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Sökning: FÖRF:(Eva Mörk) > (2015-2019)

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1.
  • Kreiner, Claus Thustrup, et al. (författare)
  • Introduction to the special issue
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: International Tax and Public Finance. - : Springer. - 0927-5940 .- 1573-6970. ; 26:6, s. 1231-1233
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)
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2.
  • Mörk, Eva, 1971-, et al. (författare)
  • 2019 års ekonomipris till Abhijit Banerjee, Esther Duflo och Michael Kremer
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Ekonomisk Debatt. - 0345-2646. ; 47:8, s. 5-14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • Kungl Vetenskapsakademien har beslutat dela ut årets ekonomipris till Abhijit Banerjee, MIT, Ester Duflo, MIT och Michael Kremer, Harvard University ”för deras experimentella ansats för att mildra global fattigdom”. Pristagarnas ansats har på bara tjugo år helt stöpt om forskningen i utvecklingsekonomi. Den nya forskningen levererar en stadig ström av konkreta resultat som bidrar till att lindra de globala fattigdomsproblemen.
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3.
  • Mörk, Eva, 1971-, et al. (författare)
  • Consequences of parental job loss on the familyenvironment and on human capital formation : Evidence from plant closures
  • 2019
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • We study the consequences of mothers’ and fathers’ job loss for parents, families, and children. Rich Swedish register data allow us to identify plant closures and account for non-random selection of workers to closing plants by using propensity score matching and controlling for pre-displacement outcomes. Our overall conclusion is positive: childhood health, educational and early adult outcomes are not adversely affected by parental job loss. Parents and families are however negatively affected in terms of parental health, labor market outcomes and separations. Limited effects on family disposable income suggest that generous unemployment insurance and a dual-earner norm shield families from financial distress, which together with universal health care and free education is likely to be protective for children.
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4.
  • Mörk, Eva, 1971-, et al. (författare)
  • Kommunernas framtid
  • 2019
  • Bok (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • Kommunerna står inför stora utmaningar framöver. Den åldrande befolkningen innebär att efterfrågan på omsorgstjänster ökar och att allt färre människor i yrkesarbetande åldrar ska försörja allt fler som inte arbetar. Under de gångna decennierna har Sverige dessutom genomgått en stark urbanisering, vilket skapar väsentligt skilda villkor för storstadsrespektive landsbygdskommuner. Till detta kommer högt flyktingmottagande där många av flyktingarna är unga, vilket bland annat ställer höga krav på skolan. I SNS Konjunkturrådsrapport 2019 granskar vi den befintliga svenska kommunmodellen. Vi undersöker hur ändamålsenlig den är för att möta framtidens utmaningar och om den ger kommunerna rimliga förutsättningar att förse medborgarna med viktiga välfärdstjänster såsom skola och äldreomsorg. Vi fokuserar på tre frågor: Hur ska en likvärdig och högkvalitativ kommunal service upprätthållas? Hur ska framtidens välfärd finansieras? Hur ska väljarnas ansvarsutkrävande i kommunerna säkerställas? Den svenska kommunmodellen, där kommunerna ansvarar för att tillhandahålla både lokala kollektiva varor och viktiga välfärdstjänster, rymmer en inneboende motsättning. Här uppstår konflikt mellan å ena sidan kommunal självstyrelse och önskan om att anpassa tjänsteutbudet till lokala preferenser och förutsättningar, och å andra sidan kraven på nationell likvärdighet i utbudet av välfärdstjänster.
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5.
  • Stefánsson, Arnaldur, 1987- (författare)
  • Essays in Public Finance and Behavioral Economics
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • Essay I: I study how individuals adjust their labor supply in response to a year with tax free income. Due to a transformation from a retroactive to a pay-as-you-earn tax system, income earned on the Icelandic labor market in 1987 was never taxed. Still, there was no cash-flow shock as taxpayers during the tax holiday (1987) paid taxes on income earned in the year before. This paper has three main results. First, I estimate a Frisch elasticity of 0.07 with a Wald difference-in-differences (DID) estimator by exploiting the progressivity of the tax scheme and the tax holiday. The Wald-DID estimator is biased if the Frisch elasticity differs between tax brackets. Second, I show how to overcome this bias by also exploiting changes in the tax scheme after 1987. This gives elasticities ranging from 0.7 (high income earners) to 4 (low income earners). However, this second approach to identify the Frisch elasticity gives biased results if there are frictions to labor supply adjustments during the tax holiday. Therefore, third and finally, I show that if there are frictions and the elasticity governing the response during the tax holiday is 0.05 (like that found by Martinez et al. (2018) who study a tax holiday in Switzerland) the frictionless elasticity is 0.2 for mid income earners, and 0.4 for high and low income earners. Overall, the paper adds to the literature on intertemporal labor supply responses and on how to deal with heterogeneity when perfect control groups are hard to find.
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6.
  • Aalto, Aino-Maija, et al. (författare)
  • Childcare - A safety net for children?
  • 2018
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • We analyze how access to childcare affects health outcomes of children with unemployed parents using a reform that increased childcare access in some Swedish municipalities. For 4–5 year olds, we find an immediate increase in infection-related hospitalization, when these children first get access to childcare. We find no effect on younger children. When children are 10–11 years of age, children who did not have access to childcare when parents were unemployed are more likely to take medication for respiratory conditions. Taken together, our results thus suggest that access to childcare exposes children to risks for infections, but that need for medication in school age is lower for children who had access.
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7.
  • Moberg, Ylva, 1984- (författare)
  • Gender, Incentives, and the Division of Labor
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • This thesis consists of four self-contained essays. Essay 1: The length of parental leave entitlements is known to affect take-up rates, division of parental leave between parents, and the mother's decision to return to work. So far, however, the importance of the level of benefit has received little attention in the literature. Using population wide register data, I exploit the ``speed premium” rule in the Swedish parental leave system as a source of random variation in the benefit level. A fuzzy RD strategy is used to estimate the causal effect of a change in the level of benefits per day on the utilization of parental leave among Swedish parents. The results suggest that parents’ take-up of benefits is highly sensitive to the benefit level. A 1% (5 SEK ≈ 0.54 $) increase in the mother's benefits per day is found to increase her length of leave by about 1 % (2.6 days).  This translates into an elasticity of take-up duration (length of spell) with respect to the benefit level of 1, a parameter that has not been estimated before. Fathers respond to the increase in mothers’ take-up by reducing their time on leave by an almost equivalent number of days (1.9 days). In other words, the change in benefit level affects not only the individual’s take-up, but the division of parental leave between parents.Essay II: In this paper, I compare the effect of entering parenthood in lesbian and heterosexual couples using Swedish population-wide register data. Comparing couples with similar pre-childbirth income gaps, a difference-in-differences strategy is used to estimate the impact of the gender composition of the couple on the spousal income gap after childbirth. The results indicate that the gender of the parents' does matter for their division of labor as, five years after childbirth, the income gap is significantly smaller in lesbian than in heterosexual couples, also when comparing couples with the same pre-parenthood income gap. Part of the explanation is a difference in biological restrictions: lesbian partners often give birth to one child each and spend more time at home with the child they carried. Other explanations are the influence of gender norms and differences in preferences between lesbian and heterosexual couples.Essay III: The skewed division of parental responsibilities during a child's infancy is often assumed to be a natural consequence of the mother being pregnant and wanting to breastfeed. In this paper, I investigate to what extent the tendency to let the mother be the main caregiver of an infant can be explained by the fact that she is the one to be pregnant, not the father. Using the division of parental leave during the child’s first two years with the parents as a proxy for the division of parental responsibilities, I compare the behavior of biological parents (where the mother gave birth) to adoptive parents (where she did not) in Swedish population-wide register data. My results show that adoptive parents, both mothers and fathers, spend less time on parental leave than biological parents, but that the mother's share of leave is about the same as among biological parents. There is thus some support for the hypothesis that a biological tie increases parents’ initial investment in children, but not that this relationship is stronger for women. Hence, there is no evidence that the mother’s birth giving status can explain her share of parental responsibilities. Due to methodological challenges, it is difficult to disentangle the different mechanisms that could explain the results.Essay IV (with Spencer Bastani and Håkan Selin): No previous quasi-experimental paper has systematically examined the relationship between the extensive margin labor supply response to taxation and the employment level. We model the labor force participation margin and estimate participation responses for married women in Sweden using population-wide administrative data and a solid identification strategy. The participation elasticity is more than twice as large in the lowest-skill sample (with relatively low employment) as compared with the highest-skill sample (with high employment). Our analysis suggests that cross- and within country comparisons of participation elasticities always should be made with reference to the relevant employment level.
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8.
  • Aggeborn, Linuz, 1986- (författare)
  • Essays on Politics and Health Economics
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • Essay I (with Mattias Öhman): Fluoridation of the drinking water is a public policy whose aim is to improve dental health. Although the evidence is clear that fluoride is good for dental health, concerns have been raised regarding potential negative effects on cognitive development. We study the effects of fluoride exposure through the drinking water in early life on cognitive and non-cognitive ability, education and labor market outcomes in a large-scale setting. We use a rich Swedish register dataset for the cohorts born 1985-1992, together with drinking water fluoride data. To estimate the effect we exploit intra-municipality variation of fluoride, stemming from an exogenous variation in the bedrock. First, we investigate and confirm the long-established positive relationship between fluoride and dental health. Second, we find precisely estimated zero effects on cognitive ability, non-cognitive ability and education. We do not find any evidence that fluoride levels below 1.5 mg/l have negative effects. Third, we find evidence that fluoride improves labor market outcome later in life, which indicates that good dental health is a positive factor on the labor market.
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9.
  • Edmark, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • The Swedish Earned Income Tax Credit : Did It Increase Employment?
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Finanzarchiv. - 0015-2218 .- 1614-0974. ; 72:4, s. 475-503
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper analyzes the extensive-margin labor-supply effects of a Swedish earned income tax credit introduced in 2007. The reform was one of the government's flagship reforms to boost employment, but its actual effects have been widely debated. We exploit the fact that the size of the tax credit is a function of the municipality of residence and income if working, which yields two sources of quasi-experimental variation. The identifying variation, however, turns out to be small and potentially endogenous, which means that the question of whether the reform has delivered the hoped-for effects cannot be credibly answered.
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10.
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