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  • Caputo, Andrea, 1988- (författare)
  • Genomic and morphological diversity of marine planktonic diatom-diazotroph associations : a continuum of integration and diversification through geological time
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Symbioses between eukaryotes and nitrogen (N2)-fixing cyanobacteria (or diazotrophs) are quite common in the plankton community. A few genera of diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) such as Rhizosolenia, Hemiaulus and Chaetoceros are well known to form symbioses with the heterocystous diazotrophic cyanobacteria Richelia intracellularis and Calothrix rhizosoleniae. The latter are also called diatom-diazotroph associations, or DDAs. Up to now, the prokaryotic partners have been morphologically and genetically characterized, and the phylogenetic reconstruction of the well conserved nifH gene (encodes for the nitrogenase enzyme) placed the symbionts in 3 clusters based on their host-specificity, i.e. het-1 (Rhizosolenia-R. intracellularis), het-2 (Hemiaulus-R. intracellularis), and het-3 (Chaetoceros-C- rhizosoleniae). Conversely, the diatom-hosts, major representative of the phytoplankton community and crucial contributors to the carbon (C) biogeochemical cycle, have been understudied.The first aim of this thesis was to genetically and morphologically characterize the diatom-hosts, and to reconstruct the evolutionary background of the partnerships and the symbiont integration in the host. The molecular-clock analysis reconstruction showed the ancient appearance of the DDAs, and the traits characterizing the ancestors. In addition, diatom-hosts bearing internal symbionts (with more eroded draft genomes) appeared earlier than diatom-hosts with external symbionts. Finally a blast survey highlighted a broader distribution of the DDAs than expected.The second aim of this thesis was to compare genetic and physiological characteristics of the DDAs symbionts with the other eukaryote-diazotroph symbiosis, i.e. prymnesiophyte-UCYN-A (or Candidatus Atelocyanobacterium thalassa). The genome comparison highlighted more genes for transporters in het-3 (external symbiont) and in the UCYN-A based symbiosis, suggesting that symbiont location might be relevant also for metabolic exchanges and interactions with the host and/or environment. Moreover, a summary of methodological biases that brought to an underestimation of the DDAs is reported.The third aim of this thesis was to determine the distribution of the DDAs in the South Pacific Ocean using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) approach and to outline the environmental drivers of such distribution. Among the het-groups, het-1 was the most abundant/detected and co-occurred with the other 2 symbiotic strains, all responding similarly to the influence of abiotic factors, such as temperature and salinity (positive and negative correlation, respectively). Globally, Trichodesmium dominated the qPCR detections, followed by UCYN-B. UCYN-A phylotypes (A-1, A-2) were detected without their proposed hosts, for which new oligonucleotides were designed. The latter suggested a facultative symbiosis. Finally, microscopy observations of the het-groups highlighted a discrepancy with the qPCR counts (i.e. the former were several order of magnitudes lower), leading to the idea of developing a new approach to quantify the DDAs.  The fourth aim of this thesis was to develop highly specific in situ hybridization assays (CARD-FISH) to determine the presence of alternative life-stages and/or free-living partners. The new assays were applied to samples collected in the South China Sea and compared with abundance estimates from qPCR assays for the 3 symbiotic strains. Free-living cells were indeed detected along the transect, mainly at deeper depths. Free-living symbionts had two morphotypes: trichomes and single-cells. The latter were interpreted as temporary life-stages. Consistent co-occurrence of the 3 het-groups was also found in the SCS and application of a SEM model predicted positive interactions between the het groups. We interpreted the positive interaction as absence of intra-specific competition, and consistent with the previous study, temperature and salinity were predicted as major drivers of the DDAs distribution.
  • Pontiller, Benjamin, MSc, 1985- (författare)
  • Molecular mechanisms involved in prokaryotic cycling of labile dissolved organic matter in the sea
  • 2021
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Roughly half of the global primary production originates from microscopic phytoplankton in marine ecosystems, converting carbon dioxide into organic matter. This organic matter pool consists of a myriad of compounds that fuel heterotrophic bacterioplankton. However, knowledge of the molecular mechanisms – particularly the metabolic pathways involved in the degradation and utilization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) – and transcriptional dynamics over spatiotemporal gradients are still scarce. Therefore, we studied the molecular mechanisms of bacterioplankton communities, including archaea, involved in the cycling of DOM, over different spatiotemporal scales in experiments and through field observations.In seawater experiments, we found a divergence of bacterioplankton transcriptional responses to different organic matter compound classes (carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and proteins) and condensation states (monomers or polymers). These responses were associated with distinct bacterial taxa, suggesting pronounced functional partitioning of these compounds in the Sea. Baltic Proper mesocosms amended with two different river loadings (forest versus agriculture river water) revealed a divergence in gene expression patterns between treatments during bloom decay. This was particularly true for genes in phosphorus and nitrogen metabolism, highlighting the importance and sensitivity of interaction effects between river- and phytoplankton-derived DOM in regulating bacterial activity responses to changes in precipitation-induced riverine runoff.In shipboard mesocosms in an Atlantic coastal upwelling system, we found significant changes in bacterioplankton transcription of hydrolyzing enzymes and membrane transporters from phytoplankton bloom development to senescence, primarily driven by phytoplankton-derived DOM and dissolved organic carbon dynamics. These responses differed substantially between bacterial orders, suggesting that functional resource partitioning is dynamically structured by temporal changes in DOM quantity and quality. Further analysis of these gene systems in a stratified fjord revealed pronounced divergence in transcription with depth and between bacterial taxa; moreover, transcription was more variable in the surface waters. This highlights the interplay between functional and physical partitioning of biogeochemical cycles. Collectively, the findings in this thesis contribute novel insights into the interdependency between prokaryotes and DOM by shedding light on the mechanisms involved in DOM cycling over ecologically relevant spatiotemporal scales.
  • Sundblad, Göran (författare)
  • Spatial Modelling of Coastal Fish – Methods and Applications
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Environmental factors influence species and habitats on multiple scales creating a mosaic of distribution patterns. Studying factors shaping these patterns are central to our understanding of population dynamics and ultimately ecosystem functioning. Information on the distribution of resources and conservation values are also highly needed in marine management as coastal areas are increasingly influenced by human activities. In this thesis, large-scale field data is used to explore how strong environmental gradients found on multiple scales in the coastal areas of the Baltic Sea influence fish habitats. The underlying concepts are based in the field of species distribution modelling, whereby habitat maps can be produced using environmental layers in a geographic information system. Distribution modelling is further used to address both ecological and applied questions by examining effects of habitat limitation on fish population sizes and to evaluate management actions aimed at habitat conservation. I show that specific habitat requirements for fish species of both freshwater and marine origin can be described using environmental variables and that species-environment relationships can be used to predict the distribution of early life-stages of fish in the Baltic Sea archipelagos. Further, predicted habitat availability of a specific life-stage was directly related to adult population size of Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis, signifying that the abundance of large predatory fish can be limited by specific recruitment habitats. Lastly, by predicting the distribution of an assemblage of coastal fish species and their associated habitats, an assessment of a network of marine protected areas was performed. Results revealed large gaps in the current network and identified areas suitable for future protection. By demonstrating how current habitat protection can be improved by including critical habitats for coastal fish population sizes this thesis points to the benefits of integrating nature conservation and fisheries management. Based on these findings I conclude that species distribution modelling provides a suitable analytical framework for assessing the habitat requirements of organisms. An increased understanding of habitat-population relationships and an ability to accurately map ecologically important features will be of great value for an ecosystem-based marine management. ­    
  • Sernland, Emma (författare)
  • Optimal strategies and information in foraging theory
  • 2005
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In this thesis, I present both theoretical and empirical work where we have studied how humans and animals use information in situations where they need to continually update their information on the density of a resource. We have found that the amount of information, and the way the information is presented, are important factors for how well decisions are adapted to current circumstances. In an empirical study on humans, we found that humans seem to have a default idea of the distribution of a resource. This default idea seems to be plastic, i.e. it is adjusted according to incoming information. The way additional information was presented, as well as the information content, was important for how well the default idea was adjusted to current circumstances.By using mathematical models, we have also studied whether access to information from group members, so called public information, is one of the reasons why some species live in groups. When group members aim to maximize its intake rate of food and share both information and food items found equally, and when each individual has to pay all the cost for travelling between foraging patches, the intake rate of food will decrease with increasing group size. The animals will spend a larger proportion of the time on travelling between patches and less time on foraging the larger the group size. In this case, information sharing on food density in patches is not a reason why animals live in groups.We have also used mathematical models to study the information dynamics in a group of foraging animals that cannot both search for food and information at the same time. The animals aim to maximize their survival, and are given three behavioural choices in each time step: stay and search for food, stay and scan for information, or leave the current patch. The results show that the choice of behaviour depends on the energy reserves of the individual. An animal with low energy reserves searches for food and leaves the patch if its assessment of potential patch quality decreases to a certain level. An animal with high energy reserves chooses to stay in the patch and scan for information. In our model we assume that when one individual leaves the patch, the rest of the group also leaves. This means that it is those individuals that have low energy reserves that will make the leaving decisions for the group.In the end, we use these theories on Bayesian foraging, information updating and decision-making in order to develop a new type of effort-based quota for sustainable fisheries management: an effort-based dynamic quota (EDQ). We show that by using information from ongoing fishing combined with fishing data from earlier years, we can reach a higher maximum sustainable yield compared to using a total allowable catch (TAC).
  • Nilsson, R. Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • How, not if, is the question mycologists should be asking about DNA-based typification
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: MycoKeys. - : Pensoft Publishers. - 1314-4057 .- 1314-4049. ; :96, s. 143-157
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fungal metabarcoding of substrates such as soil, wood, and water is uncovering an unprecedented number of fungal species that do not seem to produce tangible morphological structures and that defy our best attempts at cultivation, thus falling outside the scope of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants. The present study uses the new, ninth release of the species hypotheses of the UNITE database to show that species discovery through environmental sequencing vastly outpaces traditional, Sanger sequencing-based efforts in a strongly increasing trend over the last five years. Our findings chal-lenge the present stance of some in the mycological community - that the current situation is satisfactory and that no change is needed to "the code" - and suggest that we should be discussing not whether to allow DNA-based descriptions (typifications) of species and by extension higher ranks of fungi, but what the precise requirements for such DNA-based typifications should be. We submit a tentative list of such criteria for further discussion. The present authors hope for a revitalized and deepened discussion on DNA-based typification, because to us it seems harmful and counter-productive to intentionally deny the overwhelming majority of extant fungi a formal standing under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants.
  • Ekstam, Börje, et al. (författare)
  • Predicting risk habitats for the transmission of the small liver fluke, Dicrocoelium dendriticum to grazing ruminants.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Geospatial Health. - Naples, Italy : Global Network for Geospatial Health. - 1827-1987 .- 1970-7096. ; 6:1, s. 125-131
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A multiple regression model was used to analyse if the structure of vegetation and soil patches in grazed units (pastures) can be used as explanatory variables to predict the prevalence of Dicrocoelium dendriticum, a common parasite of cattle and sheep, in grazing cattle stocks on the Baltic island of Öland in southern Sweden.The scale dependency was evaluated by comparing three levels of spatial resolution of patches. Prevalence data were obtained from slaughtered animals.Our models predict that the prevalence of D. dendriticum increases in grazed areas with woody vegetation, whereas moist and wet areas decrease parasite prevalence. The predictive power of the statistical models increased with increasing level of patch resolution. Approximately 42% of the variation in parasite prevalence (angular transformation) was explained by the areal proportion of vegetation types (4th-root-transformed).Based on the results obtained, we believe that our model strategy provides a rational and systematic tool to identify habitats that carry risk for D. dendriticum infection of ruminants, and that it can be applied to other parasites with similar life cycles such as Fasciola hepatica.
  • Bonnot, Nadège, et al. (författare)
  • Who’s afraid of the big bad wolf? : Variation in the stress response among personalities and populations in a large wild herbivore
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Oecologia. - Amsterdam : Springer. - 0029-8549 .- 1432-1939. ; 188:1, s. 85-95
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Faced with rapid environmental changes, individuals may express different magnitude and plasticity in their response to a given stressor. However, little is known about the causes of variation in phenotypic plasticity of the stress response in wild populations. In the present study, we repeatedly captured individual roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from two wild populations in Sweden exposed to differing levels of predation pressure and measured plasma concentrations of stress-induced cortisol and behavioral docility. While controlling for the marked effects of habituation, we found clear between-population differences in the stress-induced cortisol response. Roe deer living in the area that was recently recolonized by lynx (Lynx lynx) and wolves (Canis lupus) expressed cortisol levels that were around 30% higher than roe deer in the human-dominated landscape free of large carnivores. In addition, for the first time to our knowledge, we investigated the stress-induced cortisol response in free-ranging newborn fawns and found no evidence for hypo-responsiveness during early life in this species. Indeed, stress-induced cortisol levels were of similar magnitude and differed between populations to a similar extent in both neonates and adults. Finally, at an individual level, we found that both cortisol and docility levels were strongly repeatable, and weakly negatively inter-correlated, suggesting that individuals differed consistently in how they respond to a stressor, and supporting the existence of a stress-management syndrome in roe deer. © 2018, The Author(s).
  • Hoffsten, Per-Ola (författare)
  • Galvån : Ett riksintresseområde för naturvården, X 105
  • 1992
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • RiksintressetRikedom av forsar och strömmar i kombination med vattendragets storlek utgör en ovanlig och därför värdefull miljö.Området utgör även en värdefull biotop för sårbart djurliv bl. a utter, nedströmsvandrande insjööring.Översvämningsbetingade våtmarksmiljöer med rik flora, bl. a Kung Karls spira, intressant strandflora invid sidofåror, samt en unik svampflora invid biflödet Nybobäcken.
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