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Sökning: FÖRF:(Magnus Nermo)

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  • Wells, Laura, 1987- (författare)
  • Socially structured health behaviors : Studies of social inequality in adolescent and young adult physical activity, alcohol consumption, and smoking in Sweden
  • 2021
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • Health behaviors contribute to the Swedish national disease burden and to social inequalities in health. This thesis aims to increase our knowledge of whether, when, and how health behaviors become socially structured during early life in Sweden. The thesis contains four empirical studies that together examine how dimensions of childhood socioeconomic position associate with adolescent and young adult health behaviors using Swedish Level-of-Living survey data.Study I examined how different dimensions of social stratification (i.e., parental education, social class, income, immigration background) associate with adolescent and young adult physical inactivity. Analyses showed that physical inactivity in adolescence tracked to young adulthood; however, prior inactivity did not fully explain social differences in young adult physical inactivity. Physical inactivity was socially patterned, but different dimensions of social stratification should not be considered interchangeable as they may operate independently, through intersection with gender, and at different time points in youth in increasing the risk of physical inactivity.Study II examined how parental education associates with two often-conflated drinking patterns in young adulthood. It also examined whether this association could be explained by parental drinking patterns or young adult educational attainment. The results show that parental education constitutes an early-life structural position that confers differential risk for young adult drinking patterns: Young adults with lower educated parents were less likely to drink frequently but were more likely to drink heavily per occasion, a drinking pattern that may place more disadvantaged young adults at a greater health risk. Study III assessed how different measures of education in early life associate with smoking behavior in young adulthood. Analyses showed that young adults with lower educated parents were more likely to have started smoking and were less likely to have quit smoking. School performance in adolescence was associated with smoking initiation and cessation, and school performance explained differences in initiation by parental education. Results suggest that adolescent school performance (which in part connects adolescents’ socioeconomic position of origin with their destination) may play an important role in how educational disparities in smoking are formed.Study IV examined whether young adults’ sense of coherence explains educational differences in their health lifestyles. Education (parental and young adult) was positively associated with sense of coherence and with having a health-promoting lifestyle. Sense of coherence was also positively associated with having a health-promoting lifestyle. However, young adults’ sense of coherence did not explain educational differences in their health lifestyles.This thesis shows that health behaviors are socially patterned in adolescence and young adulthood in Sweden. However, for the most part, examined inter- and intra-generational pathways did not explain associations between childhood socioeconomic position and young adult health behaviors. Instead, the studies point to multiple relevant early life structural and behavioral factors. This highlights the importance of reducing childhood social inequalities, as early life social inequalities may affect early life behavioral inequalities, which have consequences for health and health equity in a life course perspective.
  • Bihagen, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Social stratifiering och social klass
  • 2018. - 2
  • Ingår i: Den orättvisa hälsan. - Stockholm : Liber. - 9789147113545 ; , s. 32-49
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)
  • Magnusson, Charlotta, et al. (författare)
  • From childhood to young adulthood : the importance of self-esteem during childhood for occupational achievements among young men and women
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Youth Studies. - : Informa UK Limited. - 1367-6261 .- 1469-9680. ; 21:10, s. 1392-1410
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study investigates the impact of self-esteem during childhood on men’s and women’s occupational prestige in young adulthood. By combining first-hand information from parents in the Swedish Level-of-Living surveys (LNU) 2000 and their children in the Child-LNU in 2000 and the follow-up study in LNU-2010, we are able to assess how self-esteem during adolescence is related to occupational prestige in adulthood. Multivariate analyses were used to determine whether associations between self-esteem (global and domain-specific) in childhood (aged 10–18 years) and occupational prestige in young adulthood (aged 20–28) exist and, if so, what the magnitudes of these associations are for each respective gender.For women, there is a positive association between confidence in mathematics and prestige, even when accounting for actual math grades. Global self-esteem is positively related to later occupational prestige as well. For men, self-esteem is unrelated to occupational prestige. Only actual performance in mathematics is important for men’s occupational achievements.These results indicate the importance of taking gender differences into account when investigating how self-esteem is related to outcomes in young adulthood. A possible implication is the importance of focusing on the development of self-esteem among children, particularly girls, in school.
  • Shahbazian, Roujman, 1982- (författare)
  • Sibling Configuration and Adulthood Outcomes : The Case of Two-Child Families
  • 2018
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • This thesis includes three empirical studies, analyzing how sibling configuration (i.e. birth order, birth spacing and sex-composition) influences siblings’ long-run income and educational choice. This is done by utilizing the unique linkage opportunities of administrative registers covering the entire population of Sweden.Study I: This paper focuses on how different birth spacing intervals are associated with income rank from ages 33 to 42 years, for siblings in two-child families. The results show clear differences between first- and second-born siblings. At the more common spacing intervals (less than 5 years), spacing has a negligible association to second-born children’s long-term income rank. However, first-born children have lower income rank when a younger sibling is born when they are very young. Having relatively high spacing intervals (over 5 years) is associated with somewhat lower long-term income-rank than having mid-length intervals for both first- and second-born siblings.Study II: This study focuses on the association between combinations of sibling configuration (i.e. birth order, birth spacing and sex composition) and long-run income rank of siblings. The results show that the significance of different family factors in two-child families vary by sibling sex-composition. The findings suggest that both birth order and birth spacing are important factors for first born boys independent of the younger sibling’s sex. First-born girls, however, only have an advantage if they have a younger sister. More surprisingly is that this advantage does not seem to vary by birth spacing.Study III: This study examines how sibling gender configuration in Swedish two-child families influences the choice of so-called STEM educational fields (i.e. Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics). The results show that younger siblings, net of parental characteristics, are more likely to choose a STEM field if their older sibling already has attended a STEM program. The findings indicate that boys’ choice of STEM fields is independent of having an older brother or sister who has attended a STEM program. However, girls seem to be more likely to choose a STEM-field if they have a sister who has attended a STEM program, than if they have a brother with a similar program. Given that STEM-fields are markedly male dominated, this indicate the importance of having a same-sex role model for making gender atypical educational choices.
  • Bihagen, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Elite mobility among college graduated men in Sweden : Skills, personality and family ties
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Acta Sociologica. - : SAGE Publications. - 0001-6993 .- 1502-3869. ; 60:4, s. 291-308
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Using Swedish registry data, we study the chances of mobility into the Swedish labour market elite for men who graduated in the years 1985-2005. The elite is defined as top earners within mid- and large sized firms and within the public sector organisations (henceforth, we use organisation for both firms and public organisations). Using discrete time event history models, we study the incidence of elite entry in terms of external recruitment and internal promotion. The choice of field of study and of college or university are important, as are personality and, to a limited extent, cognitive ability. What is most striking is that having kin in elite positions increases the chance of elite entry in general, and having parents in top positions in the same organisation increases the likelihood of internal promotion. In sum, elite entry among college-educated males is associated with a diversity of factors, suggesting that complex explanations for labour market success should be considered, where skills, personality, and family ties all seem to matter.
  • Dunlavy, Andrea, 1979- (författare)
  • Between Two Worlds : Studies of migration, work, and health
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • This thesis aims to investigate the extent to which work-related factors contribute to the health inequalities often observed between foreign-origin and native-origin persons in Sweden. Four empirical studies using survey data and population-based registers assessed the health impact of different labor market adversities among groups of foreign-origin persons who were both in and outside the labor market relative to native-origin Swedes.Studies I and II examined associations between different measures of working life quality, including adverse psychosocial and physical working conditions and educational mismatch, and self-reported health among the employed. Adverse psychosocial and physical working conditions minimally contributed to the excess risk of poor health found among workers from low- and middle-income countries. Over-education had a stronger association with increased risk of poor health, most notably among foreign-born workers from countries outside of Western Europe. Under-educated women from these countries also demonstrated an elevated risk of poor health.  There was no association between educational mismatch and poor health among native-born workers. Studies III and IV focused on the health implications of labor market exclusion, and examined relationships between employment status and risk of all-cause mortality and suicide. The majority of foreign-origin groups that experienced unemployment showed an elevated risk of both mortality and suicide. The magnitude of excess risk varied by generational status and region of origin. Variations in patterns of suicide risk were also evident among migrants by age at arrival and duration of residence. Yet within many foreign-origin groups, health advantages were observed among the employed.The health of migrants is affected by the confluence of several different pre- and post-migration factors.  The extent to which health inequalities are found among persons of foreign-origin in Sweden is influenced by the degree to which they experience labor market adversities, as well as differential vulnerability to the negative effects of these adversities across foreign-origin groups.
  • Kjellsson, Sara, 1975- (författare)
  • Sick of Work? : Questions of Class, Gender and Self-Rated Health
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • This thesis examines two aspects of social inequalities in health with three empirical studies that are based on the Swedish Level of Living survey (LNU): The relationship between accumulated occupational class positions during adulthood and health and the class-specific nature of gender differences in health. Previous research continuously finds that there are health differences by class and gender, but less is known about the extent to which accumulated class experiences in adulthood are related to health or how gender differences vary by class. The overall conclusion in this thesis is that occupational class experiences matters for health, both as historical and current experiences. Furthermore, the results highlight the importance of taking class into consideration when examining health differences between men and women, as the mechanisms that underlie the gender gaps in health are not necessarily the same for all classes. The studies can be outlined as:Study I: Class differences in working conditions is a mechanism that underlies class inequalities in health. The working class is generally more exposed to adverse working environments than non-manual employees, and when the wear and tear of these conditions accumulate over time, the length of this exposure may contribute to class inequalities in health. Thereby, accumulated time in the working class is studied as a partial explanation for class differences in health. The results suggest that the duration of time in the working class is related to a higher probability of less than good self-rated general health (SRH), given current class position. This association was also found among individuals who were no longer in working class positions and thus show that duration of experience matters, both as current and past experience.Study II: The study addresses the research gap of class-specificity in gender health inequality and seeks to further disentangle class and gender by studying gender gaps separately by class. The results show that there are class-specific gender gaps for both SRH and musculoskeletal pain, while the gender gap in psychiatric distress appears to be more general across class. Working conditions do not explain the between-class differences in gender gaps but contribute to specific gender differences in health within classes.Study III: The labour market has changed over time and has “upgraded” the class structure while at the same time the share of women in paid employment has increased. Therefore, female health may be increasingly influenced by occupational factors, such as working conditions. This study explores the class-specific nature of gender differences and investigates musculoskeletal pain and working conditions among employed men and women within classes during a time-period that spanned more than 30 years. There were class-specific gender gaps in health throughout the period. The gender gap has increased more, and is wider, among non-manual employees compared to the working classes. This development could not be explained by changes in working conditions.
  • Magnusson, Charlotta, et al. (författare)
  • Gender, Parenthood and Wage Differences : The Importance of Time-Consuming Job Characteristics
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Social Indicators Research. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 0303-8300 .- 1573-0921. ; 131:2, s. 797-816
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Using data from the Swedish Level of Living Survey (2000, 2010), we investigate how the gender wage gap varies with occupational prestige and family status and also examine the extent to which this gap is explained by time-consuming working conditions. In addition, we investigate whether there is an association between parenthood, job characteristics and wage (as differentiated by gender). The analyses indicate that there are gender differences regarding prestige-based pay-offs among parents that are partly explained by fathers' greater access to employment characterized by time-consuming conditions. Separate analyses for men and women demonstrate the presence of a marriage wage premium for both genders, although only men have a parenthood wage premium. This fatherhood premium is however only present in high-prestigious occupations. Compared with childless men, fathers are also more advantaged in terms of access to jobs with time-consuming working conditions, but the wage gap between fathers and childless men is not explained by differences in access to such working conditions.
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