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Träfflista för sökning "AMNE:(MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES Clinical Medicine Geriatrics) srt2:(2005-2009)"

Sökning: AMNE:(MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES Clinical Medicine Geriatrics) > (2005-2009)

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  • Westius, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • View of life in persons with dementia
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Dementia. - London : Sage. - 1471-3012 .- 1741-2684. ; 8:4, s. 481-499
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To study the view of life in dementia. The view of life of an individual is defined as a conception of reality, a central system of values and a basic emotional attitude.Method: Interviews with persons (N = 21) with mild to moderate dementia of the Alzheimer’s type. The interview data were interpreted with a phenomenological hermeneutical method.Results: Despite their cognitive deterioration it was possible to understand the view of life of the participants in the frame of their life story. Their view of life seemed to guide them towards selecting mainly emotionally powerful and value-oriented memories. No exceptional characteristics that could be traced to their dementia disease were found in the participants’ views of life. Conclusions: The view of life of the participants with mild to moderate dementia was vital for their life story and was not erased by dementia.Implications: In order to respect people with dementia as persons, caregivers should strive for gaining some knowledge of their view of life.
  • Bergh, Ingrid, 1956, et al. (författare)
  • Descriptions of pain in elderly patients following orthopaedic surgery.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian journal of caring sciences. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0283-9318 .- 1471-6712. ; 19:2, s. 110-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aims of this study were to investigate what words elderly patients, who had undergone hip surgery, used to describe their experience of pain in spoken language and to compare these words with those used in the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) and Pain-O-Meter (POM). The study was carried out at two orthopaedic and two geriatric clinical departments at a large university hospital in Sweden. Altogether, 60 patients (mean age =77) who had undergone orthopaedic surgery took part in the study. A face-to-face interview was conducted with each patient on the second day after the operation. This was divided into two parts, one tape-recorded and semi-structured in character and one structured interview. The results show that a majority of the elderly patients who participated in this study verbally stated pain and spontaneously used a majority of the words found in the SF-MPQ and in the POM. The patients also used a number of additional words not found in the SF-MPQ or the POM. Among those patients who did not use any of the words in the SF-MPQ and the POM, the use of the three additional words 'stel' (stiff), 'hemsk' (awful) and 'rad(d)(sla)' (afraid/fear) were especially marked. The patients also combined the words with a negation to describe what pain was not. To achieve a more balanced and nuanced description of the patient's pain and to make it easier for the patients to talk about their pain, there is a need for access to a set of predefined words that describe pain from a more multidimensional perspective than just intensity. If the elderly patient is allowed, and finds it necessary, to use his/her own words to describe what pain is but also to describe what pain is not, by combining the words with a negation, then the risk of the patient being forced to choose words that do not fully correspond to their pain can be reduced. If so, pain scales such as the SF-MPQ and the POM can create a communicative bridge between the elderly patient and health care professionals in the pain evaluation process.
  • Mamhidir, Anna-Greta, et al. (författare)
  • Weight increase in patients with dementia, and alteration in meal routines and meal environment after integrity promoting care.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Nursing. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0962-1067 .- 1365-2702. ; 16:5, s. 987-96
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims. To follow weight changes in patients with moderate and severe dementia and analyse how these changes related to biological and psychological parameters after staff education and support in integrity promoting care. A further aim was to describe meal environment and routines relative to the intervention.Background. Weight loss in patients with dementia and in particular Alzheimer's disease is common. The aetiology appears multifactorial with the meal environment and a decreased independence while eating among the factors.Method. Over a three-month intervention period, an integrity-promoting care training programme was conducted with the staff of a long-term ward. Alzheimer's disease patients, 18 from an intervention ward and 15 from a control ward were included and possible effects were evaluated. Weighing was conducted at the start and after completion of the intervention. Weight changes were analysed in relation to psychological and biochemical parameters. In addition, the staff wrote diaries about, for example changes made in the environment and in their work.Results. The most prominent difference observed was weight increases in 13 of 18 patients compared with two of 15 patients in the control ward. No weight changes were related to the type of dementia. The individual weight changes correlated significantly to changes in the intellectual functions. Relationships between weight change, increased motor function and increased appetite were non-significant. There was no significant relationship between weight changes and changes in biochemical parameters. According to the staff, increased contact with the patients and a more pleasant atmosphere resulted when the meal environment and routines were changed.Relevance to clinical practice. Weight gain in patients with moderate and severe dementia was achieved by adjusting the meal environment to the individual's needs. Staff education was profitable, as increased competence seemed to promote individually adapted feeding situations. Ensuring good meal situations need to be given high priority.
  • Karlsson, Staffan, et al. (författare)
  • Older people receiving public long-term care in relation to consumption of medical health care and informal care
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: The Open Geriatric Medicine Journal. - Bussum : Bentham Open. - 1874-8279. ; 1, s. 1-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of the study was to investigate medical health care and informal care consumption among older people receiving public long-term care, and factors associated with medical health care consumption. 1958 persons aged 65 years and over were included. Data were collected from two registers, including demography, functional ability and received long-term, informal and medical health care. 35% of those at home were admitted to hospital and 76% had contact with outpatient care by physician compared to 26% and 87% respectively of those in special accommodation. Living in special accommodation was associated with more contacts with primary health care and fewer contacts with specialist care other than psychiatric care. Informal care was associated with more contacts with primary health care, specialist care, admissions to and days in hospital. More elderly people being cared for at home may mean more hospital and outpatient care consumption.
  • Hagnelius, Nils-Olof, 1953- (författare)
  • Vascular mechanisms in dementia with special reference to folate and fibrinolysis
  • 2009
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of this thesis was to study the biomarker homocysteine and other novel potential vascular risk factors for dementia. In an out-patient based study of a cohort of 926 consecutive subjects referred to our Memory Unit during 1996―2000, serum-folate was lower and total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) and serum methyl malonate were higher in subjects being prescribed with B12. In the subgroup diagnosed with dementia and with a positive family history of dementia, tHcy was higher than in the subgroup diagnosed as non-demented. It is necessary to supplement subjects with vitamin B12 deficiency with B12, but our results indicate that it is not sufficient with B12 alone because this gives rise to intracellular folate deficiency. We also found indications of a genetic component in dementia because tHcy was higher in the group with a positive family history of dementia. These findings prompted further studies of homocysteine metabolism. The frequency of mutations in the gene for folate receptor-α (FOLR-1), and the fibrinolytic pattern in dementia and non-dementia were studied in the two cohorts DGM (n=300) and AS (n=389). The DGM cohort is a consecutive series of subjects attending our Memory Care Unit for investigation of suspected cognitive problems or dementia between 2003 - 2007. The AS (= active seniors) cohort comprises retired, apparently healthy subjects from central Sweden, actively participating in study circles. A rare haplotype in the FOLR-1, with mutations in two nearby loci, was discovered, possibly associated with lower serum-folate and higher tHcy concentrations and was more frequent in the DGM group. The transport of folate to the CSF was studied in the DGM-cohort. Dementia with a vascular component was associated with a lower CSF to serum folate ratio indicative of reduced transport of folate to the CSF and further to the brain. The vascular endothelial derived fibrinolytic markers tPA, tPA/PAI-1-complex, and vWF were not only higher in vascular dementia (VaD) but also in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) when compared to the AS group. The impaired fibrinolytic activity in both vascular dementia and in AD is a novel finding, signifying a vascular component in the development of dementia. In conclusion we found that both hereditary and nutritional background factors were linked to dementia and furthermore that a dysregulated fibrinolysis was linked to both VaD and AD.
  • Appelros, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Changes in mini mental state examination score after stroke : lacunar infarction predicts cognitive decline
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Neurology. - 1351-5101 .- 1468-1331. ; 13:5, s. 491-495
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Stroke and cognitive impairment are inter-related. The purpose of this study was to show the natural evolution of cognitive performance during the first year after a stroke, and to show which factors that predict cognitive decline. Subjects were patients with a first-ever stroke who were treated in a stroke unit. A total of 160 patients were included. At baseline patients were evaluated with regard to stroke type, stroke severity, pre-stroke dementia and other risk factors. Mini Mental State Examinations (MMSE) were performed after 1 week and after 1 year. Patients had a median increase of 1 point (range -8 to +9) on the MMSE. Thirty-two pre cent of the patients deteriorated, 13% were unchanged, and 55% improved. Lacunar infarction (LI) and left-sided stroke were associated with a failure to exhibit improvement. Patients with LI had an average decline of 1.7 points, whilst patients with other stroke types had an average increase of 1.8 points. Most stroke survivors improve cognitively during the first year after the event. The outcome for LI patients is worse, which suggests that LI may serve as a marker for concomitant processes that cause cognitive decline.
  • Appelros, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Heart failure and stroke
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Stroke. - 0039-2499 .- 1524-4628. ; 37:7, s. 1637-1637
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  • Appelros, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence and predictors of pain and fatigue after stroke : a population-based study
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. - 0342-5282 .- 1473-5660. ; 29:4, s. 329-333
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Pain and fatigue are two often overlooked symptoms after stroke. Their prevalence and determinants are not well understood. In this study patients with first-ever stroke (n=377) were examined at baseline and after 1 year. General characteristics of the patients, as well as stroke type, stroke severity and risk factors were registered at baseline. After 1 year survivors (n=253) were examined with respect to residual impairment, disability, cognition and depression. They were asked whether they had experienced pain and/or fatigue which had started after the stroke, and which the patient felt to be stroke related. Twenty-eight patients (11%) had stroke-associated pain and 135 (53%) had stroke-associated fatigue. Pain was associated with depression and different manifestations of stroke severity, especially degree of paresis at baseline. Fatigue was more associated with physical disability. In univariate analysis, fatigue was also associated with sleep disturbances. In conclusion, it is important to be aware of the occurrence of pain and fatigue after stroke, because these symptoms are common, they impair quality of life and they are potentially treatable. Post-stroke depression may coexist with pain and fatigue. The detection of one symptom should lead to consideration of the others. Follow-up and individual assessment of stroke patients is crucial.
  • de Frias, Cindy M, et al. (författare)
  • Cholesterol and triglycerides moderate the effect of apolipoprotein E on memory functioning in older adults
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences. - Washington : The gerontological society of America. - 1079-5014 .- 1758-5368. ; 62:2, s. P112-P118
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We used data from the Betula Study to examine associations between total cholesterol, triglycerides, and apolipoprotein E on 10-year changes in cognitive performance. Tests assessing episodic memory (recall and recognition), semantic memory (knowledge and fluency), and visuospatial ability (block design) were administered to 524 nondemented adults (initial age of 55-80 years); multilevel modeling was applied to the data. Higher triglyceride levels were associated with a decline in verbal knowledge. Lipid levels moderated the influence of apolipoprotein E on episodic memory, such that among epsilon 4 allele carriers, decline in recognition was noted for individuals with higher cholesterol levels. Cholesterol and triglyceride levels are pharmacologically modifiable risk factors that account for variation In normal cognitive aging.
  • Gräsbeck, Anne, et al. (författare)
  • Dementia in First-Degree Relatives of Patients with Frontotemporal Dementia. A Family History Study.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. - : Karger. - 1420-8008. ; 19:2-3, s. 145-153
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Several studies have found a clustering of dementia in relatives of patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD). This study analysed the familial aggregation of FTD specifically as well as the occurrence of dementia in general in first-degree relatives of patients with FTD. A family history study was carried out on 478 first-degree relatives of 74 index patients suffering from FTD. Cases of organic dementia and of FTD were diagnosed according to internationally accepted diagnostic criteria. Age- and sex-specific incidences of organic dementia and of FTD were calculated as was the proportion of FTD in relation to organic dementia in general; comparisons with clinical and population studies were made. There was a tenfold increase in the incidence of FTD in the first-degree relatives of FTD patients compared with the incidence of FTD in a population study. The proportion of FTD in relation to all types of organic dementia was much higher in relatives of FTD patients compared to the corresponding proportions in clinical and population-based studies. There was a small, non-significant difference between the present family history study and the population studies as regards the incidence of organic dementia. The findings suggest that hereditary and/or shared environmental factors are strongly involved in the aetiology of FTD. There were no indications of familial clustering of organic dementia in general in relatives of FTD patients.
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