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Träfflista för sökning "AMNE:(MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES Clinical Medicine Geriatrics) srt2:(2020-2021)"

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1.
  • Johansson, Linda, et al. (författare)
  • Using aggregated data from Swedish national quality registries as tools to describe health conditions of older adults with complex needs
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research. - : Springer. - 1594-0667 .- 1720-8319.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Combining National Quality Registries (NQRs) with existing National Health Registries (NHRs) might make it possible to get a wider picture of older adults health situation. The aim was to examine the feasibility of aggregating data across different NQRs and existing NHRs to explore the possibility to investigate trajectories and patterns of disease and care, specifically for the most ill older adults. Method: A Swedish twin population (N = 44,816) was linked to nine NQRs and four NHRs. A descriptive mixed-method study was performed. A manifest content analysis identified which health parameters were collected from each NQR. Factor analysis identified patterns in representation across NQRs. Two case studies illustrated individual trajectories of care by using NQRs and NHRs. Results: About 36% of the population was registered in one or more NQRs. NQRs included 1849 variables that were sorted into 13 categories with extensive overlap across the NQRs. Health and function variables were identified, but few social or cognitive variables. Even though most individuals demonstrated unique patterns of multi-morbidities, factor analysis identified three clusters of representation in the NQRs with sufficient sample sizes for future investigations. The two cases illustrated the possibility of following patterns of disease and trajectories of care. Conclusions: NQRs seem to be a significant source for collecting data about a population that may be underrepresented in most research on aging because of their age and poor health. However, NQRs are primarily disease related, and further development of the registries to maximize coverage and utility is needed. 
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2.
  • Dahlkvist, Eva, et al. (författare)
  • Residents’ use and perceptions of residential care facility gardens: a behavior mapping and conversation study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Older People Nursing. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 1748-3735 .- 1748-3743. ; 15:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AimTo describe the gardens and their use by individuals living at residential care facilities (RCFs) with high ratings on restorative values.BackgroundBeing outdoors has been described as important to older people's well‐being. Use of outdoor gardens may increase residents’ well‐being through experiences of restorative qualities such as being away and fascination. Thus far, there has been little research on restorative experiences of gardens in the care of older people.DesignA descriptive design using behaviour mapping observations integrated with qualitative field notes and recorded conversations.MethodsA criterion sampling of two gardens (out of a total of 87) was made based on residents’ ratings of restorative values; the two with the highest values were chosen. Eleven residents at the two RCFs took part. Data were collected through behaviour mapping observations, field notes and conversations on five occasions in the respective facilities during residents’ visits to the garden.ResultsThe observations revealed that the main uses of the gardens were to socialise and relax. The conversations also showed that the garden stimulated residents’ senses and evoked memories from the past. These restorative values were interpreted as a sense of being away and fascination. Not having opportunities for outdoor visits was reported to result in disappointment and reduced well‐being.ConclusionsThe findings showed that two basic gardens with different characteristics and views could stimulate residents’ senses and evoke memories from the past; this supports the call for residents to be able to spend time in gardens to promote their well‐being.Implications for practiceFirst‐line managers, nurses and healthcare staff in the care of older people should consider that regular opportunities to spend time outdoors may promote older people's well‐being through feelings of being away and fascination.
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3.
  • Lagerin, Annica, et al. (författare)
  • Extent and quality of drug use in community-dwelling people aged >= 75 years : A Swedish nationwide register-based study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - 1403-4948 .- 1651-1905. ; 48:3, s. 308-315
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: It is important for district nurses and other health professionals in primary care to gain more insight into the patterns and quality of drug use in community-dwelling older people, particularly in 75-year-olds, who have been the target of preventive home visits. This study aimed to examine the extent and quality of drug use in community-dwelling older people and to compare drug use in 75-year-olds with that of older age groups. Methods: Data from 2013 on people aged >= 75 years were obtained from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register. Those living in the community (671,940/739,734 people aged >= 75 years) were included in the study. Quality of drug use was assessed by using a selection of indicators issued by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. Results: The prevalence of polypharmacy and of many drug groups increased with age, as did several indicators of inappropriate drug use. However some drug groups, as well as inappropriate drugs, were prevalent in 75-year-olds and declined with age, for example diabetes drugs, drugs with major anticholinergic effects and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Conclusions: The substantial use of some drugs as early as 75 years of age confirms the value of including drug use as a topic in preventive home visits to 75-year-olds. The finding that polypharmacy and many measures of inappropriate drug use increased with age in community-dwelling older people also underscores the importance of district nurses' role in continuing to promote safe medication management at higher ages.
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5.
  • Sjöberg, Linnea, et al. (författare)
  • Low Mood and Risk of Dementia : The Role of Marital Status and Living Situation
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: The American journal of geriatric psychiatry. - 1064-7481 .- 1545-7214. ; 28:1, s. 33-44
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: This study aims to explore whether low mood is related to an increased dementia risk in two cohorts of older adults of different generations, and whether marital status and living situation modify this association. Methods: Participants (>= 70 years), free from dementia and living at home, were identified from two population-based studies: the Kungsholmen Project (KP; n = 1,197) and the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen (SNAC-K; n = 1,402). Low mood was obtained by self-report (KP and SNAC-K) at baseline in 1987-89 (KP) and 2001-04 (SNAC-K). Incident dementia cases were ascertained over 9 years, using the same diagnostic procedures and comparable criteria for the two cohorts (DSM-III-R in KP and DSM-IV-TR in SNAC-K). Hazard ratios (HR) were derived from Cox proportional hazards models. Results: Those having low mood at baseline were at higher risk of dementia in both cohorts combined (HR: 1.2, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0-1.4) than those without low mood. However, an increased risk was detected only in those who did not have a partner (HR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-1.9), or lived alone (HR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-1.9), but not among those who had a partner or lived with someone (HR: 0.8, 95% CI: 0.5-1.2). Conclusion: Marital status and living situation have the potential to buffer the detrimental effects of low mood on dementia onset. Thus, specific attention from health care should target individuals having low mood and who do not have a partner or live alone.
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6.
  • Hu, Yaoyue, et al. (författare)
  • Do multigenerational living arrangements influence depressive symptoms in mid-late life? Cross-national findings from China and England
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Affective Disorders. - 0165-0327 .- 1573-2517. ; 277, s. 584-591
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: While living alone predicts depression in diverse ageing populations, the impact of multi-generational living is unclear. This study compared mid-late life depressive symptoms by living arrangements between societies with distinct kinship ties.Methods: Repeated data on depressive symptoms and living arrangements over 4 years from 16,229 Chinese (age >= 45) and 10,403 English adults (age >= 50) were analyzed using multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression. Elevated depressive symptoms were identified using the Center for Epidemiological Depression Scale criteria in each study.Results: Higher odds ratios (ORs) of elevated depressive symptoms were found in both Chinese and English adults aged<60 living with no partner but with children/grandchildren, compared to those living with a partner only. These ORs were greater for men (Chinese men: 3.09, 95% confidence interval: 2.00-4.78; English men: 3.44, 1.36-8.72) than for women (Chinese women: 1.77, 1.23-2.56; English women: 2.88, 1.41-3.67), after controlling for socioeconomic position, health behaviors, and health status. This male disadvantage was also observed for English, but not for Chinese, adults aged<60 living alone. For adults aged 60+, the increased odds among those living with no partner but with children/grandchildren and those living alone were smaller in both countries.Limitations: Bias may exist because depressed participants are more likely to experience divorce or separation prior to baseline.Conclusions: The relationship between living arrangements and depressive symptoms appears robust and consistent across social contexts, although the mechanisms differ. The protective role of partners in both China and England supports targeting those who do not live with partners to reduce depression.
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7.
  • Marengoni, Alessandra, et al. (författare)
  • Patterns of Multimorbidity in a Population-Based Cohort of Older People : Sociodemographic, Lifestyle, Clinical, and Functional Differences
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences. - 1079-5006 .- 1758-535X. ; 75:4, s. 798-805
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The aim of this study is to identify clusters of older persons based on their multimorbidity patterns and to analyze differences among clusters according to sociodemographic, lifestyle, clinical, and functional characteristics. Methods: We analyzed data from the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen on 2,931 participants aged 60 years and older who had at least two chronic diseases. Participants were clustered by the fuzzy c-means cluster algorithm. A disease was considered to be associated with a given cluster when the observed/expected ratio was >= 2 or the exclusivity was >= 25%. Results: Around half of the participants could be classified into five clinically meaningful clusters: respiratory and musculoskeletal diseases (RESP-MSK) 15.7%, eye diseases and cancer (EYE-CANCER) 10.7%, cognitive and sensory impairment (CNS-IMP) 10.6%, heart diseases (HEART) 9.3%, and psychiatric and respiratory diseases (PSY-RESP) 5.4%. Individuals in the CNS-IMP cluster were the oldest, with the worst function and more likely to live in a nursing home; those in the HEART cluster had the highest number of co-occurring diseases and drugs, and they exhibited the highest mean values of serum creatinine and C-reactive protein. The PSY-RESP cluster was associated with higher levels of alcoholism and neuroticism. The other half of the cohort was grouped in an unspecific cluster, which was characterized by gathering the youngest individuals, with the lowest number of co-occurring diseases, and the best functional and cognitive status. Conclusions: The identified multimorbidity patterns provide insight for setting targets for secondary and tertiary preventative interventions and for designing care pathways for multimorbid older people.
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8.
  • Chen, Tuo-Yu, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence and Correlates of Falls Among Centenarians : Results from the Five-Country Oldest Old Project (5-COOP)
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences. - 1079-5006 .- 1758-535X. ; 75:5, s. 974-979
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Many studies have been conducted to investigate risk factors of falls in older people, but little is known about falls among centenarians. We analyzed the cross-sectional data from the Five-Country Oldest Old Project (5-COOP) to investigate the prevalence and correlates of falls among centenarians. Methods: Data collection was carried out in 2011-2014 in Japan, France, Switzerland, Sweden, and Denmark. The sample consisted of 1,165 centenarians who were at least 100 years old in 2011. The outcome variable was falls in the past 6 months. Demographics, chronic conditions, pain, visual impairment, global cognitive function, dizziness and syncope, number of medications, functional limitation (ie, dressing, bathing, toileting, transferring, incontinence, and feeding), mobility difficulty, poor strength, and assistive device usage were included in the analysis. Results: The prevalence of falls within the last 6 months was 33.7%, ranging from 21.6% (Japan) to 40.9% (France). Being male, experiencing dizziness, syncope, incontinence, and using assistive devices indoors were associated with an increased risk of falls among centenarians. Significant cross-country differences in the relationships between some risk factors (ie, gender, difficulty with bathing, toileting, transferring, and feeding, and using assistive devices for walking indoors and outdoors) and falls were observed. Subsample analysis using data from each country also showed that factors related to falls were different. Conclusions: The prevalence of falls among centenarians is high and fall-related factors may be different than those for their younger counterparts. Given that centenarians is an emerging population, more studies investigating risk factors are needed to better understand falls among centenarians.
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9.
  • Cong, Lin, et al. (författare)
  • Use of Cardiovascular Drugs for Primary and Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease Among Rural-Dwelling Older Chinese Adults
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Pharmacology. - 1663-9812 .- 1663-9812. ; 11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cardiovascular risk factors and related disorders are common among older adults, and use of various classes of cardiovascular (CV) drugs could reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, data are sparse with regard to the use of CV drugs among rural-dwelling older adults in China. Therefore, this population-based study aimed to describe use of CV drugs among older adults living in the rural communities in China, while taking into account the use of CV drugs for primary and secondary prevention of CVDs. This study included 5,246 participants (age >= 65 years; 57.17% women; 40.68% illiteracy) in the baseline examination of the MIND-China study. In March-September 2018, data on health-related factors, CVDs (ischemic heart disease, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, and stroke), and CV drug use were collected via face-to-face survey, clinical examination, and laboratory tests. We classified CV drugs according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system for western medications and specific cardiovascular effects for the products of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). We conducted descriptive analysis. The overall prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factors ranged from 14.30% in diabetes and 23.81% in dyslipidemia to 66.70% in hypertension, and CVDs affected 35.07% of all participants (36.28% in women vs. 33.47% in men, p = 0.035). In the total sample, calcium channel blockers (C08) were most commonly used (10.39%), followed by TCM products (7.64%), hypoglycemic agents (A10, 4.73%), renin-angiotensin system (RAS)-acting agents (C09, 4.61%), and lipid-lowering agents (C10, 4.17%). The proportions of CV drugs for primary prevention (i.e., use of CV drugs among people without CVD) were 3.14% for antithrombotic agents (mainly aspirin), 1.38% for lipid-lowering agents, and 3.11% for RAS-acting agents; the corresponding figures for secondary prevention (i.e., use of CV drugs among people with CVD) were 13.97%, 9.35%, and 7.39%. In conclusion, despite highly prevalent cardiovascular risk factors and CVDs, a fairly low proportion of the rural-dwelling older adults take CV medications for primary and secondary prevention. Notably, TCM products are among the most commonly used CV drugs. These results call for additional efforts to promote implementation of the evidence-based recommendations for prevention of CVDs in the primary care settings.
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10.
  • Meinow, Bettina, et al. (författare)
  • Long -Term Care Use During the Last 2 Years of Life in Sweden : Implications for Policy to Address Increased Population Aging
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association. - : ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. - 1525-8610 .- 1538-9375. ; 21:6, s. 799-805
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives:To map out the total use of long-term care (LTC; ie, home care or institutional care) during thelast 2 years of life and to investigate to what extent gender differences in LTC use were explained bycohabitation status and age at death.Design:The National Cause of Death Register was used to identify decedents. Use of LTC was based on theSocial Services Register (SSR) and sociodemographic factors were provided by Statistics Sweden.Setting and Participants:All persons living in Sweden who died in November 2015 aged67 years (n¼5948).Methods:Zero inflated negative binomial regression was used to estimate the relative impact of age,gender, and cohabitation status on the use of LTC.Results:Women used LTC to a larger extent [odds ratio (OR) 2.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.92-2.50]and for a longer period [risk ratio (RR) 1.14, 95% CI 1.11-1.18] than men. When controlling for age at deathand cohabitation status, gender differences in LTC attenuated (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.28-1.72) and vanished inregard to the duration. In the controlled model, women used LTC for 15.6 months (95% CI 15.2-16.0) andmen for 14.1 months (95% CI 13.7-14.5) out of 24 months. The length of stay in institutional care was 7.2(95% CI 6.8-7.5) and 6.2 months (95% CI 5.8-6.6), respectively.Conclusions and Implications:A substantial part of women’s greater use of LTC was due to their higher ageat death and because they more often lived alone. Given that survival continues to increase, the asso-ciation between older age at death and LTC use suggests that policy makers will have to deal with anincreased pressure on the LTC sector. Yet, increased survival among men could imply that more womenwill have access to spousal caregivers, although very old couples may have limited capacity for extensivecaregiving at the end of life.
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