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Sökning: FÖRF:(Susanna Sternberg)

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1.
  • Boqvist, Sofia, et al. (författare)
  • Antimicrobial Use by Peri-Urban Poultry Smallholders of Kajiado and Machakos Counties in Kenya
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Antibiotics. - 2079-6382. ; 12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Antimicrobial use (AMU) is a major driver of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). An understanding of current practices can lead to better targeting of AMU-reducing interventions. An analysis of the distribution and current usage of veterinary drugs in peri-urban smallholder poultry systems in Kenya was undertaken. A survey among poultry farmers and key informant interviews with agrovet operators and other players in the value chain was conducted in Machakos and Kajiado counties. Interview data were analyzed using descriptive and thematic approaches. A total of 100 farmers were interviewed. The majority (58%) were > 50 years old, and all kept chickens, while 66% kept other livestock. Antibiotics constituted 43% of the drugs reportedly used on the farms (n = 706). These were mostly administered by the farmers themselves (86%) through water (98%). Leftover drugs were stored for later use (89%) or disposed of (11%). Incineration was the main method for the disposal of leftover drugs and empty containers. As described by the key informants (n = 17), the drug distribution chain relied on agrovet shops that were supplied by local distributors and pharmaceutical companies, which, in turn, supplied drugs to the farmers. Farmers reportedly purchased drugs without prescriptions and rarely observed the withdrawal periods. Drug quality was a concern, especially for products requiring reconstitution.
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2.
  • Chenais, Erika, et al. (författare)
  • Co-created community contracts support biosecurity changes in a region where African swine fever is endemic – Part I: The methodology
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Preventive Veterinary Medicine. - : Elsevier BV. - 0167-5877 .- 1873-1716. ; 212
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In Northern Uganda more people live in poverty than elsewhere in the country. Small-scale pig-keeping is common and African swine fever (ASF) is endemic, spreading along the smallholder value chain. Biosecurity measures remain the only way to prevent and control the spread of ASF in this context. Previous research in the study area has shown that many stakeholders are aware of ASF, how it is spread and methods for prevention and control, but biosecurity implementation remains limited. Participatory approaches have been suggested in order to increase community engagement in relation to animal disease control, ensuring that disease prevention or control actions are guided by local people’s priorities and the promotion of local ownership of disease control. The objective of this study was to investigate the capacity of participatory action at community level with a broad inclusion of stakeholders to initiate change and greater stakeholder ownership to improve biosecurity in the smallholder pig value chain. Specific attention was paid to the feasibility of co-created community contracts for this purpose. The study was carried out in Northern Uganda in six purposively selected villages and included both farmers and traders. Centred on co-created community contracts on biosecurity, the study comprised repeated group discussions, semi-structured and structured group and individual interviews, as well as field observations. At the first meeting, participants were presented with suggested biosecurity measures adapted for farmers and traders respectively. Participants discussed each measure, agreed which ones to implement for one year, and co-created a community contract to this effect. During the study period, repeated interviews were undertaken and implementation support was provided. Interview data was coded and thematically analysed. Great diversity was observed between communities with regard to which and how many measures were selected, illustrating heterogeneity in the possibilities of biosecurity implementation and the complexity of livelihood challenges. The methodology appeared to be effective at instigating change, with all the communities changing some of their biosecurity behaviour during the study period. The intensified communication and cooperation around pigs in the communities reinforced the sense of group identity and the capacity-building offered at the first meeting supported implementation and appeared to be more important than the physical contract. Participants reported feeling empowered and described how they shared their knowledge, educated their peers and acted as catalysts for wider biosecurity change in their communities. These are promising results and indicate a positive attitude to both the agreed measures and the methodology.
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3.
  • Eggers, Jeannette, et al. (författare)
  • Replik: Visst måste forskare kunna kräva att forskning tas på allvar
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Curie: en tidning från Vetenskapsrådet.
  • Annan publikation (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • Forskaruppropet i Aftonbladet uppmanade politikerna att ta klimatkrisen på allvar. Uppropet har kritiserats i Curie för att innehålla alltför konkreta förslag och vara ett exempel på grupporienterad aktivism som urholkar allmänhetens förtroende för forskning. Men att kalla den som kräver att vetenskap och kunskap tas på allvar i politiken för aktivist är absurt, replikerar några av dem som skrev under debattartikeln
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4.
  • Ernholm, Linda, et al. (författare)
  • Understanding the interface between European wild boar (Sus scrofa) and domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) in Sweden through a questionnaire study
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica. - 0044-605X .- 1751-0147. ; 65
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background In recent years, the wildlife/livestock interface has attracted increased attention due to disease transmission between wild and domestic animal populations. The ongoing spread of African swine fever (ASF) in European wild boar (Sus scrofa) emphasize the need for further understanding of the wildlife/livestock interface to prevent disease spill-over between the wild and domestic populations. Although wild boar may also act as a potential source for other infectious disease agents, ASF is currently the most severe threat from wild boar to domestic pigs. To gather information on the wild boar situation at commercial pig producing farms in Sweden, a digital questionnaire survey was distributed through the animal health services. Results Most pigs produced for commercial purposes in Sweden are raised without outdoor access. Of the 211 responding pig producers, 80% saw wild boar or signs of wild boar activity in the vicinity of their farm at least once during the year. Observations were significantly correlated with geographical region, but there was no correlation between farm characteristics (farm size, main type of production, outdoor access) and observed wild boar presence or proximity. However, a reported higher frequency of wild boar observations was positively correlated with the observations being made in closer proximity to the farm. Hunting and strategic baiting were the most common mitigation strategies used to keep wild boar at bay. Of the 14 farms raising pigs with outdoor access, 12 responded that these pigs could be raised solely indoors if needed. Pigs with outdoor access are required to be fenced in, but double fencing in these outdoor pig enclosures was not practiced by all. A perimeter fence surrounding any type of pig farm was very rare. More than half of the producers that grew crops with intended use for pigs reported crop damage by wild boar. Conclusion This study shows that although pigs raised for commercial purposes in Sweden are, to a large extent, kept indoors the potential for indirect contact with wild boar exists and must be considered. Variable local situations regarding wild boar abundance may require an adaptive approach regarding biosecurity efforts.
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5.
  • Fischer, Klara, et al. (författare)
  • Co-created community contracts support biosecurity changes in a region where African swine fever is endemic-Part II: Implementation of biosecurity measures
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Preventive Veterinary Medicine. - : Elsevier BV. - 0167-5877 .- 1873-1716. ; 214
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Smallholder subsistence pig production is common in Uganda and African swine fever (ASF) is endemic in the country, with its spread driven by human activities along the smallholder value chain. Previous research in the study area has revealed that many stakeholders are aware of how ASF is spread, its prevention and control, and have a generally positive attitude towards biosecurity. Despite this, even basic biosecurity is largely lacking. Costs, as well as a lack of adaptation to the local context, culture and traditions have been identified as factors hindering biosecurity implementation. Community engagement and local ownership of disease problems are increasingly recognised as important for improving disease prevention and control. The objective of this study was to investigate the capacity of participatory action at community level with broad inclusion of stakeholders to improve biosecurity in the smallholder pig value chain. Specific attention was paid to participants' perceptions and experiences of implementing the biosecurity measures included in their co-created community contracts. The study was conducted in Northern Uganda in villages purposively selected on the basis of previous occurrences of ASF. In each village, farmers and traders were also purposively selected. At a first meeting, basic information about ASF was shared and participants presented with a list of biosecurity measures adapted for farmers and traders respectively. Participants discussed each measure in farmer and trader subgroups, decided on the mea-sures to implement for one year, and signed a community contract to this effect. The following year, interviews were again undertaken and implementation support given. Interview data were coded and thematically analysed. Each subgroup chose a minimum of three and a maximum of nine measures, with wide variations between villages in their selection of measures. At the follow-ups, none of the subgroups had fully implemented what had been agreed in their contract, but all had changed some of their biosecurity routines. Some frequently recom-mended biosecurity measures, such as not borrowing breeding boars, were not considered feasible. Relatively simple and cheap biosecurity measures were rejected for reasons of cost, highlighting the participants' general level of poverty and the relevance of poverty as a specific factor governing disease control results. The partic-ipatory methodology allowing for discussions, co-creation and the option to refuse measures seemed to facilitate the implementation of measures that had initially been thought to be controversial. The broad community approach was deemed to be positive for strengthening community identity, cooperation and implementation.
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6.
  • Gröndal, Hedvig, et al. (författare)
  • Perspectives of on-farm biosecurity and disease prevention among selected pig veterinarians and pig farmers in Sweden
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Veterinary Record Open. - 2052-6113. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Biosecurity is important in preventing the spread of infectious diseases inanimal production. Previous studies have identified a disparity between the biosecurityrecommendations provided by veterinarians and the actual practices implemented byfarmers. This study compared group discussions with a few key actors among Swedishpig veterinarians and farmers on pig farm biosecurity.Methods: Two focus group discussions were conducted, one with five Swedish pig vet-erinarians and one with three pig farmers, to explore their views on pig farm biosecurityand efficient biosecurity measures. The discussions were analysed to identify differencesand similarities in how biosecurity was perceived.Results: The study identified differences between the veterinarians and pig farmers inhow they perceived good biosecurity and the level of biosecurity in Swedish pig herds. The veterinarians perceived that adhering strictly to the farming system and its barrierswas essential for good biosecurity. The biosecurity in the pig farms was often consideredinadequate. The veterinarians described difficulties in biosecurity-related communica-tion with the farmers. The pig farmers valued the flexibility of the farming system overstrict barriers and described that the level of biosecurity was good in Swedish pig herds. However, both groups also shared similar views regarding the challenges in farm biose-curity. They highlighted that biosecurity measures with proven efficacy are importantfor farmer motivation.Conclusions: This limited study suggested that different perspectives on biosecuritycan contribute to communication difficulties between pig farmers and veterinarians. Acknowledging both the differences and similarities of the different perspectives mayhelp improve cooperation and communication in biosecurity-related questions.
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7.
  • Gröndal, Hedvig, et al. (författare)
  • Trust, agreements, and occasional breakdowns: Veterinarians' perspectives on farmer-veterinarian relationships and use of antimicrobials for Swedish dairy cattle
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Journal of Dairy Science. - : American Dairy Science Association. - 0022-0302 .- 1525-3198. ; 106, s. 534-546
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Studies have shown that farmer-veterinarian relationships influence antimicrobial use (AMU) in livestock, though how they do so is unclear. On the one hand, research shows that well-established veterinarian-farmer relationships are positive for implementation of antibiotic stewardship and restrictive AMU. On the other hand, studies also show that farmer demands can increase antimicrobial prescribing and that prescribing antimicrobials can strengthen the veterinarian's relationship with farmer clients. In the present study, we focus on veterinarians' perspectives on the relationships between dairy cattle farmers and veterinarians in Sweden and explore what characterizes these relationships when restrictive AMU is described as unproblematic and when AMU becomes a matter of tension or conflict. The study draws on semistructured interviews with 21 veterinarians working with livestock in Sweden. Interviews were analyzed thematically. The study shows that from the perspectives of veterinarians, well-established veterinarian-farmer relationships generally facilitate restrictive AMU in 3 slightly different but related ways: (1) they create trust in the veterinarian and their prescribing decisions; (2) they create shared understanding concerning when antimicrobials are needed and not needed; and (3) they facilitate constructive discussions between veterinarians and farmers on AMU. To make the farmer feel listened to and to come to an agreement on AMU was described as central for the veterinarians. However, the veterinarians described agreements on restrictive AMU as sometimes requiring strategic work, such as discussions to motivate the farmer and leave the door open for antimicrobials later if needed. Such work takes time and energy and is easier within well-established relationships according to the veterinarians. We also identified examples where veterinarians explained that they occasionally make compromises with farmers concerning antimicrobials—compromises that, according to the veterinarians, facilitate the relationship with the farmer, which in turn facilities restrictive AMU in the longer term. The examples in our interviews where antimicrobials became a matter of tension and even conflict between veterinarians and farmers could, with a few exceptions, be traced to absence of well-established relationships. However, some veterinarians also described AMU as a matter of tension within well-established relationships, especially with older farmers who do not trust new treatment strategies. We also found a small number of examples where disagreements on antimicrobials made a relationship with specific farmers impossible. Thus, even though the interviewed veterinarians generally meant that their restrictive antimicrobial prescribing did not threaten the relationship with the farmer, our study also, to some extent, confirms research showing that restrictive AMU can harm the relationship with some clients who simply choose another, less restrictive, veterinarian. In summary, our study supports that decisions on AMU cannot be reduced to the individual prescriber's behavior, nor to a strict medical judgment. Antimicrobial use for dairy cattle needs to be understood as taking form in relationships in which both veterinarians and farmers are active parts.
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8.
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9.
  • Rajala, Elisabeth, et al. (författare)
  • The first outbreak of African swine fever in Sweden: a survey of pig farmers' perceptions of information received, risks, biosecurity measures and future prospects
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica. - 0044-605X .- 1751-0147. ; 65
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundAfrican swine fever (ASF), a viral hemorrhagic disease in domestic pigs and wild boar with up to 100% case fatality, was confirmed in Swedish wild boar in September 2023. The responsible authorities launched a control programme to eradicate the infection. The aim of the current study was to understand (i) how Swedish pig farmers have perceived the information issued by authorities and other stakeholders since the discovery of ASF in wild boar, (ii) which risks they see for introducing the infection to their farm, (iii) what biosecurity measures they have taken on their farms, and (iv) their outlook on the future. Such information is important for evaluating the effectiveness of the early stages of ASF control in Sweden. A questionnaire was designed and distributed to members of the Swedish pig producers' organisation.ResultsA total of 155 farmers responded to the survey (response rate 36%). Almost all respondents had received general information about ASF (91%, n = 138), and 72% (n = 109) had received information about how they can protect their farm from ASF introduction. A majority (87%, n = 118) thought the information was easy to understand, 90% (n = 137) that is was relevant, and 77% (n = 117) that they currently did not lack any information. If given the resources necessary, 58% (n = 84) of the farmers would like to take additional measures such as fencing, and heavily reduce or eradicate the wild boar population. Wild boars were considered the greatest risk for introduction of ASF into their herd (39%, n = 57), followed by people (30%, n = 44), and transports (16%, n = 23). Many farmers (66%, n = 88) had a positive outlook on the future, and 89% (n = 127) have not changed their plans for the future since the ASF outbreak.ConclusionsThe responding farmers were in general satisfied with the information received in the beginning of the ASF outbreak. The majority have a positive outlook on the future and the outbreak has not caused them to change their plans. Actions that were highlighted as important to safeguard Sweden's pig production included measures to control the wild boar population.
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10.
  • Sendeku, Wagaw, et al. (författare)
  • Occurrence of Escherichia coli Pathotypes in Diarrheic Calves in a Low-Income Setting
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Pathogens. - : MDPI AG. - 2076-0817. ; 12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Different E. coli pathotypes are common zoonotic agents. Some of these pathotypes cause recurrent and widespread calf diarrhea and contribute to significant economic losses in the livestock sector worldwide in addition to putting humans at risk. Here, we investigated the occurrence of E. coli pathotypes in diarrheic calves in Ethiopia kept under various calf management practices. One hundred fecal samples were collected from diarrheic calves in 98 different farms. E. coli was isolated in the samples from 99 of the diarrheic calves, and virulence genes were detected in 80% of the samples. The occurrence of E. coli pathotypes in the samples was 32% ETEC, 23% STEC, 18% STEC/ETEC, 3% EPEC, 2% EAEC, and 1% EHEC. No diarrheic calves were positive for the EIEC and DAEC pathotypes. The occurrence of pathotypes was positively associated with female calves (EPEC, p = 0.006), aged less than 2 weeks (STEC, p = 0.059), and calves fed colostrum via the hand method (STEC, p = 0.008 and EAEC, p = 0.003). This study revealed that several E. coli pathotypes occurred among calves affected with diarrhea. Moreover, the presence of a mixed STEC/ETEC pathotypes infection was present in the studied low-income setting. These findings indicate a considerable risk for the zoonotic transmission from calves to humans and the options to provide the better management for younger calves in order to reduce the economic loss.
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