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1.
  • Olteanu, Constanta, 1960- (författare)
  • "Vad skulle x kunna vara?" : andragradsekvation och andragradsfunktion som objekt för lärande
  • 2007
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • Algebraic equations and functions play an important role in various mathematical topics, including algebra, trigonometry, linear programming and calculus. Accordingly, various documents, such as the most recent Swedish curriculum (Lpf 94) for upper secondary school and the course syllabi in mathematics, specify what the students should learn in Mathematics Course B. They should be able to solve quadratic equations and apply this knowledge in solving problems, explain the properties of a function, as well as be able to set up, interpret and use some nonlinear functions as models for real processes. To implement these recommendations, it is crucial to understand the students’ way of experiencing quadratic equations and functions, and describe the meaning these have for the students in relation to the possibility they have to their experience of them. The aim of this thesis is to analyse, understand and explain the relation between the handled and learned content, which consists of second-degree equations and quadratic functions, in classroom practice. This means that content is the research object and not the teacher’s conceptions or knowledge of, or about this content. This restriction implies that the handled and learned contents are central in this study and will be analysed from different perspectives. The study includes two teachers and 45 students in two different classes. The data consist of video-recordings of lessons, individual sessions, interviews and the teachers’/researcher’s review of the individual sessions. The students’ tests also constituted an important part of the data collection. When analysing the data, concepts relating to variation theory have been used as analytical tools. Data have been analysed in respect of the teachers’ focus on the lesson content, which aspects are ignored and which patterns of dimensions of variations are constituted when the contents are handled by the teachers in the classroom. Also, data have been analysed in respect of the students’ focus when they solve different exercises in a test situation. It can be shown that the meaning of parameters, the unknown quantity in an equation and the function’s argument change several times when the teacher presents the content in the classroom and when the students solve different exercises. It can also be shown that the teachers and the students develop complicated patterns of variation during the lessons and that the ways in which the teachers open up dimensions of variation play an important role in the learning process. The results indicate that there is a convergent variation leading the students to improve their learning. By focusing on some aspects of the objects of learning and create convergent variations, it is possible for the students to understand the difference between various interpretations of these aspects and thereafter focus on the interpretation that fits in a certain context. Furthermore, this variation leads the students to make generalisations in each object of learning (equations and functions) and between these objects of learning. These generalisations remain over time, despite working with new objects of learning. An important result in this study is that the implicit or explicit arguments of a function can make it possible to discern an equation from a function despite the fact that they are constituted by the same algebraic expression.
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2.
  • Olteanu, Constanta, 1960- (författare)
  • ”Vad skulle x kunna vara?” : andragradsekvation och andragradsfunktion som objekt för lärande
  • 2007
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • Algebraic equations and functions play an important role in various mathematical topics, including algebra, trigonometry, linear programming and calculus. Accordingly, various documents, such as the most recent Swedish curriculum (Lpf 94) for upper secondary school and the course syllabi in mathematics, specify what the students should learn in Mathematics Course B. They should be able to solve quadratic equations and apply this knowledge in solving problems, explain the properties of a function, as well as be able to set up, interpret and use some nonlinear functions as models for real processes. To implement these recommendations, it is crucial to understand the students’ way of experiencing quadratic equations and functions, and describe the meaning these have for the students in relation to the possibility they have to their experience of them.The aim of this thesis is to analyse, understand and explain the relation between the handled and learned content, which consists of second-degree equations and quadratic functions, in classroom practice. This means that content is the research object and not the teacher’s conceptions or knowledge of, or about this content. This restriction implies that the handled and learned contents are central in this study and will be analysed from different perspectives.The study includes two teachers and 45 students in two different classes. The data consist of video-recordings of lessons, individual sessions, interviews and the teachers’/researcher’s review of the individual sessions. The students’ tests also constituted an important part of the data collection.When analysing the data, concepts relating to variation theory have been used as analytical tools. Data have been analysed in respect of the teachers’ focus on the lesson content, which aspects are ignored and which patterns of dimensions of variations are constituted when the contents are handled by the teachers in the classroom. Also, data have been analysed in respect of the students’ focus when they solve different exercises in a test situation. It can be shown that the meaning of parameters, the unknown quantity in an equation and the function’s argument change several times when the teacher presents the content in the classroom and when the students solve different exercises. It can also be shown that the teachers and the students develop complicated patterns of variation during the lessons and that the ways in which the teachers open up dimensions of variation play an important role in the learning process. The results indicate that there is a convergent variation leading the students to improve their learning. By focusing on some aspects of the objects of learning and create convergent variations, it is possible for the students to understand the difference between various interpretations of these aspects and thereafter focus on the interpretation that fits in a certain context. Furthermore, this variation leads the students to make generalisations in each object of learning (equations and functions) and between these objects of learning. These generalisations remain over time, despite working with new objects of learning. An important result in this study is that the implicit or explicit arguments of a function can make it possible to discern an equation from a function despite the fact that they are constituted by the same algebraic expression.
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3.
  • Knutas, Edmund (författare)
  • Mellan retorik och praktik. : En ämnesdidaktisk och läroplansteoretisk studie av svenskämnena och fyra gymnasielärares svenskundervisning efter gymnasiereformen 1994.
  • 2008
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • Swedish as a school subject has long been debated in Sweden, and ideas concerning its content, role and function in school and society have varied greatly throughout the years. In 1994, there was an upper secondary school reform which resulted in a partial revision of the Swedish subject, including its introduction within a new course and grading system. The Swedish A and B courses became obligatory for all upper secondary students. Other courses in Swedish became largely optional. This study consists of two levels – a rhetorical and practical level. The rhetorical level deals with understandings and ideas of the Swedish subject and instruction as they are expressed in curricula and course syllabi, as well as with the understandings and ideas expressed by the four teachers in the study. In addition, the external and internal frame factors which underlie this rhetoric are considered. The practical level concerns the four teachers’ concrete Swedish instruction, i.e. the aims and goals, content and working methods which underlie their teaching, as well as the factors which influence, limit and facilitate it. The aim of the study is to attempt to describe, analyse and understand the role and function of the Swedish subject after the upper secondary school reform of 1994. What ideas do the four teachers express regarding the role and function of the Swedish subject in upper secondary school and society after 1994, and how should these ideas and reasons be interpreted and understood from a more comprehensive, general perspective? How do the teachers represent the Swedish subject in their teaching, i.e. how is their knowledge of subject didactics expressed? These are two central questions in the study. A third central question concerns notions of society and the good citizen implied in the chosen views of the Swedish subject. The study has two theoretical starting points: subject didactics and curriculum theory. Shulman’s concepts of pedagogical content knowledge and transformation are central to the subject didactics drawn upon here, while frame factor theory and Bernstein’s concepts of “classification” and “framing” are central to the curriculum-theoretical perspective. The perspective of subject didactics deals with the relation between teacher and content, while the curriculum-theoretical perspective deals with the relation between content, individual and society. This study shows that the teachers’ knowledge of subject didactics is vague. The teachers’ transformation of content in teaching resides to a high degree in an adaptation to the students; the focus is thus not on a transformation and content analysis of the Swedish subject. Further, the teachers have an instrumental approach to the steering documents. A common characteristic among the four teachers, and in Swedish instruction generally, is that a large degree of responsibility is placed on the individual student for their literary and language development. Collective meetings were very infrequent in the teaching of the four teachers in the study. This study discerns four teacher codes which reflect understandings and ideas of school and education, formed by previous and current material and sociocultural conditions and which the individual teacher has encountered, adopted and reshaped into his/her own. These four teacher codes can be described as closeness and hierarchy, tradition and renewal, vision and reality and the individual and the collective. The teacher codes reveal that the four teachers have relatively similar teaching strategies, whereas their teaching aims, goals and content diverge significantly. Viewed from the perspective of curriculum theory, it is evident that the teachers emphasise the individual student over the collective. It is a matter of developing one’s thought and personality and of fostering the students to be individual, active members of society. However, this active member of society does not appear to be aware and critically active, but rather a loyal and obedient member of society.
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4.
  • Gustavsson, Laila, 1947- (författare)
  • Att bli bättre lärare : hur undervisningsinnehållets behandling blir till samtalsämne lärare emellan
  • 2008
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • This thesis reports results from a study that focuses on teachers’ professional development during an in-service training period.   The aim is to analyse and describe how the teachers talk about and handle lesson content. The first question concerns changes in relation to a specific object of learning. The second question concerns how they relate to a theoretical framework and the third question concerns differences in the students’ learning outcome and if it can be understood in relation to the teachers’ development.   The variation theory is the theoretical framework that is used for lesson planning as well as when analysing results. The basis of the study is that learning always is the learning of something and that the teachers’ activity as well as the students’ activity constitutes the space of variation that decides what is possible to learn concerning a delimited object of learning, i.e. the enacted object of learning. The object of learning is seen as a capability and it can be defined by its critical features. The constitution of the meaning aimed for the critical features of the object must be discerned. The intentional object of learning describes the teachers’ intention with the lesson, and the lived object of learning is what the students really discerned. The theoretical assumption is that learning always assumes an experienced variation where learning is seen as a change in the learners’ possibility to experience the world in a certain way. You have to have experienced a phenomenon’s variation to understand its meaning, i.e. what we experience is how something differs from something else.   The method is Learning study and it can be described as a hybrid of the Japanese Lesson study and Design experiment. A Learning study is theoretically grounded and the primary focus is on an object of learning. The learning study group consisted of three teachers and most often two researchers. Each member had equal status in the group. The object of learning seen from the teachers’ perspective was the variation theory that was gradually introduced by the researchers. The empirical material was generated from audio-taped discussions and from videotaped lessons.   The findings should be seen as a contribution to the discussion about teachers’ professional development. The teachers participated in a collective construction of professional knowledge and it can be stated that the teachers had no problem changing their discussions to focus on a specific object of learning when the theoretical framework was used in relation to their own practices. Another finding is that the change in how the teachers handled the object of learning influenced the students’ learning in a positive way although the results were subtle.
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5.
  • Gustavsson, Laila, 1947- (författare)
  • Att bli bättre lärare : Hur undervisningsinnehållets behandling blir till samtalsämne lärare emellan
  • 2008
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • This thesis reports results from a study that focuses on teachers’ professional development during an in-service training period. The aim is to analyse and describe how the teachers talk about and handle lesson content. The first question concerns changes in relation to a specific object of learning. The second question concerns how they relate to a theoretical framework and the third question concerns differences in the students’ learning outcome and if it can be understood in relation to the teachers’ development. The variation theory is the theoretical framework that is used for lesson planning as well as when analysing results. The basis of the study is that learning always is the learning of something and that the teachers’ activity as well as the students’ activity constitutes the space of variation that decides what is possible to learn concerning a delimited object of learning, i.e. the enacted object of learning. The object of learning is seen as a capability and it can be defined by its critical features. The constitution of the meaning aimed for the critical features of the object must be discerned. The intentional object of learning describes the teachers’ intention with the lesson, and the lived object of learning is what the students really discerned. The theoretical assumption is that learning always assumes an experienced variation where learning is seen as a change in the learners’ possibility to experience the world in a certain way. You have to have experienced a phenomenon’s variation to understand its meaning, i.e. what we experience is how something differs from something else. The method is Learning study and it can be described as a hybrid of the Japanese Lesson study and Design experiment. A Learning study is theoretically grounded and the primary focus is on an object of learning. The learning study group consisted of three teachers and most often two researchers. Each member had equal status in the group. The object of learning seen from the teachers’ perspective was the variation theory that was gradually introduced by the researchers. The empirical material was generated from audio-taped discussions and from videotaped lessons. The findings should be seen as a contribution to the discussion about teachers’ professional development. The teachers participated in a collective construction of pro-fessional knowledge and it can be stated that the teachers had no problem changing their discussions to focus on a specific object of learning when the theoretical framework was used in relation to their own practices. Another finding is that the change in how the teachers handled the object of learning influenced the students’ learning in a positive way although the results were subtle.
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6.
  • Sparrlöf, Göran (författare)
  • Vi manliga lärare : Folkskolans lärare och lärarinnor i kamp om löner och arbetsområden 1920-1963
  • 2007
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • Mellan 1920 och 1963 var den svenska folkskollärarkåren delad i ett manligt och ett kvinnligt folkskollärarförbund. Förhållandet mellan dessa var spänt och öppna konflikter förekom, men 1946 tystnade polemiken. I stället inledde förbunden ett samarbete, som slutligen resulterade i en sammanslagning. Avsikten med denna avhandling, som främst är skriven ur det manliga förbundets perspektiv, är att utreda varför lärarinnorna inledningsvis uppfattades som motståndare och varför de efter 1946 omtolkades till önskvärda samarbetspartners.Det använda källmaterialet utgörs i första hand av lärarförbundets tidningar samt av arkivmaterial från deras styrelser och kongresser. I dessa texter har tankar och föreställningar eftersökts, vilka kan ge förståelse för varför förbunden, och då främst det manliga,. Agerade så som de gjorde. Genom att anlägga ett konfliktperspektiv har det också varit möjligt att i den framförda polemiken och argumenteringen analysera fram olika framställningar om ”vi och dem”, det vill säga manliga och kvinnliga lärare. Centrala begrepp i framställningen är Pierre Bourdieus fält- och kapitelbegrepp samt genus och identitet. Vidare har de i sociologen Frank Parkin’s teori om social closure ingående begreppen stångning och inträngning kommit tillanvändning.Den viktigaste konfliktorsaken före 1946 var lönesystemet, som gav männen högre lön än kvinnorna. I försvaret av detta system utgick det manliga förbundet från föreställningen att männen i kraft av sitt kön representerade en överlägsen arbetskraft. Vidare ansåg sig de manliga lärarna behöva högre lön eftersom de var familjeförsörjare. Likalönen infördes emellertid och den var fullt genomförd 1942. Vidare argumenteras i avhandlingen för att den vid 1940-talets slut påbörjade enhetsskolreformen bidrog till att de manliga och kvinnliga folkskollärarförbunden började samarbeta med varandra. I den framväxande enhetsskolan, som i färdigt skicka kallades grundskolan, konkurrerade folkskollärarna med andra lärargrupper och arbetsområden och tjänsteunderlag. Det blev då viktigast att samarbeta än att hålla gamla motsättningar vid liv. Detta åtföljdes av en underförstådd genuskonstruktion i vilken den manliga och kvinnliga folkskollärarna hade samma kompetens. I slutkapitlet noteras att ojämlikheten mellan könen fanns kvar i den nya skolan, men att den hade tagit sig nya former.
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7.
  • Ekström, Kenneth, 1956- (författare)
  • Förskolans pedagogiska praktik : Ett verksamhetsperspektiv
  • 2007
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • Since 1960s, preschools have been important parts both of Swedish welfare and of labour market policies. The preschool thus constitutes a very important site for rearing and educating young children. Reforms of the Swedish preschool in the 1990s concerning both accessibility and quality were introduced at a time when the economy of the municipalities dramatically deteriorated because of reductions in State subsidies. The strained economy of the State and the municipalities, has resulted, among other things, in a growing number of children in preschool groups and pressure to change organization and pedagogical content. These changes took place in a time of decentralization where the responsibility for organization of preschools was given to the municipalities. Changes in economy, organization and curriculum form the background for this study. The purpose of the study is to examine and understand how preschool working teams shape and realize the pedagogical practice and how working conditions affect this process. The approach of the study is interpretative, where the interpretative perspective is mainly represented by activity theory and theories of cultural reproduction. Three aspects of the actions are observed: the object of the actions, the instruments mediating the actions and the content of mediating actions. Bernstein’s concepts classification and framing are used as tools in analysing the empirical data. The interpretative, empirical study is based on qualitative data collected mainly by observations and interviews. Three preschools are chosen for the study. The preschools in the study are located in two municipalities in the north of Sweden, representing three different environments. All preschools receive children one to five years old. The personnel consist of preschool teachers and childminders working in teams. Eleven of them where interviewed. The study shows that daily routines both shape and restrict practices in preschools. The work is mainly focused on care giving, where the children are supposed to adapt to and subordinate themselves to the norms and to the existing routines. The children’s influence varies between organized activities, where they have little influence, and play time, where they can choose what to do. It also varies between the preschools, where the preschool with children from more affluent families have more freedom than children from the multicultural, lower-income environment do. The work is collectively oriented toward training adaptation, but also, to a certain extent, training for autonomy and responsibility taking. Organization of learning activities often takes the form of transmitting information. The informants regard themselves as caregivers with the main purpose to mediate security and create conditions for the children to develop socially. The changes in conditions emanating from political decisions have brought new working tasks to the preschools and have reduced the level of resources at the same time as the demands made are experienced as being harder. This creates frustration and tends to result in lower levels of ambition.
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8.
  • Granstedt, Lena, 1956- (författare)
  • Synsätt, teman och strategier : några perspektiv på mångkulturella frågor i skolan i ett praktiknära projekt
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • The chief aim of my thesis is to study and analyse how the multiculturalism of schools is reflected in research and reports in Sweden and in the way in which teachers talk about multicultural issues at school. Part of the work is done in the form of reflecting talks with two groups of teachers in two different schools on issues and situations taken from their own everyday experience. The talks are conducted over two years. One partial aim is therefore to study whether this working method can help teachers to develop their strategies with regard to multicultural issues at school. I describe how the talks develop over two years in an ethnically heterogeneous group of teachers in one of the schools, some areas related to multicultural issues in the school that the teachers find problematic, and how the talks to some extent influence the teachers’ choice of strategies in the school’s practice. Part of the work is an analysis of a talk from each group of teachers and their conceptions of “the immigrant pupil” and her/his parents are focused on. The analytical tool of interpretive repertoires is used to visualise patterns of common points of departure and values in the talks. Also part of the work is an analysis of how research and reports reflect the discourse on multicultural issues from 1980 to 2005. I emphasise some themes and how these change over time. Through the study, parts of the content of the discourse about the multicultural Swedish education are made visible. The discourse contains expressions of a focus on shortcomings and problems that are regarded as linked to pupils, parents and to some extent to teachers with foreign backgrounds. The discourse also contains expressions of seeing differences, chiefly between groups of pupils with foreign and ethnic Swedish backgrounds respectively. By focusing on differences and shortcomings a boundary is at the same time set up between “us” and “them”. The composition of teachers in Swedish schools is relatively homogeneous as regards ethnicity. When, in addition, it is many times teachers that have the responsibility and power to define what are seen as problems and to find solutions in schools’ practice, the problems and solutions are often defined from a majority perspective. It is also from a majority perspective that decisions are made about to what extent, to what degree and in what way minority perspectives should be represented in these contexts. It is a matter of who has the power to define themselves and the others and the others’ shortcomings.
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9.
  • Gustafson, Niklas (författare)
  • Lärare i en ny tid : Om grundskollärares förhandlingar av professionella identiteter
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • Den svenska grundskolan har under de två senaste årtiondena genomgått omfattande reform- och förändringsprocesser. Från en strukturell nivå har dessa drivit fram en ny tid med ett i grunden förändrat uppdrag för skolan och dess lärare. I denna avhandling antas emellertid att lärare som aktörer kan forma förändringar och strukturer. Avhandlingen har författats inom ramen för ett flerårigt interaktivt forskningsprojekt med lärare från tre grundskolor. Utifrån skapad data i projektet om hur nya och förändrade grupper och arbetsgrupper i lärares arbete leder till ett vidgat uppdrag, fokuserar studien lärarnas förhandlingar av professionella identiteter kring arbetets helhet. Etienne Wengers (1998) sociala teori om identitet, med rubriken ”Communities of Practice”, används för att fördjupa förståelsen av data. Det övergripande syftet med avhandlingen är att inom ramen för ett interaktivt forskningsprojekt beskriva och analysera hur lärare förhandlar professionella identiteter i grundskolan. Ett delsyfte är att beskriva och analysera lärarnas lärande och kunskapsutveckling i projektet. Den centrala forskningsfrågan är: Hur och kring vad förhandlar lärarna professionella identiteter i olika praktikgemenskaper? Genom att använda den interaktiva forskningsansatsen har en strävan varit att utveckla demokratiska dialog- och lärandeprocesser med de deltagande lärarna. En ambition är att öka kunskaperna om lärare som medforskare i forskningsprojekt och som forskande lärare i arbetet i skolan. Det interaktiva projektets mötesplatser var informella samtal, lärande dialoger, enskilda intervjuer och fokusgrupper. Studiens resultat visar att lärarna förhandlar professionella identiteter i ett rör(l)igt expanderande multimedlemskap i praktikgemenskaper. Som mäklare av information och kunskaper mellan och inom praktikgemenskaper i skolan, och utifrån olika identitetspositioner, förhandlar lärarna överlappande identiteter. Medlemskap i gemenskaper för enbart vuxna får allt större utrymme i relation till lärararbetets helhet. Studiens huvudsakliga slutsats är att lärare i den nya tiden förhandlar identiteter i ett spänningsförhållande mellan fragmentisering respektive sammanvävning av arbetets komplexa helhet genom sitt multimedlemskap i praktikgemenskaper. I avhandlingen föreslås komplexitetsmedvetenhet vara grundläggande, och att en sådan insikt kan förbättras av lärarna genom att utveckla sig själva som mäklare och sina förtingliganden av gränsobjekt inom ett komplext multimedlemskap. Analys av data visar att lärarna i det interaktiva projektet haft möjligheter att vidareutveckla kompetenser för förhandlingar av identiteter som forskande lärare i arbetet i skolan. Data från projektet analyseras dessutom i ett sammanhang av globaliserade och mångskiftande strukturella samhällsförändringar såsom decentraliseringar, ekonomiska omvandlingar, kulturella standardiseringar, det individualiserade kunskapssamhället samt det reflekterande samhället. En slutsats är att lärarna tycks operera inom ett alltmer globaliserat lärararbete och vara på väg mot identiteter som globaliserade lärare.
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10.
  • Hallenius, Mikael, 1971- (författare)
  • Clio räddar världen : En annalys av argumentationen för historieämnets ställning i det svenska skolsystemet i Historielärarnas Förenings Årsskrift, 1942-2004
  • 2011
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • The aim of this thesis is to analyse and discuss the argumentation for theplace of History in the Swedish school system from the perspective ofeducation philosophy. The material that has been investigated is theYearbook of the Association of History Teachers (HLFÅ). In connectionto this, two questions have been asked: (1) What sort of argumentationhas there been in HLFÅ on the place of History in the Swedish schoolsystem from the time the Yearbook started to be published in 1942 until2004 when the Swedish parliament decided that the subject should beobligatory for all pupils in gymnasiet (senior high school)? (2) In whatway has education philosophy been taken into consideration in the argumentationon the place of History in HLFÅ between 1942 and 2004? Thebackground to these questions is partly that during the whole of the1900s it has been far from obvious what place History should have in theupper levels of the Swedish school system. Also, I have partly found itfruitful to study HLFÅ from the perspective of education philosophy.In chapter 1, we give a deeper presentation of HLFÅ. After that followsan overview of research into the teaching and learning of History (Historydidactics). The chapter ends with the three leitmotifs based on this research.I identify as leitmotifs areas that are identified clearly and repeatedlyin History didactics and that are seen as relevant to structure myanalysis of HLFÅ. The three leitmotifs are: (1) the relation between Historyand academia, (2) the social potential of History, (3) the use of Historyin the service of peace. These have structured the presentation in thetwo analysis chapters of the thesis (chapters 4 and 5).Chapter 2 discusses the thesis methodology, theoretical perspective andquestions. The methodology is an analysis of argumentation based onhermeneutics. The theoretical perspectives used in the study are educationphilosophies. My use of the theory builds on my reading of TheodorBrameld and Tomas Englund. The four education philosophies used toanalyse the argumentation are: (1) progressivism, (2) essentialism, (3)perennialism, (4) reconstructivism. In chapter 3, the background to thestudy is presented. The areas that are focused on are the changes in theSwedish school system during the 1900s, the subject of History in figures,and glimpses from the public debate on history in general and thesubject of History in Sweden. In chapter 4, we cover the period from1942-1970, and in chapter 5 we cover in a similar way the period from1971-2004. Both chapters begin with a chronological overview of theargumentation in the articles. After that, the material is analysed wherethe presentation is structured based on the three leitmotifs which arediscussed from an education philosophy perspective.Chapter 6 is a summarizing discussion. There we make it clear that progressivismis almost completely absent from the argumentation aroundthe place of History in Swedish schools in HLFÅ. Instead, the studyshows that it is a combination of essentialism and perennialism that dominatesthe way of maintaining the merits of History. Regarding reconstructivism,it is stated that it is subordinate to essentialism and perennialism.The study ends with suggestions for further research. Since theargumentation has consistently made the claim that History can givepeople a feeling of safety in their surroundings, understand their place inlife and create peace in the world, it is suggested that further analysisshould be made of similar material from the perspective of civil religion.A point of departure in this research is that secular societies partly takeover, and partly re-work, the rites and cosmologies of religious institutions,in order to create solidarity in modern societies. My hypothesis isthat this perspective would strengthen the thought that there are civilreligious practices on Swedish soil in connection with the educationworld.
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