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1.
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2.
  • Buckland, Philip I., 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • BugsCEP, an entomological database twenty-five years on
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Antenna (Journal of the Royal Entomological Society). - London : Royal Entomological Society of London. - 0140-1890. ; 38:1, s. 21-28
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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3.
  • Hasler, Berit, et al. (författare)
  • Sustainable ecosystem governance under changing climate and land use : An introduction
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Ambio. - : Springer Netherlands. - 0044-7447 .- 1654-7209. ; , s. 1-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Combatting eutrophication is currently a major challenge for policy makers in the Baltic Sea region, and it is likely to remain so in the decades to come. Although total nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea have recently declined, the gap between current loadings and those required to ensure the desired status is still substantial (Reusch et al. 2018). This Special Issue is dedicated to research that helps inform how the eutrophication challenge might best be addressed by improving our understanding of technological constraints, societal drivers of change, land uses, environmental policies, and innovative governance with stakeholder involvement. These issues are important for the current generation and those to come and are issues we must address in order to succeed in reducing nutrient loads to the desired levels to gradually achieve the desired good environmental status of the Baltic Sea. Currently, we witness a new era of water policies across the entire Baltic Sea region. Our changing climate is impacting on precipitation and runoff, and is also the reason why new EU climate policies seek to tie carbon sinks more visibly to carbon sources. Both these aspects have repercussions for water policies. Thus, solving eutrophication challenges requires sharpening of existing policies and instruments, as well as creating new insights and governance approaches with broad stakeholder involvement in a changing environment. In order to design coherent water and climate policies, and target and implement those policies more efficiently, policy makers need to combine new insights regarding the inhabitants in the region, the catchments, and the Baltic Sea itself. Such insights can be expected from soil scientists, agronomists, hydrogeologists, marine ecologists, economists, and social and policy scientists. What is needed is on the one hand effectively targeted governance at appropriate spatial and temporal scales, adapted to differing interests and motivations of citizens living around the Baltic Sea, and on the other hand fine tuning and co-designing of policies at local, national, Baltic Sea regional and EU level. This Special Issue brings together recent research from four BONUS-funded projects—BONUS BALTICAPP, BONUS GO4BALTIC, BONUS MIRACLE and BONUS SOILS2SEA—that comprised part of the ‘Viable Ecosystem’ and ‘Sustainable Ecosystem Services’ BONUS research programmes. The projects addressed these common concerns through somewhat different, but inter-related, themes. Key messages emphasized and discussed in the research papers of this Special Issue are summarized under four interlinked themes: Scenarios for the future, Policies and ecosystem services in water governance, Novel approaches for managing nutrients, and Advanced modelling from field level to the entire Baltic Sea region.
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4.
  • Vickers, Kim, et al. (författare)
  • Predicting island beetle faunas by their climate ranges : the tabula rasa/refugia theory in the North Atlantic
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biogeography. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0305-0270 .- 1365-2699. ; 42:11, s. 2031-2048
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: This paper addresses two opposing theories put forward for the origins of the beetle fauna of the North Atlantic islands. The first is that the biota of the isolated oceanic islands of the Faroes, Iceland and Greenland immigrated across a Palaeogene–Neogene land bridge from Europe, and survived Pleistocene glaciations in ameliorated refugia. The second argues for a tabula rasa in which the biota of the islands was exterminated during glaciations and is Holocene in origin. The crux of these theories lies in the ability of the flora and fauna to survive in a range of environmental extremes. This paper sets out to assess the viability of the refugia hypothesis using the climatic tolerances of one aspect of the biota: the beetle fauna. Location: The paper focuses on Iceland, the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Methods: The known temperature requirements of the recorded beetle faunas of the North Atlantic islands were compared with published proxy climate reconstructions for successive climate periods since the severing of a North Atlantic land bridge. We used the MCR (mutual climatic range) method available in the open access BugsCEP database software. Results: We show that most of the MCR faunas of the North Atlantic islands could not have survived in situ since the Palaeogene–Neogene, and are likely to have been exterminated by the Pleistocene glaciations. Main conclusions: The discrepancy between the climatic tolerances of the North Atlantic beetle fauna and the estimated climatic regimes since the severing of a land bridge strongly support the tabula rasa theory and suggests that the North Atlantic coleopteran fauna is Holocene in origin.
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5.
  • Karp, Daniel S., et al. (författare)
  • Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape composition
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - : National Acad Sciences. - 1091-6490 .- 0027-8424. ; 115:33, s. 7863-7870
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win–win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on pests are inconclusive. The observed heterogeneity in species responses to noncrop habitat may be biological in origin or could result from variation in how habitat and biocontrol are measured. Here, we use a pest-control database encompassing 132 studies and 6,759 sites worldwide to model natural enemy and pest abundances, predation rates, and crop damage as a function of landscape composition. Our results showed that although landscape composition explained significant variation within studies, pest and enemy abundances, predation rates, crop damage, and yields each exhibited different responses across studies, sometimes increasing and sometimes decreasing in landscapes with more noncrop habitat but overall showing no consistent trend. Thus, models that used landscape-composition variables to predict pest-control dynamics demonstrated little potential to explain variation across studies, though prediction did improve when comparing studies with similar crop and landscape features. Overall, our work shows that surrounding noncrop habitat does not consistently improve pest management, meaning habitat conservation may bolster production in some systems and depress yields in others. Future efforts to develop tools that inform farmers when habitat conservation truly represents a win–win would benefit from increased understanding of how landscape effects are modulated by local farm management and the biology of pests and their enemies. © 2018 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
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6.
  • Buckland, Philip I., 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • The Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database : a resource for international, multiproxy and transdisciplinary studies of environmental and climatic change
  • 2015
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Climate and environmental change are global challenges which require global data and infrastructure to investigate. These challenges also require a multi-proxy approach, integrating evidence from Quaternary science and archaeology with information from studies on modern ecology and physical processes among other disciplines. The Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database (SEAD http://www.sead.se) is a Swedish based international research e-infrastructure for storing, managing, analysing and disseminating palaeoenvironmental data from an almost unlimited number of analysis methods. The system currently makes available raw data from over 1500 sites (>5300 datasets) and the analysis of Quaternary fossil insects, plant macrofossils, pollen, geochemistry and sediment physical properties, dendrochronology and wood anatomy, ceramic geochemistry and bones, along with numerous dating methods. This capacity will be expanded in the near future to include isotopes, multi-spectral and archaeo-metalurgical data. SEAD also includes expandable climate and environment calibration datasets, a complete bibliography and extensive metadata and services for linking these data to other resources. All data is available as Open Access through http://qsead.sead.se and downloadable software. SEAD is maintained and managed at the Environmental Archaeology Lab and HUMlab at Umea University, Sweden. Development and data ingestion is progressing in cooperation with The Laboratory for Ceramic Research and the National Laboratory for Wood Anatomy and Dendrochronology at Lund University, Sweden, the Archaeological Research Laboratory, Stockholm University, the Geoarchaeological Laboratory, Swedish National Historical Museums Agency and several international partners and research projects. Current plans include expanding its capacity to serve as a data source for any system and integration with the Swedish National Heritage Board's information systems. SEAD is partnered with the Neotoma palaeoecology database (http://www.neotomadb.org) and a new initiative for building cyberinfrastructure for transdisciplinary research and visualization of the long-term human ecodynamics of the North Atlantic funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF).
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7.
  • Caputo, Andrea, 1988- (författare)
  • Genomic and morphological diversity of marine planktonic diatom-diazotroph associations : a continuum of integration and diversification through geological time
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Symbioses between eukaryotes and nitrogen (N2)-fixing cyanobacteria (or diazotrophs) are quite common in the plankton community. A few genera of diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) such as Rhizosolenia, Hemiaulus and Chaetoceros are well known to form symbioses with the heterocystous diazotrophic cyanobacteria Richelia intracellularis and Calothrix rhizosoleniae. The latter are also called diatom-diazotroph associations, or DDAs. Up to now, the prokaryotic partners have been morphologically and genetically characterized, and the phylogenetic reconstruction of the well conserved nifH gene (encodes for the nitrogenase enzyme) placed the symbionts in 3 clusters based on their host-specificity, i.e. het-1 (Rhizosolenia-R. intracellularis), het-2 (Hemiaulus-R. intracellularis), and het-3 (Chaetoceros-C- rhizosoleniae). Conversely, the diatom-hosts, major representative of the phytoplankton community and crucial contributors to the carbon (C) biogeochemical cycle, have been understudied.The first aim of this thesis was to genetically and morphologically characterize the diatom-hosts, and to reconstruct the evolutionary background of the partnerships and the symbiont integration in the host. The molecular-clock analysis reconstruction showed the ancient appearance of the DDAs, and the traits characterizing the ancestors. In addition, diatom-hosts bearing internal symbionts (with more eroded draft genomes) appeared earlier than diatom-hosts with external symbionts. Finally a blast survey highlighted a broader distribution of the DDAs than expected.The second aim of this thesis was to compare genetic and physiological characteristics of the DDAs symbionts with the other eukaryote-diazotroph symbiosis, i.e. prymnesiophyte-UCYN-A (or Candidatus Atelocyanobacterium thalassa). The genome comparison highlighted more genes for transporters in het-3 (external symbiont) and in the UCYN-A based symbiosis, suggesting that symbiont location might be relevant also for metabolic exchanges and interactions with the host and/or environment. Moreover, a summary of methodological biases that brought to an underestimation of the DDAs is reported.The third aim of this thesis was to determine the distribution of the DDAs in the South Pacific Ocean using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) approach and to outline the environmental drivers of such distribution. Among the het-groups, het-1 was the most abundant/detected and co-occurred with the other 2 symbiotic strains, all responding similarly to the influence of abiotic factors, such as temperature and salinity (positive and negative correlation, respectively). Globally, Trichodesmium dominated the qPCR detections, followed by UCYN-B. UCYN-A phylotypes (A-1, A-2) were detected without their proposed hosts, for which new oligonucleotides were designed. The latter suggested a facultative symbiosis. Finally, microscopy observations of the het-groups highlighted a discrepancy with the qPCR counts (i.e. the former were several order of magnitudes lower), leading to the idea of developing a new approach to quantify the DDAs.  The fourth aim of this thesis was to develop highly specific in situ hybridization assays (CARD-FISH) to determine the presence of alternative life-stages and/or free-living partners. The new assays were applied to samples collected in the South China Sea and compared with abundance estimates from qPCR assays for the 3 symbiotic strains. Free-living cells were indeed detected along the transect, mainly at deeper depths. Free-living symbionts had two morphotypes: trichomes and single-cells. The latter were interpreted as temporary life-stages. Consistent co-occurrence of the 3 het-groups was also found in the SCS and application of a SEM model predicted positive interactions between the het groups. We interpreted the positive interaction as absence of intra-specific competition, and consistent with the previous study, temperature and salinity were predicted as major drivers of the DDAs distribution.
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8.
  • Lindkvist, Emilie, 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • Strategies for sustainable management of renewable resources during environmental change
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences. - 0962-8452 .- 1471-2954. ; 284:1850
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • As a consequence of global environmental change, management strategies that can deal with unexpected change in resource dynamics are becoming increasingly important. In this paper we undertake a novel approach to studying resource growth problems using a computational form of adaptive management to find optimal strategies for prevalent natural resource management dilemmas. We scrutinize adaptive management, or learning-by-doing, to better understand how to simultaneously manage and learn about a system when its dynamics are unknown. We study important trade-offs in decision-making with respect to choosing optimal actions (harvest efforts) for sustainable management during change. This is operationalized through an artificially intelligent model where we analyze how different trends and fluctuations in growth rates of a renewable resource affect the performance of different management strategies. Our results show that the optimal strategy for managing resources with declining growth is capable of managing resources with fluctuating or increasing growth at a negligible cost, creating in a management strategy that is both efficient and robust towards future unknown changes. To obtain this strategy, adaptive management should strive for: high learning rates to new knowledge, high valuation of future outcomes and modest exploration around what is perceived as the optimal action.
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9.
  • Buckland, Philip I., 1973- (författare)
  • SEAD - The Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database Inter-linking Multiproxy Environmental Data with Archaeological Investigations and Ecology
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Archaeology in the Digital Era. - : Amsterdam University Press. - 9789089646637 - 9789048519590 - 9789048519606 ; , s. 320-331
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The volume of data on past environmental and climate changes, as well as human interactions with these, has long since passed the level where it is manageable outside of large scale database systems. The Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database project aims to not only store and disseminate such data, but also provide tools for querying and analysing them, whilst maintaining a close connection with the archaeological and ecological data that are essential for their comprehensive interpretation. Large scale, geographically and chronologically unrestricted databases provide us with essentially unlimited scope for putting individual sites into a broader context and applying locally collated data to the investigation of earth system level changes. By providing integrated access to data from a variety of proxies, including plant macrofossils, pollen, insects and geochemistry, along with dating evidence, more complex questions can be answered where any single proxy would not be able to provide comprehensive answers.
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10.
  • Kylin, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluating threats to an endangered species by proxy : air pollution as threat to the blue swallow (Hirundo atrocaerulea) in South Africa
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research. - : Springer. - 0944-1344 .- 1614-7499. ; 18:2, s. 282-290
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background, aim, and scope: The blue swallow (Hirundo atrocaerulea) is one of the most threatened bird species in southern Africa. Among terrestrial birds, its plumage is known to be the most water repellent, an adaptation to foraging on the wing in dense fog. Despite this uniqueadaptation, the nesting success of the blue swallow at the Blue Swallow Natural Heritage Site (BSNHS) is lower during years with high incidence of fog. As the phenomenon is not observed at other nesting sites, we hypothesized that this is due to changes in the air chemistry at the BSNHS. In the immediate proximity of the BSNHS, plantations of exotic trees (e.g., pines and eucalypts), rich in volatile organic compounds (VOCs), are dominant features. In addition, air pollution from the Johannesburg area is transported with the surface winds and mix withVOCs released from exotic trees. Together with the high humidity and high elevation, these conditions may result in the formation of sulphonates. Sulphonates are strong detergents, and the presence of these in the fog could lead to decreased water repellence of the plumage. This study was performed in order to determine the occurrence and distribution of sulphonates in the BSNHS and to compare these with sulphonates formed in other locations in South Africa. Because the blue swallow is endangered, pine needles were used as proxy to detect formation of sulphonates.Methods: We sampled pine needles with different exposure to air pollutants, in climates with different humidity, and at different elevation and analyzed these for sulphonates using mass spectrometry.Results: Pine needles from high elevations and the BSNHS, with high humidity, and exposure to air pollution contained significantly higher concentrations of sulphonates than pine needles from low elevations or from high elevations with a dryer climate or a different combination of air pollutants.Conclusions: These findings lead to two conclusions. First, the occurrence and distribution of sulphonates may be explained by chemical reactions between sulphur dioxide and organic compounds in the humid air induced by ultraviolet radiation. Second, elevated concentrations of sulphonates in the fog could affect the water repellence of the blue swallow plumage, possibly decreasing their capacity to forage in the fog. We cannot prove conclusively that this is the reason why the number of blue swallows atthe BSNHS has decreased dramatically, but for endangered species, we may have to rely on proxies to draw conclusions about outside threats. All such information should be valuable in devising protection plans for species under threat.Recommendations and perspectives: The use of proxies to elucidate threats to endangered species should be evaluated in a broad scale. The mist-belt habitat in general is threatened by many human activities. These findings indicate that air pollution and the proximity of volatile organic compound (VOC) sources close to mist-belt habitat refuges may be an unrecognised conservation threat to the animals inhabiting them.
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