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Träfflista för sökning "AMNE:(MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES Clinical Medicine Geriatrics) srt2:(2000-2004)"

Sökning: AMNE:(MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES Clinical Medicine Geriatrics) > (2000-2004)

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1.
  • Edlund, A., et al. (författare)
  • Delirium before and after operation for femoral neck fracture
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Journal of The American Geriatrics Society. - 0002-8614 .- 1532-5415. ; 49:10, s. 1335-1340
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the differences between preoperative and postoperative delirium regarding predisposing, precipitating factors and outcome in older patients admitted to hospital with femoral neck fractures. DESIGN: A prospective clinical assessment of patients treated for femoral neck fractures. SETTING: Department of orthopedic surgery at Umea University Hospital, Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred one patients, age 65 and older admitted to the hospital for treatment of femoral neck fractures. MEASUREMENTS: The Organic Brain Syndrome (OBS) Scale. RESULTS: Thirty patients (29.7%) were delirious before surgery and another 19 (18.8%) developed delirium postoperatively. Of those who were delirious preoperatively, all but one remained delirious postoperatively. The majority of those delirious before surgery were demented, had been treated with drugs with anticholinergic properties (mainly neuroleptics), had had previous episodes of delirium, and had fallen indoors. Patients who developed postoperative delirium had perioperative falls in blood pressure and had more postoperative complications such as infections. Male patients were more often delirious both preoperatively and postoperatively. Patients with preoperative delirium were more often discharged to institutional care and had poorer walking ability both on discharge and after 6 months than did patients with postoperative delirium only. CONCLUSIONS: Because preoperative and postoperative delirium are associated with different risk factors it is necessary to devise different strategies for their prevention.
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2.
  • Bergh, Ingrid, 1956, et al. (författare)
  • An application of pain rating scales in geriatric patients.
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Aging (Milan, Italy). - : Elsevier. - 0394-9532. ; 12:5, s. 380-387
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study examined the applicability of three different pain rating scales, the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), the Graphic Rating Scale (GRS) and the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), in geriatric patients. Data collection was performed in a geriatric clinic at a university hospital. A structured interview was conducted with 167 patients (mean age = 80.5 years). Patients rated their current experience of pain twice with a 5-minute pause in-between on the VAS, GRS and NRS, and were then asked if they experienced pain, ache or hurt (PAH) or other symptoms. The correlations were high and significant both between the ratings of the VAS, GRS and NRS (r = 0.78-0.92; p < 0.001) (alternative-forms reliability), and between the test and retesting (r = 0.75-r = 0.83; p < 0.001) (test-retest reliability). A logistic regression analysis showed that the probability to accomplish a rating on the pain scales decreased with advancing age of the patient, and this was especially marked for the VAS. The probability of agreement between the patients' ratings of pain and the verbal report of PAH tended to decrease with advancing age; this was especially so for the VAS. Patients who verbally denied PAH but reported pain on the scales rated it significant lower (p < 0.001) than those who verbally reported PAH and rated the pain as well. Eighteen percent of patients who denied pain but rated a pain experience verbally expressed suffering or distress. The study suggests that pain rating scales such as the VAS, GRS and NRS can be used to evaluate pain experience in geriatric patients. However, agreement between verbally expressed experience of PAH, and the rated experience of pain tended to decrease with advancing age. This indicates that the pain-evaluating process will be substantially improved by an additional penetration supported by a wide variety of expression of hurt, ache, pain, discomfort and distress.
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3.
  • Nilsson, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Relation between plasma homocysteine and Alzheimer's disease.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. - : Karger. - 1420-8008. ; 14:1, s. 41467-41467
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Several studies have shown that plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentration is elevated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it is not clear whether elevated plasma tHcy is a primary cause or a consequence of AD. METHOD: To elucidate this question, we have analysed plasma homocysteine and its determinants in patients with early (EOAD)- and late-onset AD (LOAD) and compared the findings with those in vascular dementia (VaD) and age- and sex-matched control subjects. RESULTS: One of the main findings in the present study is that in EOAD there is no change in the levels of either plasma tHcy or its determinants compared with an age- and sex-matched control group. The fact that plasma tHcy concentration is normal in EOAD thus indicates that elevated plasma tHcy is not the primary cause of the disease. Another main finding is that patients with mixed dementia (AD and VaD) and patients with VaD showed significantly increased plasma tHcy concentration compared with controls and that plasma tHCy concentration in patients with LOAD and a history of additional cardiovascular disease was elevated compared both with AD patients without such a history and with the controls. Thus, there is an association between elevated plasma tHcy and vascular disease. A third main finding is that patients with AD who were followed up for several years showed a clinical deterioration of dementia and an elevation of plasma tHcy concentration. This finding likewise supports the notion that elevated plasma tHcy is not the primary cause of the disease. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that elevated plasma tHcy is not the primary cause of the disease. Furthermore, the findings indicate that elevated plasma tHcy might be a reflection of concomitant vascular disease in AD patients.
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5.
  • Nilsson, K, et al. (författare)
  • Lack of association between plasma homocysteine and inflammation in psychogeriatric patients
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. - : Karger. - 1420-8008. ; 14:3, s. 151-155
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background/Objectives: In previous studies we observed a high incidence of elevated plasma homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations in psychogeriatric patients. Plasma tHcy is increased in folate deficiency. Folates are sensitive to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress, caused by inflammatory processes, could represent an endogenous reason for folate deficiency, even when the dietary intake of the vitamin is within the recommended range. It has been suggested that oxidative stress rather than insufficient folate intake causes hyperhomocysteinemia in different forms of psychogeriatric diseases. In the present study we investigated the association between plasma tHcy and C-reactive protein (CRP), a sensitive marker for inflammation, in psychogeriatric patients. Methods: Plasma tHcy, its main determinants, and CRP were measured in plasma and serum of 132 psychogeriatric patients (53 males and 79 females, mean age 75 12 years). Results. In the psychogeriatric patients, plasma tHcy was elevated and blood folate and serum creatinine were lower than in control subjects, whereas serum CRP concentrations did not differ significantly. We also subdivided the psychogeriatric patients into different diagnosis groups, yet there were no differences in serum CRP concentrations in these groups compared with age-matched control groups. There was a significant correlation between plasma tHcy and serum CRP (rho = 0.19, p < 0.05). A stepwise multiple regression analysis including serum CRP, age, blood folate, serum cobalamin, serum methylmalonic acid and serum creatinine showed that only blood folate (p < 0.001), age (p < 0.001), serum creatinine (p < 0.001), serum cobalamin (p < 0.001), and serum methylmalonic acid (p < 0.001) independently predicted plasma tHcy concentration. Thus CRP concentration was not an independent predictor of plasma tHcy. Conclusion: The present study did not show any association between inflammatory status and plasma tHcy concentration in psychogeriatric patients.
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6.
  • Bergh, Ingrid, 1956, et al. (författare)
  • Assessing pain and pain relief in geriatric patients with non-pathological fractures with different rating scales.
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Aging (Milan, Italy). - : Kurtis. - 0394-9532. ; 13:5, s. 355-361
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although pain is a frequent problem among elderly patients, they are often omitted in clinical trials and few studies have focused on assessing pain relief in this population. The aim of this study was to compare geriatric patients' verbally reported effect of analgesics with changes in pain experience rated with four different rating scales: the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), the Graphic Rating Scale (GRS), the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), and the Pain Relief Scale (PRS). Altogether 53 geriatric patients (mean=82 yrs) with non-pathological fractures in 4 geriatric units at a large university hospital were selected. In connection with the administration of analgesics, the patients were asked to "Mark the point that corresponds to your experience of pain just now at rest" on the VAS, GRS and NRS. This was repeated after 1.5-2 hours, and a direct question was asked about whether the analgesic medication given in connection with the initial assessment had had any pain-alleviation effect. Two comparisons were conducted with each patient. The results show that the probability of accomplishing a rating on the VAS, GRS, NRS, and PRS was lower with advancing age in these elderly fracture patients. The correlations between the ratings of the VAS, GRS and NRS were strong and significant (r=0.80-0.95; p<0.001) both at the initial assessments and at the re-assessments. However, the verbally reported effects of the analgesics were often directly opposite to the changes in rated pain. Therefore, application of the VAS, NRS, GRS and PRS for the purpose of assessing pain relief must be combined with supplementary questions that allow the patient to verbally describe possible experience of pain relief.
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7.
  • Zethelius, Björn, 1962- (författare)
  • Proinsulin and Insulin Sensitivity as Predictors of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Coronary Heart Disease : Clinical Epidemiological Studies with up to 27 Years of Follow-Up
  • 2002
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Defects in insulin secretion and insulin action are the major abnormalities in the development of Type 2 diabetes. Hyperinsulinemia is a risk marker for Type 2 diabetes and according to some, but not in all studies also for coronary heart disease (CHD). Conventional insulin assays measure immunoreactive insulin including proinsulin-like molecules. Proinsulin and insulin measured by specific methods, insulin sensitivity measured by the euglycemic insulin clamp and early insulin response after a glucose challenge give more detailed information and may be better estimates of true risk for Type 2 diabetes and CHD. This study examined relationships between proinsulin, insulin, insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity for the development of Type 2 diabetes and CHD. The investigation of the prognostic significance of proinsulin and insulin for the development of Type 2 diabetes and CHD was performed in prospective studies of 50-year and 70-year-old men in a population-based cohort. The results indicated, that increased proinsulin concentrations, was a marker of increased risk for Type 2 diabetes independent of measurements of insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity whereas insulin was not. Proinsulin was shown to be a predictor for CHD mortality and morbidity, respectively, independent of conventional risk factors, whereas insulin was not. Insulin sensitivity measured by the gold standard euglycemic insulin clamp at age 70 was a predictor of CHD morbidity, independently of established risk factors.In summary, these data provide evidence that an increased concentration of proinsulin and not an elevated plasma insulin level per se, that constitutes the association with Type 2 diabetes and CHD and that insulin resistance per se, is associated with CHD risk.
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8.
  • Ärnlöv, Johan, 1970- (författare)
  • Left Ventricular Function in Elderly Men : Metabolic, Hormonal, Genetic and Prognostic Implications
  • 2002
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction are major causes of morbidity and mortality. In this thesis, metabolic, hormonal, genetic and prognostic aspects of echocardiographically determined left ventricular function were investigated in a fairly large longitudinal population-based study of men. The participants were examined both at age 50 and 70 years and were followed for mortality using the national cause-of-death registry.Several factors associated with the insulin resistance syndrome predicted left ventricular systolic dysfunction independent of myocardial infarction, hypertension, diabetes and the use of cardiovascular medication after twenty years follow-up. Plasma levels of N-terminal atrial natriuretic peptide (N-ANP) were significantly increased in men with left ventricular dysfunction in comparison to healthy men. However, the diagnostic accuracy was poor due to the extensive overlapping between the groups. Relations between a haplotype of the novel hUNC-93B1 gene and the E/A-ratio were found and validated in separate samples of the cohort. Myocardial performance index (a Doppler derived index of combined left ventricular systolic and diastolic function) and left ventricular ejection fraction were found to be predictors for cardiovascular mortality independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors in a longitudinal analysis with a mean follow-up of seven years.In conclusion, this thesis showed that left ventricular function is influenced by metabolic, hormonal and genetic factors and that echocardiographic measurements of left ventricular function, such as the myocardial performance index, are strong independent risk factors for cardiovascular mortality in elderly men.
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9.
  • Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor, 1950- (författare)
  • Prediction and prevention of falls among elderly people in residential care
  • 2000
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Among elderly people, falls lead to a considerable amount of immobility, morbidity, and mortality. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate methods for predicting falls, and to evaluate a fall prevention program among elderly people living in residential care facilities. A fall was defined as any event in which the resident unintentionally came to rest on the floor or the ground regardless of whether or not an injury was sustained.In developing the prediction methods, it was hypothesised that older persons showing difficulties in performing a familiar second task while walking were more likely to fall within six months. For residents who stopped walking when talking, the relative risk of falling was 3.5 (95% CL2.0-6.2) compared to those who continued walking. For residents with a time difference (diffTUG) of at least 4.5 seconds between two performances of the Timed Up&Go test, with and without carrying a glass, the hazard ratio for falls was 4.7 (95% Cl: 1.5-14.2) compared to those with a shorter diffTUG.A screening tool, the Mobility Interaction Fall (MIF) chart, was developed and evaluated, then validated in a new sample. This tool included a mobility rating, ‘Stops walking when talking’, ‘diffTUG’, a test of vision, and a concentration rating. In the first sample, the hazard ratio was 12.1 (95% 0:4.6-31.8) for residents classified as ‘high-risk’ compared to ‘low-risk’. The positive predictive value was 78%, and the negative predictive value, the sensitivity, and the specificity were above 80% for falling in six months. In the second sample the prediction accuracy of the MIF chart was lower (hazard ratio 1.7, 95% Cl: 1.1-2.5) and a 6-month fall history or a global rating of fall risk by staff were at least equally valuable. A combination of any two of the methods - the MIF chart, staff judgement, fall history - was more accurate at identifying high risk residents than any method alone. Half of the residents classified by two methods as ‘high risk’ sustained a fall within 6 months.In a randomised study a prevention program directed to residents, staff, and environment resulted in a significant reduction in the number of residents falling (44% vs. 56%; odds ratio 0.62, 95% CF0.41-0.92), the incidence of falls (incidence rate ratio IRR 0.80, 95% CF0.69-0.94) and of femoral fractures (IRR 0.25, 95% 0:0.08-0.82) in the intervention compared to the control group.In conclusion, a combination of any two of the staff judgement, fall history or MIF chart has the potential to identify a large proportion of residents at particular high fall risk. A multidisciplinary and multifactorial fall prevention program directed to residents, staff, and the environment can reduce the numbnumber of residents falling, of falls and of femoral fractures.
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