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Sökning: AMNE:(SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP Psykologi)

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4.
  • Bendelin, Nina, et al. (författare)
  • Experiences of guided Internet-based cognitive-behavioural treatment for depression : A qualitative study
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: BMC Psychiatry. - : BioMed Central. - 1471-244X .- 1471-244X. ; 11:107
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Internet-based self-help treatment with minimal therapist contact has been shown to have an effect in treating various conditions. The objective of this study was to explore participants’ views of Internet administrated guided self-help treatment for depression. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 strategically selected participants and qualitative methods with components of both thematic analysis and grounded theory were used in the analyses. Results: Three distinct change processes relating to how participants worked with the treatment material emerged which were categorized as (a) Readers, (b) Strivers, and (c) Doers. These processes dealt with attitudes towards treatment, views on motivational aspects of the treatment, and perceptions of consequences of the treatment. Conclusions: We conclude that the findings correspond with existing theoretical models of face-to-face psychotherapy within qualitative process research. Persons who take responsibility for the treatment and also attribute success to themselves appear to benefit more. Motivation is a crucial aspect of guided self-help in the treatment of depression.
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5.
  • Bergstrom, Jan, et al. (författare)
  • Internet-versus group-administered cognitive behaviour therapy for panic disorder in a psychiatric setting : a randomised trial
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: BMC Psychiatry. - : BioMed Central. - 1471-244X .- 1471-244X. ; 10, s. article 54-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Internet administered cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is a promising new way to deliver psychological treatment, but its effectiveness in regular care settings and in relation to more traditional CBT group treatment has not yet been determined. The primary aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Internet- and group administered CBT for panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia) in a randomised trial within a regular psychiatric care setting. The second aim of the study was to establish the cost-effectiveness of these interventions. Methods: Patients referred for treatment by their physician, or self-referred, were telephone-screened by a psychiatric nurse. Patients fulfilling screening criteria underwent an in-person structured clinical interview carried out by a psychiatrist. A total of 113 consecutive patients were then randomly assigned to 10 weeks of either guided Internet delivered CBT (n = 53) or group CBT (n = 60). After treatment, and at a 6-month follow-up, patients were again assessed by the psychiatrist, blind to treatment condition. Results: Immediately after randomization 9 patients dropped out, leaving 104 patients who started treatment. Patients in both treatment conditions showed significant improvement on the main outcome measure, the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) after treatment. For the Internet treatment the within-group effect size (pre-post) on the PDSS was Cohen's d = 1.73, and for the group treatment it was d = 1.63. Between group effect sizes were low and treatment effects were maintained at 6-months follow-up. We found no statistically significant differences between the two treatment conditions using a mixed models approach to account for missing data. Group CBT utilised considerably more therapist time than did Internet CBT. Defining effect as proportion of PDSS responders, the cost-effectiveness analysis concerning therapist time showed that Internet treatment had superior cost-effectiveness ratios in relation to group treatment both at post-treatment and follow-up. Conclusions: This study provides support for the effectiveness of Internet CBT in a psychiatric setting for patients with panic disorder, and suggests that it is equally effective as the more widely used group administered CBT in reducing panic-and agoraphobic symptoms, as well as being more cost effective with respect to therapist time.
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6.
  • Brinkborg, Hillevi, et al. (författare)
  • Acceptance and commitment therapy for the treatment of stress among social workers : A randomized controlled trial
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Behaviour Research and Therapy. - : Elsevier. - 0005-7967 .- 1873-622X. ; 49:6-7, s. 389-398
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chronic stress increases the risk of health problems and absenteeism, with negative consequences for individuals, organizations and society. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of a brief stress management intervention based on the principles of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) on stress and general mental health for Swedish social workers (n = 106) in a randomized, controlled trial. Participants were stratified according to stress level at baseline in order to examine whether initial stress level moderated the effect of the intervention. Two thirds of the participants had high stress levels at baseline (Perceived Stress Scale; score of >= 25). The results showed that the intervention significantly decreased levels of stress and burnout, and increased general mental health compared to a waiting list control. No statistically significant effects were, however, found for those with low levels of stress at baseline. Among participants with high stress, a substantial proportion (42%) reached criteria for clinically significant change. We concluded that the intervention successfully decreased stress and symptoms of burnout, and increased general mental health. Evidence is, thus, provided supporting ACT as brief, stress management intervention for social workers.
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7.
  • Edvardsson, Bo, 1944- (författare)
  • Om kritik av intelligenstestning
  • 1975
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Rapporten summerar ett antal slag av kritik som fram till 1975 anförts rörande intelligenstestning. Denna kritik synes fortfarande vara relevant år 2009, då missbruk av intelligenstest och överdrivna anspråk kring resultaten florerar i psykologutlåtanden. Det viktigaste som senare har tillkommit är den kritik som kan riktas utifrån Gardners teori om multipla intelligenser och teori om emotionell intelligens. Gardner har även kritiserat mätförfarandena med papper och penna och menar att observationer av beteende i mer naturliga miljöer är rimligare.
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8.
  • Nordin, Sara, et al. (författare)
  • Expanding the limits of bibliotherapy for panic disorder : Randomized trial of self-help without support but with a clear deadline
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Behavior Therapy. - : Elsevier. - 0005-7894 .- 1878-1888. ; 41:3, s. 267-276
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cognitive behavioral bibliotherapy for panic disorder has been found to be less effective without therapist support. In this study, participants were randomized to either unassisted bibliotherapy (n = 20) with a scheduled follow-up telephone interview or to a waiting list control group (n = 19). Following a structured psychiatric interview, participants in the treatment group were sent a self-help book consisting of 10 chapters based on cognitive behavioral strategies for the treatment of panic disorder. No therapist contact of any kind was provided during the treatment phase, which lasted for 10 weeks. Results showed that the treatment group had, in comparison to the control group, improved on all outcome measures at posttreatment and at 3-month follow-up. The tentative conclusion drawn from these results is that pure bibliotherapy with a clear deadline can be effective for people suffering from panic disorder with or without agoraphobia.
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9.
  • Edvardsson, Bo, 1944- (författare)
  • Påverkansfallet I: utredningsmetodik, tankefel och källkritik i två psykologutlåtanden. Grovt missbruk av psykologi av psykolog.
  • 2009
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Syftet är att kritiskt-vetenskapligt granska utredningsmetodik, tankefel och källkritik i två psykologutlåtanden rörande två utredningsomhändertagna syskon och beställda av ett utredningshem som anlitas av socialtjänsten. En stor mängd brister i utredningsmetodik, mängder av allvarliga tankefel och bristande källkritisk prövning framkommer. Psykologimissbruket flödar. Fler av socialtjänstens dokument i fallet granskas i följande rapporter rubricerade "Påverkansfallet II-IV". De kan läsas fristående från varandra. Påverkansfallet II är den centrala och mest omfattande rapporten där mängder av påstådd och korrupt utredningsaktivitet klargörs och en synnerligen omfattande lista över tankefel presenteras.
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10.
  • Rönnlund, Michael, 1967-, et al. (författare)
  • Predictors of self-reported prospective and retrospective memory in a population-based sample of older adults
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: The Journal of Genetic Psychology. - : Taylor & Francis. - 0022-1325 .- 1940-0896. ; 172:3, s. 266-284
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this article, the authors examined predictors of self-reported everyday memory failures using the Prospective and Retrospective Questionnaire (PRMQ; Smith, Della Sala, Logie, &Maylor, 2000) in a population-based sample of older adults (age range = 60–90 years; N = 250). The results showed that a higher frequency of reported failures was associated with lower scores on the personality dimension of self-directedness as assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI; Cloninger, Dragan, Svrakic,& Przybeck, 1993) and more depressive symptoms on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; Radloff, 1977).However, PRMQscores showed no relationships with objective memory ability, as reflected by a series of retrospective memory measures and a measure of prospective memory. Neither were the PRMQ scales associated with general cognitive functioning as assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE; Folstein, Folstein, & McHugh, 1977). Taken together, the results indicate that within the older population, self-reported memory as assessed by the PRMQ may reflect moodstate and personality factors rather than individual differences in memory and cognitive ability.
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