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Sökning: AMNE:(NATURVETENSKAP Fysik Astronomi, astrofysik och kosmologi)

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  • Hartman, H., et al. (författare)
  • The FERRUM project : experimental and theoretical transition rates of forbidden [Sc II] lines and radiative lifetimes of metastable ScII levels
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 480:2, s. 575-580
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. In many plasmas, long-lived metastable atomic levels are depopulated by collisions (quenched) before they decay radiatively. In low-density regions, however, the low collision rate may allow depopulation by electric dipole (E1) forbidden radiative transitions, so-called forbidden lines (mainly M1 and E2 transitions). If the atomic transition data are known, these lines are indicators of physical plasma conditions and used for abundance determination. Aims. Transition rates can be derived by combining relative intensities between the decay channels, so-called branching fractions (BFs), and the radiative lifetime of the common upper level. We use this approach for forbidden [Sc II] lines, along with new calculations. Methods. Neither BFs for forbidden lines, nor lifetimes of metastable levels, are easily measured in a laboratory. Therefore, astrophysical BFs measured in Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) spectra of the strontium filament of Eta Carinae are combined with lifetime measurements using a laser probing technique on a stored ion-beam (CRYRING facility, MSL, Stockholm). These quantities are used to derive the absolute transition rates (A-values). New theoretical transition rates and lifetimes are calulated using the CIV3 code. Results. We report experimental lifetimes of the Sc II levels 3d(2) a(3)P(0,1,2) with lifetimes 1.28, 1.42, and 1.24 s, respectively, and transition rates for lines from these levels down to 3d4s a(3)D in the region 8270-8390 angstrom. These are the most important forbidden [Sc II] transitions. New calculations for lines and metastable lifetimes are also presented, and are in good agreement with the experimental data.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 700:1, s. 597-622
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The first three months of sky-survey operation with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope reveal 132 bright sources at |b| > 10 degrees with test statistic greater than 100 ( corresponding to about 10 sigma). Two methods, based on the CGRaBS, CRATES, and BZCat catalogs, indicate high-confidence associations of 106 of these sources with known active galactic nuclei (AGNs). This sample is referred to as the LAT Bright AGN Sample (LBAS). It contains two radio galaxies, namely, Centaurus A and NGC 1275, and 104 blazars consisting of 58 flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), 42 BL Lac objects, and 4 blazars with unknown classification. Four new blazars were discovered on the basis of the LAT detections. Remarkably, the LBAS includes 10 high-energy-peaked BL Lacs (HBLs), sources which were previously difficult to detect in the GeV range. Another 10 lower-confidence associations are found. Only 33 of the sources, plus two at |b| < 10 degrees, were previously detected with Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope( EGRET), probably due to variability. The analysis of the gamma-ray properties of the LBAS sources reveals that the average GeV spectra of BL Lac objects are significantly harder than the spectra of FSRQs. No significant correlation between radio and peak gamma-ray fluxes is observed. Blazar log N-log S distributions and luminosity functions are constructed to investigate the evolution of the different blazar classes, with positive evolution indicated for FSRQs but none for BL Lacs. The contribution of LAT blazars to the total extragalactic gamma-ray intensity is estimated.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 699:1, s. 817-823
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This is the first report of Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope observations of the quasar 3C 454.3, which has been undergoing pronounced long-term outbursts since 2000. The data from the Large Area Telescope, covering 2008 July 7-October 6, indicate strong, highly variable.-ray emission with an average flux of similar to 3 x 10 (6) photons cm(-2) s(-1), for energies > 100 MeV. The gamma-ray flux is variable, with strong, distinct, symmetrically shaped flares for which the flux increases by a factor of several on a timescale of about 3 days. This variability indicates a compact emission region, and the requirement that the source is optically thin to pair production implies relativistic beaming with Doppler factor delta > 8, consistent with the values inferred from Very Long Baseline Interferometry observations of superluminal expansion (delta similar to 25). The observed gamma-ray spectrum is not consistent with a simple power law, but instead steepens strongly above similar to 2 GeV, and is well described by a broken power law with photon indices of similar to 2.3 and similar to 3.5 below and above the break, respectively. This is the first direct observation of a break in the spectrum of a high-luminosity blazar above 100 MeV, and it is likely direct evidence for an intrinsic break in the energy distribution of the radiating particles. Alternatively, the spectral softening above 2 GeV could be due to gamma-ray absorption via photon-photon pair production on the soft X-ray photon field of the host active galactic nucleus, but such an interpretation would require the dissipation region to be located very close (less than or similar to 100 gravitational radii) to the black hole, which would be inconsistent with the X-ray spectrum of the source.
  • Nordin, Jakob, et al. (författare)
  • Evidence for a correlation between the SiII λ4000 width and Type Ia supernova color
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We study the pseudo equivalent width of the SiII λ4000 feature of Type Iasupernovae (SNe Ia) in the redshift range 0.0024 ≤z ≤0.634. We find that this spectral indicator correlateswith the light curve color excess SALT2 c as well as previouslydefined spectroscopic subclasses (Branch types) and theevolution of the  SiII λ6150 velocity, i.e., the so called velocitygradient. Based on our study of 55 objects from different surveys, we find indications that the SiII λ4000 spectral indicatorcould provide important information to improve cosmological distancemeasurements with SNe Ia.
  • Nordin, Jakob, 1979- (författare)
  • Spectral Properties of Type Ia Supernovae and Implications for Cosmology
  • 2011
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Type Ia supernovae can, for a short period of time, reach the same brightness as an entire galaxy. They are responsible for the creation of a large fraction of all heavy elements and can be used, as standard candles, to prove that the expansion of the universe is accelerating. Yet, we do not fully understand them. A basic picture where Type Ia supernovae are caused by thermonuclear explosions of white dwarfs is generally accepted, but the details are still debated. These unknowns propagate into systematic uncertainties in the estimates of cosmological parameters. A Monte Carlo framework, SMOCK, designed to model this error propagation, is presented. Evolution with time/distance and the nature of reddening are studied as the dominant astrophysical uncertainties. Optical spectra of Type Ia supernovae contain a wealth of information regarding the nature of these events, and can be used both to understand supernovae and to limit the systematic uncertainties in cosmological parameter estimates. We have reduced spectra observed with the Nordic Optical Telescope and the New Technology Telescope in conjunction with the SDSS-II supernova survey, and compared spectral properties (pseudo-Equivalent Widths and line velocities) of this sample with local supernovae.We have further studied possible systematic difficulties in such comparisons between nearby and distant supernovae, caused by noise and host galaxy contamination.Taking such uncertainties into account, we find a tentative evolution in supernova properties with redshift, compatible with expected demographic changes. Correlations with light curve shape found by other studies are confirmed. A tentative correlation with light curve colour is also presented. The latter could indicate an intrinsic component of the observed reddening, i.e. independent of interstellar dust in the host galaxy.
  • Nordin, Jakob, et al. (författare)
  • Spectral properties of Type Ia supernovae up to z~0.3
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 526, s. A119-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: Spectroscopic observations of type Ia supernovae obtained at the New Technology Telescope (NTT) and the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), in conjunction with the SDSS-II Supernova Survey, are analysed. We use spectral indicators measured up to a month after the lightcurve peak luminosity to characterise the supernova properties, and examine these for potential correlations with host galaxy type, lightcurve shape, colour excess, and redshift. Methods: Our analysis is based on 89 type Ia supernovae at a redshift interval z = 0.05-0.3, for which multiband SDSS photometry is available. A lower-z spectroscopy reference sample was used for comparisons over cosmic time. We present measurements of time series of pseudo equivalent widths and line velocities of the main spectral features in type Ia supernovae. Results: Supernovae with shallower features are found predominantly among the intrinsically brighter slow declining supernovae. We detect the strongest correlation between lightcurve stretch and the Si ii λ4000 absorption feature, which also correlates with the estimated mass and star formation rate of the host galaxy. We also report a tentative correlation between colour excess and spectral properties. If confirmed, this would suggest that moderate reddening of type Ia supernovae is dominated by effects in the explosion or its immediate environment, as opposed to extinction by interstellar dust.
  • Östman, Linda, et al. (författare)
  • NTT and NOT spectroscopy of SDSS-II supernovae
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 526, s. A28-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey, conducted between 2005 and 2007, was designed to detect a large number of type Ia supernovae around z ~ 0.2, the redshift "gap" between low-z and high-z supernova searches. The survey has provided multi-band (ugriz) photometric lightcurves for variable targets, and supernova candidates were scheduled for spectroscopic observations, primarily to provide supernova classification and accurate redshifts. We present supernova spectra obtained in 2006 and 2007 using the New Technology Telescope (NTT) and the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT). Aims: We provide an atlas of supernova spectra in the range z = 0.03-0.32 that complements the well-sampled lightcurves from SDSS-II in the forthcoming three-year SDSS supernova cosmology analysis. The sample can, for example, be used for spectral studies of type Ia supernovae, which are critical for understanding potential systematic effects when supernovae are used to determine cosmological distances. Methods: The spectra were reduced in a uniform manner, and special care was taken in estimating the uncertainties for the different processing steps. Host-galaxy light was subtracted when possible and the supernova type fitted using the SuperNova IDentification code (SNID). We also present comparisons between spectral and photometric dating using SALT lightcurve fits to the photometry from SDSS-II, as well as the global distribution of our sample in terms of the lightcurve parameters: stretch and colour. Results: We report new spectroscopic data from 141 type Ia supernovae, mainly between -9 and +15 days from lightcurve maximum, including a few cases of multi-epoch observations. This homogeneous, host-galaxy subtracted, type Ia supernova spectroscopic sample is among the largest such data sets and unique in its redshift interval. The sample includes two potential SN 1991T-like supernovae (SN 2006on and SN 2007ni) and one potential SN 2002cx-like supernova (SN 2007ie). In addition, the new compilation includes spectra from 23 confirmed type II and 8 type Ib/c supernovae.
  • Scott, Pat, 1982- (författare)
  • Searches for Particle Dark Matter : Dark stars, dark galaxies, dark halos and global supersymmetric fits
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The identity of dark matter is one of the key outstanding problems in both particle and astrophysics. In this thesis, I describe a number of complementary searches for particle dark matter. I discuss how the impact of dark matter on stars can constrain its interaction with nuclei, focussing on main sequence stars close to the Galactic Centre, and on the first stars as seen through the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. The mass and annihilation cross-section of dark matter particles can be probed with searches for gamma rays produced in astronomical targets. Dwarf galaxies and ultracompact, primordially-produced dark matter minihalos turn out to be especially promising in this respect. I illustrate how the results of these searches can be combined with constraints from accelerators and cosmology to produce a single global fit to all available data. Global fits in supersymmetry turn out to be quite technically demanding, even with the simplest predictive models and the addition of complementary data from a bevy of astronomical and terrestrial experiments; I show how genetic algorithms can help in overcoming these challenges.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters. - 2041-8205. ; 699:2, s. L102-L107
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the discovery of gamma-ray pulsations (>= 0.1 GeV) from the young radio and X-ray pulsar PSR J0205 + 6449 located in the Galactic supernova remnant 3C 58. Data in the gamma-ray band were acquired by the Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST), while the radio rotational ephemeris used to fold gamma-rays was obtained using both the Green Bank Telescope and the Lovell telescope at Jodrell Bank. The light curve consists of two peaks separated by 0.49 +/- 0.01 +/- 0.01 cycles which are aligned with the X-ray peaks. The first gamma-ray peak trails the radio pulse by 0.08 +/- 0.01 +/- 0.01, while its amplitude decreases with increasing energy as for the other gamma-ray pulsars. Spectral analysis of the pulsed gamma-ray emission suggests a simple power law of index -2.1 +/- 0.1 +/- 0.2 with an exponential cutoff at 3.0(-0.7)(+1.1) +/- 0.4 GeV. The first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. The integral gamma-ray photon flux above 0.1 GeV is (13.7 +/- 1.4 +/- 3.0) x 10(-8) cm(-2) s(-1), which implies for a distance of 3.2 kpc and assuming a broad fan-like beam a luminosity of 8.3 x 10(34) erg s(-1) and an efficiency eta of 0.3%. Finally, we report a 95% upper limit on the flux of 1.7 x 10(-8) cm(-2) s(-1) for off-pulse emission from the object.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • Fermi Observations of High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from GRB 080916C
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 323:5922, s. 1688-1693
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are highly energetic explosions signaling the death of massive stars in distant galaxies. The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi Observatory together record GRBs over a broad energy range spanning about 7 decades of gamma-ray energy. In September 2008, Fermi observed the exceptionally luminous GRB 080916C, with the largest apparent energy release yet measured. The high-energy gamma rays are observed to start later and persist longer than the lower energy photons. A simple spectral form fits the entire GRB spectrum, providing strong constraints on emission models. The known distance of the burst enables placing lower limits on the bulk Lorentz factor of the outflow and on the quantum gravity mass.
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