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  • Franchini, Mariagrazia, et al. (författare)
  • The Gaia-ESO Survey : Oxygen Abundance in the Galactic Thin and Thick Disks*
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Astronomical Journal. - : IOP PUBLISHING LTD. - 0004-6256 .- 1538-3881. ; 161:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We analyze the oxygen abundances of a stellar sample representative of the two major Galactic populations: the thin and thick disks. The aim is to investigate the differences between members of the Galactic disks and contribute to the understanding of the origin of oxygen chemical enrichment in the Galaxy. The analysis is based on the [O i] = 6300.30 A oxygen line in high-resolution spectra (R similar to 52,500) obtained from the Gaia-ESO public spectroscopic Survey (GES). By comparing the observed spectra with a theoretical data set computed in LTE with the SPECTRUM synthesis and ATLAS12 codes, we derive the oxygen abundances of 516 FGK dwarfs for which we have previously measured carbon abundances. Based on kinematic, chemical, and dynamical considerations, we identify 20 thin and 365 thick disk members. We study the potential trends of both subsamples in terms of their chemistry ([O/H], [O/Fe], [O/Mg], and [C/O] versus [Fe/H] and [Mg/H]), age, and position in the Galaxy. The main results are that (a) [O/H] and [O/Fe] ratios versus [Fe/H] show systematic differences between thin and thick disk stars with an enhanced O abundance of thick disk stars with respect to thin disk members and a monotonic decrement of [O/Fe] with increasing metallicity, even at metal-rich regime; (b) there is a smooth correlation of [O/Mg] with age in both populations, suggesting that this abundance ratio can be a good proxy of stellar ages within the Milky Way; and (c) thin disk members with [Fe/H] 0 display a [C/O] ratio smaller than the solar value, suggesting a possibly outward migration of the Sun from lower Galactocentric radii.
  • Carmichael, Theron W., et al. (författare)
  • Two Intermediate-mass Transiting Brown Dwarfs from the TESS Mission
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astronomical Journal. - : IOP Publishing. - 1538-3881 .- 0004-6256. ; 160:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the discovery of two intermediate-mass transiting brown dwarfs (BDs), TOI-569b and TOI-1406b, from NASA's Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite mission. TOI-569b has an orbital period of P=.55604±0.00016 days, a mass of Mb = 64.1±1.9 MJ, and a radius of Rb = 0.75±0.02 RJ. Its host star, TOI-569, has a mass of Må = 1.21±0.05 M, a radius of Rå = 1.47±0.03 R, [Fe H 0.29 0.09] = + dex, and an effective temperature of Teff = 5768±10K. TOI-1406b has an orbital period of P=10.57415±0.00063 days, a mass of Mb = 46.0± 2.7 MJ, and a radius of Rb = 0.86±0.03 RJ. The host star for this BD has a mass of Må = 1.18±0.09 M, a radius of Rå = 1.35±0.03 R, [Fe/H] =-0.08± 0.09 dex, and an effective temperature of Teff = 6290±100 K. Both BDs are in circular orbits around their host stars and are older than 3 Gyr based on stellar isochrone models of the stars. TOI-569 is one of two slightly evolved stars known to host a transiting BD (the other being KOI-415). TOI-1406b is one of three known transiting BDs to occupy the mass range of 40-50 MJ and one of two to have a circular orbit at a period near 10 days (with the first being KOI-205b). Both BDs have reliable ages from stellar isochrones, in addition to their well-constrained masses and radii, making them particularly valuable as tests for substellar isochrones in the BD mass-radius diagram.
  • Jönsson, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • APOGEE Data and Spectral Analysis from SDSS Data Release 16 : Seven Years of Observations Including First Results from APOGEE-South
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astronomical Journal. - : Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP). - 0004-6256 .- 1538-3881. ; 160:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The spectral analysis and data products in Data Release 16 (DR16; 2019 December) from the high-resolution near-infrared Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE)-2/Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-IV survey are described. Compared to the previous APOGEE data release (DR14; 2017 July), APOGEE DR16 includes about 200,000 new stellar spectra, of which 100,000 are from a new southern APOGEE instrument mounted on the 2.5 m du Pont telescope at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. DR16 includes all data taken up to 2018 August, including data released in previous data releases. All of the data have been re-reduced and re-analyzed using the latest pipelines, resulting in a total of 473,307 spectra of 437,445 stars. Changes to the analysis methods for this release include, but are not limited to, the use of MARCS model atmospheres for calculation of the entire main grid of synthetic spectra used in the analysis, a new method for filling "holes" in the grids due to unconverged model atmospheres, and a new scheme for continuum normalization. Abundances of the neutron-capture element Ce are included for the first time. A new scheme for estimating uncertainties of the derived quantities using stars with multiple observations has been applied, and calibrated values of surface gravities for dwarf stars are now supplied. Compared to DR14, the radial velocities derived for this release more closely match those in the Gaia DR2 database, and a clear improvement in the spectral analysis of the coolest giants can be seen. The reduced spectra as well as the result of the analysis can be downloaded using links provided on the SDSS DR16 web page.
  • Donor, John, et al. (författare)
  • The Open Cluster Chemical Abundances and Mapping Survey. IV. Abundances for 128 Open Clusters Using SDSS/APOGEE DR16
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astronomical Journal. - : Institute of Physics (IOP). - 0004-6256 .- 1538-3881. ; 159:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Open Cluster Chemical Abundances and Mapping (OCCAM) survey aims to constrain key Galactic dynamical and chemical evolution parameters by the construction of a large, comprehensive, uniform, infrared-based spectroscopic data set of hundreds of open clusters. This fourth contribution from the OCCAM survey presents analysis using Sloan Digital Sky Survey/APOGEE DR16 of a sample of 128 open clusters, 71 of which we designate to be "high quality" based on the appearance of their color-magnitude diagram. We find the APOGEE DR16 derived [Fe/H] abundances to be in good agreement with previous high-resolution spectroscopic open cluster abundance studies. Using the high-quality sample, we measure Galactic abundance gradients in 16 elements, and find evolution of some of the [X/Fe] gradients as a function of age. We find an overall Galactic [Fe/H] versus R-GC gradient of -0.068 0.001 dex kpc(-1) over the range of 6 R-GC < 13.9 kpc; however, we note that this result is sensitive to the distance catalog used, varying as much as 15%. We formally derive the location of a break in the [Fe/H] abundance gradient as a free parameter in the gradient fit for the first time. We also measure significant Galactic gradients in O, Mg, S, Ca, Mn, Cr, Cu, Na, Al, and K, some of which are measured for the first time. Our large sample allows us to examine four well-populated age bins in order to explore the time evolution of gradients for a large number of elements and comment on possible implications for Galactic chemical evolution and radial migration.
  • Holtzman, Jon A., et al. (författare)
  • APOGEE Data Releases 13 and 14 : Data and Analysis
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: The Astronomical Journal. - : IOP Publishing. - 0004-6256 .- 1538-3881. ; 156:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The data and analysis methodology used for the SDSS/APOGEE Data Releases 13 and 14 are described, highlighting differences from the DR12 analysis presented in Holtzman et al. Some improvement in the handling of telluric absorption and persistence is demonstrated. The derivation and calibration of stellar parameters, chemical abundances, and respective uncertainties are described, along with the ranges over which calibration was performed. Some known issues with the public data related to the calibration of the effective temperatures (DR13), surface gravity (DR13 and DR14), and C and N abundances for dwarfs (DR13 and DR14) are highlighted. We discuss how results from a data-driven technique, The Cannon, are included in DR14 and compare those with results from the APOGEE Stellar Parameters and Chemical Abundances Pipeline. We describe how using The Cannon in a mode that restricts the abundance analysis of each element to regions of the spectrum with known features from that element leads to Cannon abundances can lead to significantly different results for some elements than when all regions of the spectrum are used to derive abundances.
  • Nowak, G., et al. (författare)
  • EPIC 219388192b-An Inhabitant of the Brown Dwarf Desert in the Ruprecht 147 Open Cluster
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Astronomical Journal. - 1538-3881 .- 0004-6256. ; 153:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the discovery of EPIC 219388192b, a transiting brown dwarf in a 5.3 day orbit around a member star of Ruprecht 147, the oldest nearby open cluster association, which was photometrically monitored by K2 during its Campaign 7. We combine the K2 time-series data with ground-based adaptive optics imaging and high-resolution spectroscopy to rule out false positive scenarios and determine the main parameters of the system. EPIC 219388192b has a radius of R-b= 0.937 +/- 0.032 R-Jup and mass of M-b= 36.84 +/- 0.97 M-Jup, yielding a mean density of 59.6 +/- 7.6 g cm(- 3). The host star is nearly a solar twin with mass M-star = 1.01 +/- 0.04 Me, radius R-star = 1.01 +/- 0.03 R-circle dot, effective temperature T-eff = 5850 +/- 85 K, and iron abundance [Fe/ H]. = 0.03 +/- 0.08 dex. Its age, spectroscopic distance, and reddening are consistent with those of Ruprecht 147, corroborating its cluster membership. EPIC 219388192b is the first mature brown dwarf with precise determinations of mass, radius, and age, and serves as benchmark for evolutionary models in the substellar regime.
  • Smith, Verne V., et al. (författare)
  • The APOGEE Data Release 16 Spectral Line List
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Astronomical Journal. - : Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP). - 0004-6256 .- 1538-3881. ; 161:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The updated H-band spectral-line list (from lambda 15000-17000) adopted by the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) for the SDSS-IV Data Release 16 (DR16) is presented in this work. The APOGEE line list is a combination of atomic and molecular lines, with data drawn from laboratory, theoretical, and astrophysical sources. Oscillator strengths and damping constants are adjusted using high signal-to-noise, high-resolution spectra of the Sun, and alpha Boo (Arcturus), as "standard stars." Updates to the DR16 line list, as compared to the previous DR14 version, include the addition of molecular H2O and FeH lines, as well as a much larger (by a factor of similar to 4) atomic line list, including a significantly greater number of transitions with hyperfine splitting. More recent references and line lists for the crucial molecules, CO and OH, as well as for C-2 and SiH, are also included. In contrast to DR14, DR16 contains measurable lines from the heavy neutron-capture elements cerium (as Ce ii), neodymium (as Nd ii), and ytterbium (as Yb ii), as well as one line from rubidium (as Rb i), which may be detectable in a small fraction of APOGEE red giants.
  • de Wijn, A. G., et al. (författare)
  • Design and Performance Analysis of a Highly Efficient Polychromatic Full Stokes Polarization Modulator for the CRISP Imaging Spectrometer
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Astronomical Journal. - 0004-6256 .- 1538-3881. ; 161:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the design and performance of a polychromatic polarization modulator for the CRisp Imaging SpectroPolarimeter (CRISP) Fabry-Perot tunable narrow-band imaging spectropolarimer at the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope (SST). We discuss the design process in depth, compare two possible modulator designs through a tolerance analysis, and investigate thermal sensitivity of the selected design. The trade-offs and procedures described in this paper are generally applicable in the development of broadband polarization modulators. The modulator was built and has been operational since 2015. Its measured performance is close to optimal between 500 and 900 nm, and differences between the design and as-built modulator are largely understood. We show some example data, and briefly review scientific work that used data from SST/CRISP and this modulator.
  • Eastwood, Michael W., et al. (författare)
  • The Radio Sky at Meter Wavelengths: M-mode Analysis Imaging with the OVRO-LWA
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Astronomical Journal. - 1538-3881 .- 0004-6256. ; 156:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A host of new low-frequency radio telescopes seek to measure the 21 cm transition of neutral hydrogen from the early universe. These telescopes have the potential to directly probe star and galaxy formation at redshifts 20 ≳ z ≳ 7 but are limited by the dynamic range they can achieve against foreground sources of low-frequency radio emission. Consequently, there is a growing demand for modern, high-fidelity maps of the sky at frequencies below 200 MHz for use in foreground modeling and removal. We describe a new wide-field imaging technique for drift-scanning interferometers: Tikhonov-regularized m-mode analysis imaging. This technique constructs images of the entire sky in a single synthesis imaging step with exact treatment of wide-field effects. We describe how the CLEAN algorithm can be adapted to deconvolve maps generated by m-mode analysis imaging. We demonstrate Tikhonov-regularized m-mode analysis imaging using the Owens Valley Radio Observatory Long Wavelength Array (OVRO-LWA) by generating eight new maps of the sky north of δ = -30° with 15′ angular resolution at frequencies evenly spaced between 36.528 and 73.152 MHz and ∼800 mJy beam-1thermal noise. These maps are a 10-fold improvement in angular resolution over existing full-sky maps at comparable frequencies, which have angular resolutions ≥2°. Each map is constructed exclusively from interferometric observations and does not represent the globally averaged sky brightness. Future improvements will incorporate total power radiometry, improved thermal noise, and improved angular resolution due to the planned expansion of the OVRO-LWA to 2.6 km baselines. These maps serve as a first step on the path to the use of more sophisticated foreground filters in 21 cm cosmology incorporating the measured angular and frequency structure of all foreground contaminants.
  • Ginsburg, Adam, et al. (författare)
  • astroquery: An Astronomical Web-querying Package in Python
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Astronomical Journal. - 1538-3881 .- 0004-6256. ; 157:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Astroquery is a collection of tools for requesting data from databases hosted on remote servers with interfaces exposed on the Internet, including those with web pages but without formal application program interfaces. These tools are built on the Python requests package, which is used to make HTTP requests, and astropy, which provides most of the data parsing functionality. astroquery modules generally attempt to replicate the web page interface provided by a given service as closely as possible, making the transition from browser-based to command-line interaction easy. astroquery has received significant contributions from throughout the astronomical community, including several from telescope archives. astroquery enables the creation of fully reproducible workflows from data acquisition through publication. This paper describes the philosophy, basic structure, and development model of the astroquery package. The complete documentation for astroquery can be found at http://astroquery.readthedocs.io/.
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