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Sökning: FÖRF:(Daniel Slunge)

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1.
  • Harring, Niklas, 1979, et al. (författare)
  • Public acceptability of policy instruments for reducing fossil fuel consumption in East Africa
  • 2024
  • Ingår i: Climate Policy. - : Taylor & Francis. - 1469-3062 .- 1752-7457.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In recent decades, there has been increasing research interest in individuals’ support of and resistance to climate and environmental policy instruments. However, there is an empirical bias in the literature, as few studies have been conducted in low-income countries. Based on a survey with 4,766 respondents we identify the level of public acceptability for climate policy instruments and their determinants in East Africa (Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda). While our sample is not fully representative of the East-African population, we capture highly educated individuals in urban areas, who are likely to have a large influence on policy processes. In line with previous studies in other contexts, we find that higher education and climate change concern are linked to the acceptability of policies aimed at reducing fossil fuel consumption. Specifying how the revenue from a climate tax or subsidy removal would be used, almost doubled the support for these policy instruments. In contrast to earlier studies, we find that investments in social programmes, not environmental programmes, was the revenue specification that increased the acceptability the most. One possible explanation would be that in a context where poverty is more prevalent, social issues are more salient to people. We also find weak associations between trust in government and the acceptability of climate policy instruments in East Africa and large heterogeneity across the five focal East African countries. Besides establishing an empirical foundation for future research on climate policy support in East Africa, the study provides essential policy insights: Investing in education and improved information, contributing to increased awareness and understanding of climate concerns, can potentially increase support for climate policy proposals also in the East African context. Earmarking revenues from climate policy instruments for social programmes may also significantly boost support. However, as our study is not fully representative of the population in the five countries and relies on stated preferences, which may be subject to different biases, the results should be interpreted with caution.
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2.
  • Harring, Niklas, et al. (författare)
  • Public opinion on carbon pricing and revenue uses in East Africa
  • 2024
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • Climate investments and environmental reforms run a high risk of failure if acceptance is low. As African countries develop their climate action plans under the Paris Agreement, it is therefore important that governments, donors and other stakeholders have a good understanding of public support for different climate policy instruments.There is very little knowledge about acceptance of green transition in low- and middle-income countries. This study contributes new knowledge about public support for carbon taxes and the removal of fossil fuel subsidies in the three East African countries of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, where widespread poverty and corruption contribute to low trust in political institutions. 
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3.
  • Coria, Jessica, 1979, et al. (författare)
  • What drives the substitution of hazardous flame retardants in electronic appliances in Sweden?
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Cleaner Waste Systems. - 2772-9125. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chemical substitution can mitigate risks from chemical substances for individuals and the environment. This study investigates the preferences of companies regarding the adoption of safer alternatives to hazardous flame retardants in electronic appliances in Sweden. Through a choice experiment, we assess the relative importance of four key factors determining firms’ preferences for chemical substitution: health and environmental hazards, the likelihood of chemical regulations, product pricing, and the presence of a label indicating the use of safer alternatives. Our findings indicate that the avoidance of health and environmental hazards is the primary motivator for firms to pursue chemical substitution. Our study also shows that companies are hesitant to accept tax policies that may result in price increases for their products. However, we propose that this reluctance could be mitigated through the implementation of a label that informs consumers about the utilization of less hazardous chemicals in the products. Such a label would not only serve as a means of product differentiation but also discourage consumers from opting for cheaper alternatives offered by competitors.
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4.
  • Slunge, Daniel, 1968 (författare)
  • Economic instruments to incentivise substitution of chemicals of concern - a review
  • 2023
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • The study provides an overview of economic instruments used in chemicals management and in other environmental domains that governments could consider to incentivise substitution of chemicals of concern. Building on the lessons learned from the use of economic instruments for environmental and chemicals management, five broad sets of instruments with potential to incentivise substitution of chemicals of concern are discussed: • Fees on producers and importers of chemicals to incentivise information provision. Fee-based registries contribute indirectly to substitution by providing information to market actors and authorities. A key challenge is that the information submitted to the authorities often is of low quality. This could be counteracted by increasing default costs, through imposing (increasing) penalties and enhancing quality controls. • Taxes or fees on chemicals of concern with a possibility to use revenues for toxic use reduction programmes. A tax or fee could be introduced on all substances identified as substances of concern. To avoid “regrettable substitution”, a tax or fee system could in principle be extended to also cover chemicals with a similar chemical structure as listed chemicals of concerns. Revenues from fees could finance toxic use reduction programmes, including research, education, technical support as well as grants to small businesses to support transitioning to safer alternatives. • Risk based taxation on substances of concern in products articles and processes. Evaluations indicate that risk-based taxation – which links taxation more closely to specific environment and health risks – can be effective in reducing the environmental and health effects of chemicals. However, the limited information about substances of concern in articles is a key constraint to broader application. • Hybrid schemes combining fees and subsidies in collaboration with industry sectors. By returning revenues from fees on chemicals of concern to the regulated sector in the form of a subsidy or technical assistance, strong incentives for substitution can be generated in sectors where substitution is challenging. An important feature of these type of hybrid schemes is their potential to create policy support within the regulated industry. • Permit systems with trading possibilities. Tradable permit systems have been used in relation to lead, CFCs and fluorinated greenhouse gases. Similar systems could be designed to incentivise the substitution of other groups of substances of concern or specific uses. One could also envision broader permit markets as all chemicals put on the market occupy a piece of a shared pollution space.
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5.
  • Slunge, Daniel, 1968, et al. (författare)
  • The implementation of the substitution principle in European chemical legislation: a comparative analysis
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Environmental Sciences Europe. - : Springer. - 2190-4707 .- 2190-4715. ; 35
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The substitution of hazardous chemicals with safer alternatives is an important objective in European chemical policy, but implementation has been slower than expected. We conduct a comprehensive analysis and comparison of the implementation of the substitution principle in European regulations for pesticides, biocides, and industrial chemicals. Specifically, we examine and compare the criteria and processes associated with the identification of candidates for substitution and the assessment of alternatives. Results: We find only minor differences in the criteria applied to identify candidates for substitution amongst pesticides, biocides, and industrial chemicals, but larger differences concerning the processes used. While all substances that are to be approved as a pesticide and biocide are systematically evaluated against the established criteria for substitution, the substitution process for industrial chemicals only focuses on those substances identified as substances of very high concern. The main reason candidates for substitution remain on the market is the lack of identified safer chemical alternatives and the insufficient consideration of non-chemical alternatives, caused, at least to a large extent, by the comparatively weak incentives provided by current regulations. Conclusions: The systematic approach for the identification of industrial substances of very high concern (SVHC) under ECHAs “Integrated Regulatory Strategy” is much welcome. However, no final conclusion on SVHC properties or the need for regulatory action has been drawn for approximately 90% of the REACH-registered substances, as often even basic hazard and exposure data are missing. Hence, at least a screening-level evaluation of SVHC properties should become a mandatory part of the substance registration under REACH. To reduce the risk of strategic behaviour in the search for alternatives to industrial chemicals identified as SVHC, a setup in which regulatory authorities play a larger role as information and knowledge brokers should be considered. Investments in innovation as well as improved sharing of information and a better distribution of the workloads amongst European authorities might also improve the identification of safer alternatives. However, without stronger incentives, making it more costly for companies to continue using hazardous substances relative to safer alternatives, initiatives to promote substitution are likely to have limited success.
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6.
  • Carney Almroth, Bethanie, 1974, et al. (författare)
  • Circular economy could expose children to hazardous phthalates and chlorinated paraffins via old toys and childcare articles
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials. - : Elsevier BV. - 0304-3894 .- 2772-4166. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The European waste framework directive encourages reuse, refurbishment and recycling of products and materials in order to reduce plastic waste. However, thousands of chemicals are used in plastic materials. Many of these are potentially toxic, and may cause hormonal and developmental disruption in children. This includes phthalates and short chain chlorinated paraffins, which are used as plasticizers and flame-retardants. European legal frameworks regulate the amounts of these substances in toys in an effort to protect children's health and safety. Currently, limits are set to 0.1% for phthalates and 0.15% for SCCPs. Here, we have investigated levels of these compounds in toys and childcare products that were purchased prior to and after legislation on stricter exposure levels was implemented (total of 157 items, 54 and 103 new and old, respectively). We found that a larger portion of older toys and items (83.5%) contained amounts that exceed legal limits, compared to newer toys and items (29.6%). Concentrations of DEHP, BBP, DIDP, and SCCPs were significantly higher in old items, and both DEHP and DINP were found at concentrations exceeding 400,000 mg/kg in several old balls, which is approximately 40% of the weight of the toy, and 400 times above the legal limit. These findings indicate that old toys have the potential to pose a greater risk to children, and that regulations can be useful tools to protect children from exposure to toxic chemicals. We also stress that the waste framework directive, which urges reuse and repurposing of objects such as second hand items used for dress-up play, can lead to continued exposure via chemicals in older items. We conclude that movement towards circular economy threatens to expose children from legacy compounds already restricted on the market if efforts are not made to remove these items from circulation.
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7.
  • Slunge, Daniel, 1968, et al. (författare)
  • Burden of Tick-Borne Encephalitis, Sweden
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Emerging Infectious Diseases. - : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). - 1080-6040 .- 1080-6059. ; 28:2, s. 314-322
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In recent decades, the incidence of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in Sweden has increased. To calculate the burden of disease over a 17-year period, we analyzed data from the Swedish National Health Data Register for TBE cases diagnosed during 1998-2014. We compared healthcare use and sick leave associated with 2,429 persons with TBE with a referent cohort of 7,287 persons without TBE. Patients with TBE were hospitalized for signifi cantly more days during the fi rst year after disease onset (11.5 vs. 1.1 days), logged more specialist outpatient visits (3.6 vs. 1.2 visits), and logged more sick leave days (66 vs. 10.7 days). These diff erences generally increased over time. The case-fatality rate for TBE was 1.1%. Our calculated cost of TBE to society provides a baseline for decisions on immunization programs. Analyzing register data, our study adds to clinical studies of smaller cohorts and model-based studies that calculate disease burden.
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8.
  • Slunge, Daniel, 1968, et al. (författare)
  • REACH authorisation and the substitution of hazardous chemicals: The case of trichloroethylene
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production. - : Elsevier BV. - 0959-6526. ; 364
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Through a survey with European companies and expert interviews we study how REACH authorisation affects the phase-out of hazardous chemicals focusing on trichloroethylene, a well-studied solvent used in metal parts cleaning. We find that most of the firms have substituted trichloroethylene by perchloroethylene, which has similar chemical characteristics. This allows them to continue to use the same machines and routines at low costs. Although perchloroethylene is only classified as a suspected rather than a proven carcinogenic substance in Europe, the “improvement” as the result of much regulatory effort must be considered fairly limited, particularly in the light of less hazardous alternatives being used on the market for a long time. Our survey shows that the REACH authorisation process has some effect. Many firms cited as their main reason for substitution that they wanted to avoid the renewed application process. Still, the fact that many firms report using old machines reinforces the impression that some firms are not feeling enough pressure to modify routines and engage in a more fundamental substitution process. The results illustrate the limited effectiveness of a substance by substance approach in chemical risk management. When companies can substitute chemicals of concern to substances with similar chemical characteristics, the health and environmental objectives of chemical regulation are not achieved. An important policy conclusion is that additional incentives need to be introduced in order to realize the ambition of a non-toxic environment in the European Chemicals Strategy for Sustainability. Increased use of measures targeting broader groups of structurally similar hazardous chemicals, in combination with fees that incentivize substitution, are promising avenues for a more sustainable European chemicals strategy.
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9.
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10.
  • Slunge, Daniel, 1968, et al. (författare)
  • Circular Economy – a Conceptual Review and Analysis of Implications for Swedish Development Cooperation
  • 2021
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • Circular economy is increasingly discussed in Swedish, European and international public policy making. This report provides a review of the circular economy concept and discusses its potential implications for Swedish development cooperation. There is no standard definition of a circular economy. While it was originally perceived as primarily a strategy for reducing waste, the use of the circular economy concept is considerably broader today. An indicative example is the European circular economy action plan from 2020, which is envisioned to make a “decisive contribution to achieving climate neutrality by 2050 and decoupling economic growth from resource use, while ensuring the long-term competitiveness of the EU and leaving no one behind”. The Swedish action plan on circular economy from 2021 also covers a broad agenda, including product design, sustainable consumption, non-toxic and circular flows, innovation and circular business models. Resource efficiency, recycling, changes in consumption patterns and other key circular economy issues have been discussed extensively for a long time. Rather than bringing attention to entirely new issues, the circular economy agenda connects the growing climate and environmental crisis with innovation, employment and economic growth. The booming literature on circular economy is largely technically and business oriented. Most of the surprisingly optimistic macro-economic prognoses on the growth and employment creation potential of the implementation of circular economy policies are based on consultancy studies. Larger studies on social, political and other contextual factors shaping the incentives and obstacles to a more circular economy are lacking. There are relatively few studies on the challenges and opportunities that a transition to a more circular economy may bring about for low and middle-income countries. But as most supply chains are highly international, the implementation of circularity policies in EU and other large economies will have global implications. Countries with low labour cost can have a competitive advantage in disassembly, repairs and remanufacturing on the growing international market for secondary goods and materials. In agriculture, housing and transports, recent studies indicate that there may be large potential benefits from more circular approaches in developing countries. However, there are no comprehensive studies of these potential benefits and estimates are often based on smaller case studies. These potential benefits risk being outweighed by the significant health and environmental impacts associated with recycling and waste management. Such activities are often performed by poor men and women in informal employment and networks without possibilities to protect themselves from hazardous substances in used electronics and other used products and waste categories. If not managed carefully, European circular economy policies can incentivize export of secondary materials and products, which can only be recycled at high environmental and social costs to countries with less stringent environmental standards and technological capacity. The large illegal shipping of e-waste and plastic waste containing hazardous substances are worrying examples. Another risk is that a proliferation of new product standards for durability, recyclability and traceability will become trade barriers for countries with a limited capacity to adapt. Consequently, the role of trade policy and the Basel Convention on transboundary movements of hazardous wastes in relation to circular economy policies is increasingly discussed. A key issue is the development of harmonised standards and procedures to verify the quality of secondary materials and what distinguishes such materials from being classified as waste. Without such standards and procedures, it will be difficult to scale up a legal international trade in secondary materials. Circular economy also plays an increasingly important role in development cooperation. Especially the focus on circular economy in the new EU development cooperation strategy for 2021-2027, and priorities in the new NDICI instrument, will be important for Sweden and other member states as a coordinated “Team Europe” approach is promoted. Policy dialogues on circular economy pursued by the Commission with the African Union, South Africa, China, India, Colombia and other countries can also be important for the development cooperation of EU member states. The increasing use of the circular economy concept by several UN organisations, OECD and the Multilateral Development Banks also indicate that circular economy will play an important role in development cooperation policy during the coming years. Circular economy and closely related concepts are included in several of the key policy documents for Swedish development cooperation. The policy framework concludes that Sweden should contribute to “…a transformation to a resource-efficient, non-toxic, circular and bio-based economy with low emissions of greenhouse gases”. A review of Sida’s guiding documents and contributions show that Swedish supported initiatives in this area have many names and forms. So far green economy, rather than circular or biobased economy, has been the broader term used by Sida in dialogues and contributions linking environment and economic issues. Through an analysis of the Swedish development cooperation portfolio, the study finds that few contributions have been explicitly labelled as circular economy initiatives, but that many existing Swedish contributions are highly relevant for addressing real “circular economy issues” and a broader green transition. Notably, Sweden is an important financier of several international organisations and networks influencing global policy discussion on green and circular economy. While the emerging circular economy agenda has the potential to engage a broad set of actors in a dialogue on sustainable economic development, introducing new concepts also involves costs for donors and partner countries for studies, trainings, the development of action plans etc. There is a risk that too much effort is devoted to discussing the visionary aspects of a circular economy at the expense of addressing the very real health and environmental problems caused by industrial pollution and improper waste management. A way to operationalise circular economy in Swedish development cooperation would be to identify a set of priority circular economy issues. Ideally, these should be issues where there is a solid experience and knowledge among the Swedish resource base and where there is a strong demand in partner countries for collaboration. Based on the review, the following issues are proposed: •Policy instruments for pollution prevention and resource efficiency. •Non-toxic material cycles through proactive chemical management. •Social inclusion and just transition to a circular economy. •Circular business models in specific value chains. •Policy coherence on circular economy, including environment, trade, and development cooperation policy. The proposed priority issues are not new to Swedish development cooperation as there are many interesting and relevant contributions in the existing portfolio. The idea is rather to outline potential priority issues where Swedish contributions can add value to, and benefit from, the circular economy agenda.
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