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  • Lu, Yunxia, et al. (författare)
  • Metabolic predispositions and increased risk of colorectal adenocarcinoma by anatomical locations: a large population-based cohort study in Norway
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Molecular Medicine and Surgery. - 0002-9262.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Whether different definitions of metabolic syndrome (MetS) are differently associated with colorectal adenocarcinoma (CA) by anatomical location is unclear. A population-based cohort study, the Cohort of Norway (CONOR) Study, was conducted in Norway from 1995 to 2010. Anthropometric measurements, blood samples, and lifestyle data were collected at recruitment. CAs were identified through linkage to the Norwegian Cancer Register. A composite index of MetS as defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) or/and the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) and single components of MetS, including anthropometric factors, blood pressure, lipids, triglycerides, and glucose, were analyzed. Cox proportional hazards regression was performed to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Significant associations between single MetS components and CA, except for reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and nonfasting glucose levels, were observed. MetS defined by 2 criteria separately showed a similar association with CA in general, and MetS defined by both the IDF and ATP III showed consistent results. Stronger associations were observed in the proximal colon among men (IDF: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.24, 1.84; ATP III: HR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.70) and in the rectum among women (IDF: HR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.89; ATP III: HR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.90).
  • Ahlborg, Gunnar, 1948, et al. (författare)
  • Tobacco smoke exposure and pregnancy outcome among working women. A prospective study at prenatal care centers in Orebro County, Sweden
  • 1991
  • Ingår i: Am J Epidemiol. - 0002-9262. ; 133:4, s. 338-47
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Among 4,687 women undergoing prenatal care in Orebro County, Sweden, from October 1980 to June 1983, 678 nonsmokers reported passive exposure to tobacco smoke. Of these women, 267 had been passively exposed at work, and the risk ratio (RR) for intrauterine death (spontaneous abortion or stillbirth) among these pregnancies was increased to 1.53 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.98-2.38) compared with pregnancies of unexposed working women. This could not be explained by age, previous spontaneous abortion, educational level, planning of pregnancy, or alcohol use. The effect was confined to first-trimester fetal loss (adjusted RR = 2.16, 95% CI 1.23-3.81), while active smoking was associated with intrauterine death after the first trimester. Passive exposure in the workplace was weakly associated with preterm birth (less than 37 weeks) but not with low birth weight (less than 2,500 g) among full-term livebirths. Active smoking clearly increased the risk of both of these outcomes. However, passive exposure in the home only did not seem to affect pregnancy outcome. The lack of quantitative exposure data points to the need for more research before passive exposure to tobacco smoke can be regarded as an established hazard to fetal development and survival.
  • Ahrén-Moonga, Jennie, et al. (författare)
  • Association of Higher Parental and Grandparental Education and Higher School Grades With Risk of Hospitalization for Eating Disorders in Females : The Uppsala Birth Cohort Multigenerational Study
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology. - 0002-9262 .- 1476-6256. ; 170:5, s. 566-575
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Eating disorders are a leading cause of disease burden amongyoung women. This study investigated associations of socialcharacteristics of parents and grandparents, sibling position,and school performance with incidence of eating disorders. Theauthors studied Swedish females born in 1952–1989 (n =13,376), third-generation descendants of a cohort born in Uppsalain 1915–1929. Data on grandparental and parental socialcharacteristics, sibling position, school grades, hospitalizations,emigrations, and deaths were obtained by register linkages.Associations with incidence of hospitalization for eating disorderswere studied with multivariable Cox regression, adjusted forage and study period. Overall incidence of hospitalization foreating disorders was 32.0/100,000 person-years. Women with morehighly educated parents and maternal grandparents were at higherrisk (hazard ratio for maternal grandmother with higher educationrelative to elementary education = 6.5, 95% confidence interval:2.2, 19.3, adjusted for parental education). Independent offamily social characteristics, women with the highest schoolgrades had a higher risk of eating disorders (hazard ratio =7.7, 95% confidence interval: 2.5, 24.1 for high compared withlow grades in Swedish, adjusted for parental education). Thus,higher parental and grandparental education and higher schoolgrades may increase risk of hospitalization for eating disordersin female offspring, possibly because of high internal and externaldemands.
  • Aleksandrova, Krasimira, et al. (författare)
  • Circulating C-reactive protein concentrations and risks of colon and rectal cancer : a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology. - 0002-9262 .- 1476-6256. ; 172:4, s. 407-418
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The authors investigated associations between serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations and colon and rectal cancer risk in a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (1992-2003) among 1,096 incident cases and 1,096 controls selected using risk-set sampling and matched on study center, age, sex, time of blood collection, fasting status, menopausal status, menstrual cycle phase, and hormone replacement therapy. In conditional logistic regression with adjustment for education, smoking, nutritional factors, body mass index, and waist circumference, CRP showed a significant nonlinear association with colon cancer risk but not rectal cancer risk. Multivariable-adjusted relative risks for CRP concentrations of > or = 3.0 mg/L versus <1.0 mg/L were 1.36 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 1.85; P-trend = 0.01) for colon cancer and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.67, 1.57; P-trend = 0.65) for rectal cancer. Colon cancer risk was significantly increased in men (relative risk = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.11, 2.73; P-trend = 0.01) but not in women (relative risk = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.67, 1.68; P-trend = 0.13). Additional adjustment for C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol did not attenuate these results. These data provide evidence that elevated CRP concentrations are related to a higher risk of colon cancer but not rectal cancer, predominantly among men and independently of obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia.
  • Amirian, E. Susan, et al. (författare)
  • The Glioma International Case-Control Study : A Report From the Genetic Epidemiology of Glioma International Consortium
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology. - 0002-9262 .- 1476-6256. ; 183:2, s. 85-91
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Decades of research have established only a few etiological factors for glioma, which is a rare and highly fatal brain cancer. Common methodological challenges among glioma studies include small sample sizes, heterogeneity of tumor subtypes, and retrospective exposure assessment. Here, we briefly describe the Glioma International Case-Control (GICC) Study (recruitment, 2010-2013), a study being conducted by the Genetic Epidemiology of Glioma International Consortium that integrates data from multiple data collection sites, uses a common protocol and questionnaire, and includes biospecimen collection. To our knowledge, the GICC Study is the largest glioma study to date that includes collection of blood samples, which will allow for genetic analysis and interrogation of gene-environment interactions.
  • Anderson, H, et al. (författare)
  • Familial breast and ovarian cancer : a Swedish population-based register study
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology. - : Oxford University Press. - 0002-9262. ; 152:12, s. 63-1154
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A cohort of offspring of mothers with breast or ovarian cancer diagnosed in 1958-1993 was established using Swedish population-based registers. The children (n = 158,041) were born between 1941 and 1993, and their cancer incidence was followed between 1961 and 1993. A total of 3,257 tumors in 3,102 children were found. Observed numbers of cases were compared with expected numbers based on national calendar year-, age-, and sex-specific incidences. For daughters of women with breast cancer, the standardized morbidity ratios for being diagnosed with breast cancer and ovarian cancer before age 50 years were 1.99 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.86, 2.14) and 1.28 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.54), respectively. The corresponding figures for daughters of women with ovarian cancer were 1.79 (95% CI: 1.55, 2.07) and 2.38 (95% CI: 1.77, 3.12). The risks were raised if the mother's cancer was diagnosed at a young age, the mother had multiple breast/ovarian diagnoses, or there was a sister with breast/ovarian cancer. Among all offspring, increased risks were found for thyroid cancer, testicular cancer, and malignant melanoma, while lung cancer risk was decreased if the mother had had breast cancer. The authors developed a variance estimator for the standardized morbidity ratio to cope with overdispersion due to dependency within families.
  • Andersson, Eva M., 1968, et al. (författare)
  • Partial Mediation by Cadmium Exposure of the Association Between Tobacco Smoking and Atherosclerotic Plaques in the Carotid Artery
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology. - : Oxford University Press. - 0002-9262 .- 1476-6256. ; 187:4, s. 806-816
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Exposure to cadmium confers increased cardiovascular risk. Tobacco smoke contains cadmium, which, hypothetically, may mediate parts of the tobacco-associated risk of developing atherosclerotic plaques. Baseline data from the Swedish Malmo Diet and Cancer cohort (1991-1996) were used to test this hypothesis. Mediation analysis was used to examine associations between smoking and blood cadmium levels and the prevalence of ultrasound-assessed carotid atherosclerotic plaques. The total association with smoking status (never smokers, 2 categories of former smokers, and current smokers) was split into direct and indirect association, and the proportion mediated was estimated. The adjusted estimated plaque prevalence was approximately 27% among never smokers. We identified both a direct and an indirect pathway between smoking and carotid plaques; the indirect association, through cadmium, was observed among current smokers and former smokers who had quit smoking less than 15 years before. For current smokers, the prevalence ratio for plaque was 1.5, with 60%-65% of the association with smoking being mediated through cadmium. Recent former smokers had a prevalence ratio of 1.3, and 40%-45% was mediated through cadmium. Long-time former smokers had a prevalence ratio of 1.2, but none of the association was mediated through cadmium. In conclusion, about two-thirds of the proatherosclerotic association with smoking was mediated by cadmium.
  • Andersson, Kristin, et al. (författare)
  • Prospective Study of Human Papillomavirus Seropositivity and Risk of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology. - : Oxford University Press. - 0002-9262 .- 1476-6256. ; 175:7, s. 685-695
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have been associated with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in case-control studies, but there are limited data from prospective studies assessing whether virus exposure predicts risk of future cancer development. Two major biobanks, the Southern Sweden Microbiology Biobank (1971-2003) and the Janus Biobank (1973-2003) in Norway, containing samples from 850,000 donors, were searched for incident skin cancer for up to 30 years using registry linkages. Altogether, 2,623 donors with samples taken before diagnosis of SCC or basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin were identified. Prediagnostic samples and samples from 2,623 matched controls were tested for antibodies against 33 types of HPV. Baseline seropositivity to HPV types in genus beta species 2 was associated with SCC risk (odds ratio = 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 1.7); this was also the case for samples taken more than 18 years before diagnosis (odds ratio = 1.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 2.8). Type-specific persistent seropositivity entailed elevated point estimates for SCC risk for 29 HPV types and decreased point estimates for only 3 types. After multiple hypothesis adjustment, HPV 76 was significantly associated with SCC risk and HPV 9 with BCC risk. In summary, seropositivity for certain HPV types was associated with an increased risk for future development of SCC and BCC.
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