average total consumption expenditures as estimated from official data in 2001. The cost of non-subsidized ACT represented 7.0% of reported total annual expenditure on food and 33.0% of total annual expenditure on health care. "Rapid effect," "no adverse effect" and "inexpensive" were the most desired features of an anti-malarial drug. Conclusion WTP for ACT in this study was less than its real cost and a subsidy is, therefore, needed to enable its equitable affordability. The decision taken in Tanzania to subsidize Coartem® fully at governmental health care facilities and at a consumer price of TSh 300–500 (US$ 0.28–0.46) at special designated shops through the programme of Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets (ADDOs) appears to be well founded.
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7.
  • Persson, Carl, et al. (författare)
  • Unbalanced research
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. - : Elsevier. - 0165-6147. ; 22:10, s. 538-541
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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8.
  • Moens, Lotte N. J., et al. (författare)
  • HaloPlex Targeted Resequencing for Mutation Detection in Clinical Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tumor Samples
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics. - 1525-1578 .- 1943-7811. ; 17:6, s. 729-739
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In recent years, the advent of massively parallel next-generation sequencing technologies has enabled substantial advances in the study of human diseases. Combined with targeted DNA enrichment methods, high sequence coverage can be obtained for different genes simultaneously at a reduced cost per sample, creating unique opportunities for clinical cancer diagnostics. However, the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) process of tissue samples, routinely used in pathology departments, results in DNA fragmentation and nucleotide modifications that introduce a number of technical challenges for downstream biomotecular analyses. We evaluated the HaloPlex target enrichment system for somatic mutation detection in 80 tissue fractions derived from 20 clinical cancer cases with paired tumor and normal tissue available in both FFPE and fresh-frozen format. Several modifications to the standard method were introduced, including a reduced target fragment Length and two strand capturing. We found that FFPE material can be used for HaloPlex-based target enrichment and next-generation sequencing, even when starting from small amounts of DNA. By specifically capturing both strands for each target fragment, we were able to reduce the number of false-positive errors caused by FFPE-induced artifacts and Lower the detection limit for somatic mutations. We believe that the HaloPlex method presented here will be broadly applicable as a tool for somatic mutation detection in clinical cancer settings.
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9.
  • Palkovicova, K., et al. (författare)
  • A monoclonal antibody specific for a unique biomarker, virenose, in a lipopolysaccharide of Coxiella burnetii
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Clinical Microbiology and Infection. - : Elsevier. - 1198-743X .- 1469-0691. ; 15 Suppl 2, s. 183-4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii. Easy aerosol dissemination, strong environmental persistence and high infectivity make the bacterium a serious threat for humans and animals. A rapid, sensitive and specific test for the infectious agent is still a challenge in the field. C. burnetii expresses a spectrum of amphophilic macromolecules on its surface. Among them, a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is of particular biological, immunological and medical significance [1]. Upon serial laboratory passages in yolk sacs of embryonated hen eggs, C.
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10.
  • Liu, Yawei, et al. (författare)
  • Neuron-mediated generation of regulatory T cells from encephalitogenic T cells suppresses EAE.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Nature Medicine. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-170X .- 1078-8956. ; 12:5, s. 518-525
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neurons have been neglected as cells with a major immune-regulatory function because they do not express major histocompatibility complex class II. Our data show that neurons are highly immune regulatory, having a crucial role in governing T-cell response and central nervous system (CNS) inflammation. Neurons induce the proliferation of activated CD4+ T cells through B7-CD28 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1–TGF-beta receptor signaling pathways, resulting in amplification of T-cell receptor signaling through phosphorylated ZAP-70, interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-9. The interaction between neurons and T cells results in the conversion of encephalitogenic T cells to CD25+TGF-beta1+CTLA-4+FoxP3+ T regulatory (Treg) cells that suppress encephalitogenic T cells and inhibit experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Suppression is dependent on cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen (CTLA)-4 but not TGF-beta1. Autocrine action of TGF-beta1, however, is important for the proliferative arrest of Treg cells. Blocking the B7 and TGF-beta pathways prevents the CNS-specific generation of Treg cells. These findings show that generation of neuron-dependent Treg cells in the CNS is instrumental in regulating CNS inflammation.
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