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  • Dellborg, Mikael, 1954, et al. (författare)
  • Comparison of treatment and outcomes for patients with acute myocardial infarction in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota, and Göteborg, Sweden.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: American heart journal. - : Mosby, Inc.. - 1097-6744 .- 0002-8703. ; 146:6, s. 1023-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is changing, and differences in medical practice are observed within and between countries on the basis of local practice patterns and available technology. These differing approaches provide an opportunity to evaluate medical practice and outcomes at the population level. The primary aim of this study was to compare medical care in patients hospitalized with AMI in 2 large cities in Sweden and the United States. A secondary aim was to compare medical outcomes.
  • Engdahl, J, et al. (författare)
  • Time trends in long-term mortality after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in 1980-1998 and predictors for death
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : Mosby, Inc.. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 145:5, s. 826-833
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract Background We studied time trends in long-term survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) for patient characteristics and described predictors for death after discharge. Because long-term prognosis among patients with coronary heart disease has improved in the last decades, we hypothesized that the prognosis after OHCA would improve with time. Methods We analyzed data that were prospectively collected from all patients discharged from the hospital after OHCA in the community of Göteborg, Sweden, from 1980 to 1998 and divided the data into 2 time periods, 1980 to 1991 and 1991 to1998, with an equal number of patients. Results A total of 430 patients were included in the survey. Age, sex proportions, cardiovascular comorbidity, resuscitation factors, and inhospital complications did not change with time. A diagnosis of a precipitating myocardial infarction was more common during period 1 (66% vs 54%). The prescription of aspirin (22% vs 52%), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (7% vs 29%), anticoagulants (13% vs 27%), and lipid-lowering agents (0% vs 6%) at discharge increased during period 2. Long-term survival did not improve with time; the 5-year mortality rates were 53% in period 1 and 52% in period 2. Independent predictors of an increased risk of death included age (risk ratio [RR] 1.06, 95% CI 1.05–1.08), history of myocardial infarction (RR 2.02, 95% CI 1.51–2.72), history of smoking (RR 1.77, 95% CI 1.29–2.44), and worse cerebral performance at discharge (RR 1.71, 95% CI 1.44–2.02). The prescription of β-blockers at discharge was independently predictive of decreased risk of death (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.46–0.85). Conclusion The long-term survival rate after OHCA did not change. Baseline characteristics remained generally unchanged, but the drugs prescribed at discharge changed in several aspects. Age, a history of myocardial infarction, a history of smoking, cerebral performance category at discharge, and the prescription of β-blockers were independent predictors of outcome.
  • Jánosi, A, et al. (författare)
  • Metoprolol CR/XL in post-myocardial infarction patients with chronic heart failure. Experiences from MERIT-HF
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : Mosby, Inc.. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 146:4, s. 721-728
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract Background The benefit of β-blockers post-myocardial infarction (MI) was established in the late 1970s. Major advances in the treatment of MI have since occurred. However, patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) were excluded from those trials. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of β-blockers in post-MI patients with CHF receiving contemporary management. Methods This was a prespecified subgroup analysis of a double-blind, randomized trial: the Metoprolol CR/XL Randomized Intervention Trial in Heart Failure (MERIT-HF). Patients with CHF in New York Heart Association class II to IV with an ejection fraction (EF) ≤0.40 and a history of being hospitalized for an acute MI (n = 1926) were randomized to metoprolol succinate controlled release/extended release (CR/XL) versus placebo. Mean EF was 0.28, and the mean follow-up was 1 year. Results Metoprolol CR/XL reduced total mortality by 40% (95% CI 0.20–0.55, P = .0004), and sudden death by 50% (95% CI 0.26–0.66, P = .0004). The combined end point of all-cause mortality/hospitalization for worsening CHF was reduced by 31% (95% CI 0.16–0.44, P < .0001), and cardiac death/nonfatal acute MI by 45% (95% CI 0.26–0.58, P < .0001). A post-hoc analysis showed that the outcome in patients with earlier revascularization (44%) and outcome in those with more severe CHF (20%) was similar to the entire post-MI population. Conclusions In post-MI patients with symptomatic CHF, β-blockade continues to exert a profound reduction in mortality and morbidity in the presence of contemporary management that includes early and late revascularization, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, aspirin, and statins.
  • Aasa, Mikael, et al. (författare)
  • Cost and health outcome of primary percutaneous coronary intervention versus thrombolysis in acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction-Results of the Swedish Early Decision reperfusion Study (SWEDES) trial.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: American heart journal. - : Elsevier BV. - 1097-6744 .- 0002-8703. ; 160:2, s. 322-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: In ST-elevation myocardial infarction, primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has a superior clinical outcome, but it may increase costs in comparison to thrombolysis. The aim of the study was to compare costs, clinical outcome, and quality-adjusted survival between primary PCI and thrombolysis. METHODS: Patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction were randomized to primary PCI with adjunctive enoxaparin and abciximab (n = 101), or to enoxaparin followed by reteplase (n = 104). Data on the use of health care resources, work loss, and health-related quality of life were collected during a 1-year period. Cost-effectiveness was determined by comparing costs and quality-adjusted survival. The joint distribution of incremental costs and quality-adjusted survival was analyzed using a nonparametric bootstrap approach. RESULTS: Clinical outcome did not differ significantly between the groups. Compared with the group treated with thrombolysis, the cost of interventions was higher in the PCI-treated group ($4,602 vs $3,807; P = .047), as well as the cost of drugs ($1,309 vs $1,202; P = .001), whereas the cost of hospitalization was lower ($7,344 vs $9,278; P = .025). The cost of investigations, outpatient care, and loss of production did not differ significantly between the 2 treatment arms. Total cost and quality-adjusted survival were $25,315 and 0.759 vs $27,819 and 0.728 (both not significant) for the primary PCI and thrombolysis groups, respectively. Based on the 1-year follow-up, bootstrap analysis revealed that in 80%, 88%, and 89% of the replications, the cost per health outcome gained for PCI will be <$0, $50,000, and $100,000 respectively. CONCLUSION: In a 1-year perspective, there was a tendency toward lower costs and better health outcome after primary PCI, resulting in costs for PCI in comparison to thrombolysis that will be below the conventional threshold for cost-effectiveness in 88% of bootstrap replications.
  • Ahmed, Hanna N., et al. (författare)
  • Coffee consumption and risk of heart failure in men : An analysis from the Cohort of Swedish Men
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : MOSBY-ELSEVIER. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 158:4, s. 667-672
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background A previous study found that consuming 5 or more cups of coffee per day was associated with increased incidence of heart failure (HF). We sought to evaluate this association in a larger population. Methods We measured coffee consumption using food frequency questionnaires among 37,315 men without history of myocardial infarction, diabetes, or HE They were observed for HF hospitalization or mortality from January 1, 1998, until December 3 1, 2006, using record linkage to the Swedish inpatient and cause of death registries. Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, dietary, and demographic factors were used to calculate incidence rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results For 9 years of follow-up, 784 men experienced an HF event. Compared to men who drank! l cup of coffee per day (unadjusted rate 29.9 HF events/ 10,000 person-years), RR were 0.87 (95% CI 0.69-1.11, unadjusted rate 29.2/10,000 person-years) for 2 cups/d, 0.89 (95% CI 0.70-1.14, unadjusted rate 25.1/10,000 person-years) for 3 cups/d, 0.89 (95% CI 0.69-1.15, unadjusted rate 25.0/10,000 person-years) for 4 cups/d, and 0.89 (95% CI 0.69-1.15, unadjusted rate 18.1/10,000 person-years) for >= 5 cups/d (P for trend in RR = .61). Conclusions This study did not support the hypothesis that high coffee consumption is associated with increased rates of HF hospitalization or mortality. (Am Heart J 2009;158:667-72.)
  • Al-Faleh, Hussam, et al. (författare)
  • Unraveling the spectrum of left bundle branch block in acute myocardial infarction : insights from the Assessment of the Safety and Efficacy of a New Thrombolytic (ASSENT 2 and 3) trials
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : Elsevier BV. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 151:1, s. 10-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Left bundle branch block (LBBB) complicates the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The Sgarbossa criteria were developed from GUSTO I to surmount this diagnostic challenge but have not been prospectively validated in a large population with presumed AMI. We evaluated their utility in the diagnosis and risk stratification of AMI patients in ASSENT 2 & 3. METHODS: Baseline electrocardiograms (ECG) of LBBB patients were scored using Sgarbossa's criteria (0-10) by 2 readers blinded to the CK/CK-MB data and clinical outcomes; 267 (1.2%) patients had LBBB on their baseline ECG. RESULTS: Among 253 LBBB patients with available peak CK/CK-MB data, 158 (62.5%) had peak CK/CK-MB levels > 2x ULN, thereby qualifying for the diagnosis of AMI. A Sgarbossa score of 3 was shown in 48.7% of LBBB patients with elevated CK/CK-MB versus in 12.6% of those without a CK/CK-MB rise (P < .001). Patients with higher Sgarbossa scores, ie, 3, had a higher mortality compared with those with a score < 3, (23.5% vs 7.7% at 30 days P < .001; and 33.7% vs 20.2% at 1 year, P < .001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings validate the utility of Sgarbossa criteria for diagnosing AMI in the setting of LBBB. These criteria provide a simple and practical diagnostic approach to risk stratify this diagnostically challenging high-risk group and optimize risk-benefit of acute therapy.
  • Al-Khalili, F, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical importance of risk factors and exercise testing for prediction of significant coronary artery stenosis in women recovering from unstable coronary artery disease : The Stockholm Female Coronary Risk Study
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - Karolinska Hosp & Inst, Dept Cardiol, Stockholm, Sweden. Karolinska Hosp & Inst, Dept Thorac Radiol, Stockholm, Sweden. Karolinska Hosp & Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Div Prevent Med, Stockholm, Sweden. : MOSBY-ELSEVIER. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 139:6, s. 971-978
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The objectives of this study were to investigate the relation between coronary risk factors, exercise testing parameters, and the presence of angiographically significant coronary artery disease (CAD) (>50% luminal stenosis) in female patients previously hospitalized for an acute CAD event. Methods and Results All women younger than age 66 years in the greater Stockholm area in Sweden who were hospitalized for acute coronary syndromes during a 3-year period were recruited, Besides collection of clinical parameters, coronary angiography and a symptom-limited exercise test were performed in 228 patients 3 to 6 months after the index hospitalization. The mean age was 56 +/- 7 years. Angiographically nonsignificant CAD (stenosis <50%) was verified in 37% of the patients; significant CAD was found in 63%. The clinical parameters that showed the strongest relation with the presence of significant CAD after adjusting for age were history of myocardial infarction (odds ratio [OR] 4.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.35 to 7.49), history of diabetes mellitus (OR 3.83, 95% Cl 1.63 to 14.31), serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <1.4 mmol/L (OR 2.11, 95% Cl 1.20 to 3.72), and waist-to-hip ratio >0.85 (OR 1.78, 95% Cl 1.02 to 3.10). A low exercise capacity and associated low change of rate-pressure product from rest to peak exercise were the only exercise testing parameters that were significantly related to angiographically verified significant CAD (<90% of the predicted maximal work capacity adjusted for age and weight, OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.04 to 3.50). Conclusions In female patients recovering from unstable CAD, exercise capacity was the only exercise testing parameter of value in the prediction of significant CAD. The consideration of certain clinical characteristics and coronary risk factors offer better or complementary information when deciding on further coronary assessment.
  • Alexander, John H., et al. (författare)
  • Documentation of study medication dispensing in a prospective large randomized clinical trial : Experiences from the ARISTOTLE Trial
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : Elsevier BV. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 166:3, s. 559-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background In ARISTOTLE, apixaban resulted in a 21% reduction in stroke, a 31% reduction in major bleeding, and an 11% reduction in death. However, approval of apixaban was delayed to investigate a statement in the clinical study report that "7.3% of subjects in the apixaban group and 1.2% of subjects in the warfarin group received, at some point during the study, a container of the wrong type." Methods Rates of study medication dispensing error were characterized through reviews of study medication container tear-off labels in 6,520 participants from randomly selected study sites. The potential effect of dispensing errors on study outcomes was statistically simulated in sensitivity analyses in the overall population. Results The rate of medication dispensing error resulting in treatment error was 0.04%. Rates of participants receiving at least 1 incorrect container were 1.04% (34/3,273) in the apixaban group and 0.77% (25/3,247) in the warfarin group. Most of the originally reported errors were data entry errors in which the correct medication container was dispensed but the wrong container number was entered into the case report form. Sensitivity simulations in the overall trial population showed no meaningful effect of medication dispensing error on the main efficacy and safety outcomes. Conclusions Rates of medication dispensing error were low and balanced between treatment groups. The initially reported dispensing error rate was the result of data recording and data management errors and not true medication dispensing errors. These analyses confirm the previously reported results of ARISTOTLE.
  • Alexander, Karen P, et al. (författare)
  • Outcomes of apixaban versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation and multi-morbidity : Insights from the ARISTOTLE trial
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : Elsevier BV. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 208, s. 123-131
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) often have multi-morbidity, defined as ≥3 comorbid conditions. Multi-morbidity is associated with polypharmacy, adverse events, and frailty potentially altering response to anticoagulation. We sought to describe the prevalence of multi-morbidity among older patients with AF and determine the association between multi-morbidity, clinical outcomes, and the efficacy and safety of apixaban compared with warfarin.METHODS: In this post-hoc subgroup analysis of the ARISTOTLE trial, we studied enrolled patients age ≥ 55 years (n = 16,800). Patients were categorized by the number of comorbid conditions at baseline: no multi-morbidity (0-2 comorbid conditions), moderate multi-morbidity (3-5 comorbid conditions), and high multi-morbidity (≥6 comorbid conditions). Association between multi-morbidity and clinical outcomes were analyzed by treatment with a median follow-up of 1.8 (1.3-2.3) years.RESULTS: Multi-morbidity was present in 64% (n = 10,713) of patients; 51% (n = 8491) had moderate multi-morbidity, 13% (n = 2222) had high multi-morbidity, and 36% (n = 6087) had no multi-morbidity. Compared with the no multi-morbidity group, the high multi-morbidity group was older (74 vs 69 years), took twice as many medications (10 vs 5), and had higher CHA2DS2-VASc scores (4.9 vs 2.7) (all P < .001). Adjusted rates per 100 patient-years for stroke/systemic embolism, death, and major bleeding increased with multi-morbidity (Reference no multi-morbidity; moderate multi-morbidity 1.42 [1.24-1.64] and high multi-morbidity 1.92 [1.59-2.31]), with no interaction in relation to efficacy or safety of apixaban.CONCLUSIONS: Multi-morbidity is prevalent among the population with AF; efficacy and safety of apixaban is preserved in this subgroup supporting extension of trial results to the most complex AF patients.
  • Alfredsson, Joakim, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of an invasive strategy on 5 years outcome in men and women with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : Elsevier. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 168:4, s. 522-529
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background A routine invasive (RI) strategy in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS) has been associated with better outcome compared with a selective invasive (SI) strategy in men, but results in women have yielded disparate results. The aim of this study was to assess gender differences in long-term outcome with an SI compared with an RI strategy in NSTE ACS. Methods Individual patient data were obtained from the FRISC II trial, ICTUS trial, and RITA 3 trial for a collaborative meta-analysis. Results Men treated with an RI strategy had significantly lower rate of the primary outcome 5-year cardiovascular (CV) death/myocardial infarction (MI) compared with men treated with an SI strategy (15.6% vs 19.8%, P = .001); risk-adjusted hazards ratio (HR) 0.73 (95% CI 0.63-0.86). In contrast, there was little impact of an RI compared with an SI strategy on the primary outcome among women (16.5% vs 15.1%, P = .324); risk-adjusted HR 1.13 (95% CI 0.89-1.43), interaction P = .01. For the individual components of the primary outcome, a similar pattern was seen with lower rate of MI (adjusted HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.57-0.83) and CV death (adjusted HR 0.71, 95% CI 0.56-0.89) in men but without obvious difference in women in MI (adjusted HR 1.13, 95% CI 0.85-1.50) or CV death (adjusted HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.68-1.39). Conclusions In this meta-analysis comparing an SI and RI strategy, benefit from an RI strategy during long-term follow-up was confirmed in men. Conversely, in women, there was no evidence of benefit.
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