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  • Carmichael, Theron W., et al. (författare)
  • Two Intermediate-mass Transiting Brown Dwarfs from the TESS Mission
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astronomical Journal. - : IOP Publishing. - 1538-3881 .- 0004-6256. ; 160:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the discovery of two intermediate-mass transiting brown dwarfs (BDs), TOI-569b and TOI-1406b, from NASA's Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite mission. TOI-569b has an orbital period of P=.55604±0.00016 days, a mass of Mb = 64.1±1.9 MJ, and a radius of Rb = 0.75±0.02 RJ. Its host star, TOI-569, has a mass of Må = 1.21±0.05 M, a radius of Rå = 1.47±0.03 R, [Fe H 0.29 0.09] = + dex, and an effective temperature of Teff = 5768±10K. TOI-1406b has an orbital period of P=10.57415±0.00063 days, a mass of Mb = 46.0± 2.7 MJ, and a radius of Rb = 0.86±0.03 RJ. The host star for this BD has a mass of Må = 1.18±0.09 M, a radius of Rå = 1.35±0.03 R, [Fe/H] =-0.08± 0.09 dex, and an effective temperature of Teff = 6290±100 K. Both BDs are in circular orbits around their host stars and are older than 3 Gyr based on stellar isochrone models of the stars. TOI-569 is one of two slightly evolved stars known to host a transiting BD (the other being KOI-415). TOI-1406b is one of three known transiting BDs to occupy the mass range of 40-50 MJ and one of two to have a circular orbit at a period near 10 days (with the first being KOI-205b). Both BDs have reliable ages from stellar isochrones, in addition to their well-constrained masses and radii, making them particularly valuable as tests for substellar isochrones in the BD mass-radius diagram.
  • Donor, John, et al. (författare)
  • The Open Cluster Chemical Abundances and Mapping Survey. IV. Abundances for 128 Open Clusters Using SDSS/APOGEE DR16
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astronomical Journal. - : Institute of Physics (IOP). - 0004-6256 .- 1538-3881. ; 159:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Open Cluster Chemical Abundances and Mapping (OCCAM) survey aims to constrain key Galactic dynamical and chemical evolution parameters by the construction of a large, comprehensive, uniform, infrared-based spectroscopic data set of hundreds of open clusters. This fourth contribution from the OCCAM survey presents analysis using Sloan Digital Sky Survey/APOGEE DR16 of a sample of 128 open clusters, 71 of which we designate to be "high quality" based on the appearance of their color-magnitude diagram. We find the APOGEE DR16 derived [Fe/H] abundances to be in good agreement with previous high-resolution spectroscopic open cluster abundance studies. Using the high-quality sample, we measure Galactic abundance gradients in 16 elements, and find evolution of some of the [X/Fe] gradients as a function of age. We find an overall Galactic [Fe/H] versus R-GC gradient of -0.068 0.001 dex kpc(-1) over the range of 6 R-GC < 13.9 kpc; however, we note that this result is sensitive to the distance catalog used, varying as much as 15%. We formally derive the location of a break in the [Fe/H] abundance gradient as a free parameter in the gradient fit for the first time. We also measure significant Galactic gradients in O, Mg, S, Ca, Mn, Cr, Cu, Na, Al, and K, some of which are measured for the first time. Our large sample allows us to examine four well-populated age bins in order to explore the time evolution of gradients for a large number of elements and comment on possible implications for Galactic chemical evolution and radial migration.
  • Holtzman, Jon A., et al. (författare)
  • APOGEE Data Releases 13 and 14 : Data and Analysis
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Astronomical Journal. - : IOP Publishing. - 0004-6256 .- 1538-3881. ; 156:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The data and analysis methodology used for the SDSS/APOGEE Data Releases 13 and 14 are described, highlighting differences from the DR12 analysis presented in Holtzman et al. Some improvement in the handling of telluric absorption and persistence is demonstrated. The derivation and calibration of stellar parameters, chemical abundances, and respective uncertainties are described, along with the ranges over which calibration was performed. Some known issues with the public data related to the calibration of the effective temperatures (DR13), surface gravity (DR13 and DR14), and C and N abundances for dwarfs (DR13 and DR14) are highlighted. We discuss how results from a data-driven technique, The Cannon, are included in DR14 and compare those with results from the APOGEE Stellar Parameters and Chemical Abundances Pipeline. We describe how using The Cannon in a mode that restricts the abundance analysis of each element to regions of the spectrum with known features from that element leads to Cannon abundances can lead to significantly different results for some elements than when all regions of the spectrum are used to derive abundances.
  • Jönsson, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • APOGEE Data and Spectral Analysis from SDSS Data Release 16 : Seven Years of Observations Including First Results from APOGEE-South
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astronomical Journal. - : Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP). - 0004-6256 .- 1538-3881. ; 160:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The spectral analysis and data products in Data Release 16 (DR16; 2019 December) from the high-resolution near-infrared Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE)-2/Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-IV survey are described. Compared to the previous APOGEE data release (DR14; 2017 July), APOGEE DR16 includes about 200,000 new stellar spectra, of which 100,000 are from a new southern APOGEE instrument mounted on the 2.5 m du Pont telescope at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. DR16 includes all data taken up to 2018 August, including data released in previous data releases. All of the data have been re-reduced and re-analyzed using the latest pipelines, resulting in a total of 473,307 spectra of 437,445 stars. Changes to the analysis methods for this release include, but are not limited to, the use of MARCS model atmospheres for calculation of the entire main grid of synthetic spectra used in the analysis, a new method for filling "holes" in the grids due to unconverged model atmospheres, and a new scheme for continuum normalization. Abundances of the neutron-capture element Ce are included for the first time. A new scheme for estimating uncertainties of the derived quantities using stars with multiple observations has been applied, and calibrated values of surface gravities for dwarf stars are now supplied. Compared to DR14, the radial velocities derived for this release more closely match those in the Gaia DR2 database, and a clear improvement in the spectral analysis of the coolest giants can be seen. The reduced spectra as well as the result of the analysis can be downloaded using links provided on the SDSS DR16 web page.
  • Nowak, G., et al. (författare)
  • EPIC 219388192b-An Inhabitant of the Brown Dwarf Desert in the Ruprecht 147 Open Cluster
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Astronomical Journal. - 1538-3881 .- 0004-6256. ; 153:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the discovery of EPIC 219388192b, a transiting brown dwarf in a 5.3 day orbit around a member star of Ruprecht 147, the oldest nearby open cluster association, which was photometrically monitored by K2 during its Campaign 7. We combine the K2 time-series data with ground-based adaptive optics imaging and high-resolution spectroscopy to rule out false positive scenarios and determine the main parameters of the system. EPIC 219388192b has a radius of R-b= 0.937 +/- 0.032 R-Jup and mass of M-b= 36.84 +/- 0.97 M-Jup, yielding a mean density of 59.6 +/- 7.6 g cm(- 3). The host star is nearly a solar twin with mass M-star = 1.01 +/- 0.04 Me, radius R-star = 1.01 +/- 0.03 R-circle dot, effective temperature T-eff = 5850 +/- 85 K, and iron abundance [Fe/ H]. = 0.03 +/- 0.08 dex. Its age, spectroscopic distance, and reddening are consistent with those of Ruprecht 147, corroborating its cluster membership. EPIC 219388192b is the first mature brown dwarf with precise determinations of mass, radius, and age, and serves as benchmark for evolutionary models in the substellar regime.
  • Vigren, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Model-Observation Comparisons Of Electron Number Densities In The Coma Of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko During 2015 January
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Astronomical Journal. - 0004-6256 .- 1538-3881. ; 152:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • During 2015 January 9-11, at a heliocentric distance of similar to 2.58-2.57 au, the ESA Rosetta spacecraft resided at a cometocentric distance of similar to 28 km from the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, sweeping the terminator at northern latitudes of 43 degrees N-58 degrees N. Measurements by the Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis/Comet Pressure Sensor (ROSINA/COPS) provided neutral number densities. We have computed modeled electron number densities using the neutral number densities as input into a Field Free Chemistry Free model, assuming H2O dominance and ion-electron pair formation by photoionization only. A good agreement (typically within 25%) is found between the modeled electron number densities and those observed from measurements by the Mutual Impedance Probe (RPC/MIP) and the Langmuir Probe (RPC/LAP), both being subsystems of the Rosetta Plasma Consortium. This indicates that ions along the nucleus-spacecraft line were strongly coupled to the neutrals, moving radially outward with about the same speed. Such a statement, we propose, can be further tested by observations of H3O+/H2O+ number density ratios and associated comparisons with model results.
  • Alsubai, Khalid, et al. (författare)
  • Qatar Exoplanet Survey : Qatar-3b, Qatar-4b, and Qatar-5b
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Astronomical Journal. - 0004-6256 .- 1538-3881. ; 153:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the discovery of Qatar-3b, Qatar-4b, and Qatar-5b, three new transiting planets identified by the Qatar Exoplanet Survey. The three planets belong to the hot Jupiter family, with orbital periods of P-Q3b = 2.50792 days, P-Q4b = 1.80539 days, and P-Q5b = 2.87923 days. Follow-up spectroscopic observations reveal the masses of the planets to be M-Q3b = 4.31 +/- 0.47 M-J, M-Q4b = 6.10 +/- 0.54 M-J, and M-Q5b = 4.32 +/- 0.18 M-J, while model fits to the transit light curves yield radii of R-Q3b = 1.096 +/- 0.14 RJ, R-Q4b = 1.135 +/- 0.11 R-J, and R-Q5b = 1.107 +/- 0.064 R-J. The host stars are low-mass main sequence stars with masses and radii M-Q3 = 1.145 +/- 0.064 M circle dot, M-Q4 = 0.896 +/- 0.048 M circle dot, M-Q5 = 1.128 +/- 0.056 M circle dot and R-Q3 = 1.272 +/- 0.14 R circle dot, R-Q4 = 0.849 +/- 0.063 R circle dot, and R-Q5 = 1.076 +/- 0.051 R circle dot for Qatar-3, 4, and 5 respectively. The V magnitudes of the three host stars are V-Q3 = 12.88, V-Q4 = 13.60, and V-Q5 = 12.82. All three new planets can be classified as heavy hot Jupiters (M > 4 M-J).
  • Aronson, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Model-independent Exoplanet Transit Spectroscopy
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Astronomical Journal. - : IOP PUBLISHING LTD. - 0004-6256 .- 1538-3881. ; 155:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We propose a new data analysis method for obtaining transmission spectra of exoplanet atmospheres and brightness variation across the stellar disk from transit observations. The new method is capable of recovering exoplanet atmosphere absorption spectra and stellar specific intensities without relying on theoretical models of stars and planets. We simultaneously fit both stellar specific intensity and planetary radius directly to transit light curves. This allows stellar models to be removed from the data analysis. Furthermore, we use a data quality weighted filtering technique to achieve an optimal trade-off between spectral resolution and reconstruction fidelity homogenizing the signal-to-noise ratio across the wavelength range. Such an approach is more efficient than conventional data binning onto a low-resolution wavelength grid. We demonstrate that our analysis is capable of reproducing results achieved by using an explicit quadratic limb-darkening equation and that the filtering technique helps eliminate spurious spectral features in regions with strong telluric absorption. The method is applied to the VLT FORS2 observations of the exoplanets GJ 1214 b and WASP-49 b, and our results are in agreement with previous studies. Comparisons between obtained stellar specific intensity and numerical models indicates that the method is capable of accurately reconstructing the specific intensity. The proposed method enables more robust characterization of exoplanetary atmospheres by separating derivation of planetary transmission and stellar specific intensity spectra (that is model-independent) from chemical and physical interpretation.
  • Baron, Frédérique, et al. (författare)
  • WEIRD : Wide-orbit Exoplanet Search with InfraRed Direct Imaging
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Astronomical Journal. - 0004-6256 .- 1538-3881. ; 156:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report results from the Wide-orbit Exoplanet search with InfraRed Direct imaging, or WEIRD, a survey designed to search for Jupiter-like companions on very wide orbits (1000-5000 au) around young stars (<120 Myr) that are known members of moving groups in the solar neighborhood (<70 pc). Companions that share the same age, distance, and metallicity as their host while being on large enough orbits to be studied as isolated objects make prime targets for spectroscopic observations, and they are valuable benchmark objects for exoplanet atmosphere models. The search strategy is based on deep imaging in multiple bands across the near-infrared domain For all 177 objects of our sample, z(ab)', J, [3.6], and [4.5] images were obtained with CFHT/MegaCam, GEMINI/GMOS, CFHT/WIRCam, GEMINI/Flamingos-2, and Spitzer IIRAC. Using this set of four images per target, we searched for sources with red z(ab)' and [3.6]-[4.5] colors, typically reaching good completeness down to 2 M-J(up) companions, while going down to 1 M-J(up) for some targets, at separations of 1000-5000 au. The search yielded four candidate companions with the expected colors, but they were all rejected through follow-up proper motion observations. Our results constrain the occurrence of 1-13 M(J)(u)p planetary-mass companions on orbits with a semimajor axis between 1000 and 5000 au at less than 0.03, with a 95% confidence level.
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