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  • Bragaglia, A., et al. (författare)
  • The Gaia-ESO Survey : Target selection of open cluster stars & x22c6
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 659
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. The Gaia-ESO Survey (GES) is a public, high-resolution spectroscopic survey, conducted with the multi-object spectrograph Fibre Large Array Multi Element Spectrograph (FLAMES) on the Very Large Telescope (European Southern Observatory, ESO, Cerro Paranal, Chile) from December 2011 to January 2018. Gaia-ESO has targeted all the main stellar components of the Milky Way, including thin and thick disc, bulge, and halo. In particular, a large sample of open clusters has been observed, from very young ones, just out of the embedded phase, to very old ones. Aims. The different kinds of clusters and stars targeted in them are useful to reach the main science goals of the open cluster part of GES, which are the study of the open cluster structure and dynamics, the use of open clusters to constrain and improve stellar evolution models, and the definition of Galactic disc properties (e.g., metallicity distribution). Methods. The Gaia-ESO Survey is organised in 19 working groups (WGs), each one being responsible for a task. We describe here the work of three of them, one in charge of the selection of the targets within each cluster or association (WG4), one responsible for defining the most probable candidate member stars (WG1), and another one in charge of the preparation of the observations (WG6). As the entire GES has been conducted before the second Gaia data release, we could not make use of the Gaia astrometry to define cluster member candidates. We made use of public and private photometry to select the stars to be observed with FLAMES, once brought on a common astrometric system (the one defined by 2MASS). Candidate target selection was based on ground-based proper motions, radial velocities, and X-ray properties when appropriate, for example, and it was mostly used to define the position of the clusters' evolutionary sequences in the colour-magnitude diagrams. Targets for GIRAFFE were then selected near the sequences in an unbiased way. We used known information on membership, when available, only for the few stars to be observed with UVES. Results. We collected spectra for 62 confirmed clusters in the main observing campaign (and a few more clusters were taken from the ESO archive). Among them are very young clusters, where the main targets are pre-main sequence stars, clusters with very hot and massive stars currently on the main sequence, intermediate-age and old clusters where evolved stars are the main targets. Our strategy of making the selection of targets as inclusive and unbiased as possible and of observing a significant and representative fraction of all possible targets permitted us to collect the largest, most accurate, and most homogeneous spectroscopic data set on open star clusters ever achieved.
  • Donati, P., et al. (författare)
  • The Gaia-ESO Survey : Reevaluation of the parameters of the open cluster Trumpler 20 using photometry and spectroscopy
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 561, s. A94-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Trumpler 20 is an old open cluster (OC) located toward the Galactic centre, at about 3 kpc from the Sun and similar to 7 kpc from the Galactic centre. Its position makes this cluster particularly interesting in the framework of the chemical properties of the Galactic disc because very few old OCs reside in the inner part of the disc. For this reason it has been selected as a cluster target of the Gaia-ESO Survey, and spectra of many stars in the main-sequence and red-clump phases are now available. Moreover, although it has been studied by several authors in the past, no consensus on the evolutionary status of Tr 20 has been reached. The heavy contamination of field stars (the line of sight of Tr 20 crosses the Carina spiral arm) complicates a correct interpretation. Another interesting aspect of the cluster is that it shows a broadened main-sequence turn-off and a prominent and extended red-clump, characteristics that are not easily explained by classical evolutionary models. Exploiting both spectroscopic information from the Gaia-ESO Survey (and the ESO archive) and literature photometry, we obtain a detailed and accurate analysis of the properties of the cluster. We make use of the first accurate metallicity measurement ever obtained from several spectra of red clump stars, and of cluster membership determination using radial velocities. According to the evolutionary models adopted, we find that Tr 20 has an age in the range 1.35-1.66 Gyr, an average reddening E(B - V) in the range 0.31-0.35 mag, and a distance modulus (m - M)(0) between 12.64 and 12.72 mag. The spectroscopic metallicity is [Fe/H] = +0.17 dex. We discuss the structural properties of the object and constrain possible hypotheses for its broadened upper main sequence by estimating the effect of differential reddening and its extended red clump.
  • Abramowski, A., et al. (författare)
  • H.E.S.S. detection of TeV emission from the interaction region between the supernova remnant G349.7+0.2 and a molecular cloud
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 574, s. 1-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • G349.7+0.2 is a young Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) located at the distance of 11.5 kpc and observed across the entire electromagnetic spectrum from radio to high energy (HE; 0.1 GeV < E < 100 GeV) gamma-rays. Radio and infrared observations indicate that the remnant is interacting with a molecular cloud. In this paper, the detection of very high energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission coincident with this SNR with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS.) is reported. This makes it one of the farthest Galactic SNR ever detected in this domain. An integral flux F(E > 400 GeV) = (6.5 +/- 1.1(stat) +/- 1.3(syst)) x 10-11 ph cm(-2) s(-1) corresponding to similar to 0.7% of that of the Crab Nebula and to a luminosity of similar to 10(34) erg s(-1) above the same energy threshold, and a steep photon index Gamma(VHE) = 2.8 +/- 0.27(stat) +/- 0.20(syst) are measured. The analysis of more than 5 yr of Fermi-LAT data towards this source shows a power-law like spectrum with a best-fit photon index Gamma(HE) = 2.2 +/- 0.04.2(stat-0.31sys)(+0.13), The combined gamma-ray spectrum of 0349.7+0.2 can be described by either a broken power law (I3PL) or a power law with exponential (or sub exponential) cutoff (PLC). In the former case, the photon break energy is found at E-br,E-gamma = 551(-30)(+70) GeV, slightly higher than what is usually observed in the HE/VHE gamma-ray emitting middle-aged SNRs known to be interacting with molecular clouds. In the latter case. the exponential (respectively sub-exponential) cutoff energy is measured at E-cat,E-gamma = 1.4(-0.55)(+1.6) (respectively 0.35(-0.21)(+0.75)) TeV. A pion decay process resulting from the interaction of the accelerated protons and nuclei with the dense surrounding medium is clearly the preferred scenario to explain the gamma-ray emission. The BPL with a spectral steepening of 0.5-1 and the PLC provide equally good fits to the data. The product or the average gas density and the total energy content of accelerated protons and nuclei amounts to nu W-p similar to 5 x 10(51) erg cm(-3)
  • Persson, Carina, 1964, et al. (författare)
  • Water and ammonia abundances in S140 with the Odin satellite
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 2:494, s. 637-646
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We investigate the effect of the physical environment on water and ammonia abundances across the S140 photodissociation region (PDR) with an embedded outflow.We used the Odin satellite to obtain strip maps of the ground-state rotational transitions of ortho-water and ortho-ammonia, as well as CO(5-4) and 13co(5-4) across the PDR, and H_2^18O in the central position. A physi-chemicalinhomogeneous PDR model was used to compute the temperature and abundance distributions for water, ammonia, and CO. A multi-zone escape probability method then calculated the level populations and intensity distributions. These results are compared to a homogeneous model computed with an enhanced version of the RADEX code.H_2O, NH_3, and ^13CO show emission from an extended PDR with a narrow line width of ~3 km/s. Like CO, the water line profile is dominated by outflow emission, but mainly in the red wing. Even though CO shows strong self-absorption, no signs of self-absorption are seen in the water line. The H_2^18O molecule is not detected.The PDR model suggests that the water emission arises mainly from the surfaces of optically thick, high-density clumps with n(H_2)>10^6 cm^-3 and a clump water abundance, with respect to H_2, of 5*10^-8. The mean water abundance in the PDR is 5*10^-9 and between ~4*10^-8 - 4*10^-7 in the outflow derived from a simple two-level approximation.The RADEX model points to a somewhat higher average PDR water abundance of 1*10^-8. At low temperatures deep in the cloud, the water emission is weaker, likely due to adsorption onto dust grains, while ammonia is still abundant. Ammonia is also observed in the extended clumpy PDR, likely from the same high density and warm clumps as water. The average ammonia abundance is about the same as for water: 4*10^-9 and 8*10^-9 given by the PDR model and RADEX, respectively. The differences between the models most likely arise from uncertainties in density,beam-filling, and volume-filling of clumps. The similarity of water and ammonia PDR emission is also seen in the almost identical line profiles observed close to the bright rim. Around the central position, ammonia also shows some outflow emission, although weaker than water in the red wing. Predictions of the H_2O 1(1,0)-1(0,1) and 1(1,1)-0(0,0) antenna temperatures across the PDR are estimated with our PDR model for the forthcoming observations with the Herschel Space Observatory.
  • Adén, Daniel, et al. (författare)
  • An abundance study of red-giant-branch stars in the Hercules dwarf spheroidal galaxy
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Astronomy & Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 525
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Dwarf spheroidal galaxies are some of the most metal-poor, and least luminous objects known. Detailed elemental abundance analysis of stars in these faint objects is key to our understanding of star formation and chemical enrichment in the early universe, and may provide useful information on how larger galaxies form. Aims. Our aim is to provide a determination of [Fe/H] and [Ca/H] for confirmed red-giant branch member stars of the Hercules dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Based on this we explore the ages of the prevailing stellar populations in Hercules, and the enrichment history from supernovae. Additionally, we aim to provide a new simple metallicity calibration for Stromgren photometry for metal-poor, red giant branch stars. Methods. High-resolution, multi-fibre spectroscopy and Stromgren photometry are combined to provide as much information on the stars as possible. From this we derive abundances by solving the radiative transfer equations through marcs model atmospheres. Results. We find that the red-giant branch stars of the Hercules dSph galaxy are more metal-poor than estimated in our previous study that was based on photometry alone. From this, we derive a new metallicity calibration for the Stromgren photometry. Additionally, we find an abundance trend such that [Ca/Fe] is higher for more metal-poor stars, and lower for more metal-rich stars, with a spread of about 0.8 dex. The [Ca/Fe] trend suggests an early rapid chemical enrichment through supernovae of type II, followed by a phase of slow star formation dominated by enrichment through supernovae of type Ia. A comparison with isochrones indicates that the red giants in Hercules are older than 10 Gyr.
  • Albarrán, M. L.Gutiérrez, et al. (författare)
  • The Gaia -ESO Survey: Calibrating the lithium-age relation with open clusters and associations: I. Cluster age range and initial membership selections
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 643
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Previous studies of open clusters have shown that lithium depletion is not only strongly age dependent but also shows a complex pattern with other parameters that is not yet understood. For pre- and main-sequence late-type stars, these parameters include metallicity, mixing mechanisms, convection structure, rotation, and magnetic activity. Aims. We perform a thorough membership analysis for a large number of stars observed within the Gaia-ESO survey (GES) in the field of 20 open clusters, ranging in age from young clusters and associations, to intermediate-age and old open clusters. Methods. Based on the parameters derived from the GES spectroscopic observations, we obtained lists of candidate members for each of the clusters in the sample by deriving radial velocity distributions and studying the position of the kinematic selections in the EW(Li)-versus-Teff plane to obtain lithium members. We used gravity indicators to discard field contaminants and studied [Fe/H] metallicity to further confirm the membership of the candidates. We also made use of studies using recent data from the Gaia DR1 and DR2 releases to assess our member selections. Results. We identified likely member candidates for the sample of 20 clusters observed in GES (iDR4) with UVES and GIRAFFE, and conducted a comparative study that allowed us to characterize the properties of these members as well as identify field contaminant stars, both lithium-rich giants and non-giant outliers. Conclusions. This work is the first step towards the calibration of the lithium-age relation and its dependence on other GES parameters. During this project we aim to use this relation to infer the ages of GES field stars, and identify their potential membership to young associations and stellar kinematic groups of different ages.
  • Antoja, T., et al. (författare)
  • Gaia Early Data Release 3: The Galactic anticentre
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 1432-0746 .- 0004-6361. ; 649
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims. We aim to demonstrate the scientific potential of the Gaia Early Data Release 3 (EDR3) for the study of different aspects of the Milky Way structure and evolution and we provide, at the same time, a description of several practical aspects of the data and examples of their usage. Methods. We used astrometric positions, proper motions, parallaxes, and photometry from EDR3 to select different populations and components and to calculate the distances and velocities in the direction of the anticentre. In this direction, the Gaia astrometric data alone enable the calculation of the vertical and azimuthal velocities; also, the extinction is relatively low compared to other directions in the Galactic plane. We then explore the disturbances of the current disc, the spatial and kinematical distributions of early accreted versus in situ stars, the structures in the outer parts of the disc, and the orbits of open clusters Berkeley 29 and Saurer 1. Results. With the improved astrometry and photometry of EDR3, we find that: (i) the dynamics of the Galactic disc are very complex with oscillations in the median rotation and vertical velocities as a function of radius, vertical asymmetries, and new correlations, including a bimodality with disc stars with large angular momentum moving vertically upwards from below the plane, and disc stars with slightly lower angular momentum moving preferentially downwards; (ii) we resolve the kinematic substructure (diagonal ridges) in the outer parts of the disc for the first time; (iii) the red sequence that has been associated with the proto-Galactic disc that was present at the time of the merger with Gaia-Enceladus-Sausage is currently radially concentrated up to around 14 kpc, while the blue sequence that has been associated with debris of the satellite extends beyond that; (iv) there are density structures in the outer disc, both above and below the plane, most probably related to Monoceros, the Anticentre Stream, and TriAnd, for which the Gaia data allow an exhaustive selection of candidate member stars and dynamical study; and (v) the open clusters Berkeley 29 and Saurer 1, despite being located at large distances from the Galactic centre, are on nearly circular disc-like orbits. Conclusions. Even with our simple preliminary exploration of the Gaia EDR3, we demonstrate how, once again, these data from the European Space Agency are crucial for our understanding of the different pieces of our Galaxy and their connection to its global structure and history. © ESO 2021.
  • Atalay, B., et al. (författare)
  • MCDHF and RCI calculations of energy levels, lifetimes, and transition rates in Si III and Si IV
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 631
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present extensive multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock and relativistic configuration interaction calculations including 106 states in doubly ionized silicon (Si III) and 45 states in triply ionized silicon (Si IV), which are important for astrophysical determination of plasma properties in different objects. These calculations represents an important extension and improvement of earlier calculations especially for Si III. The calculations are in good agreement with available experiments for excitation energies, transition properties, and lifetimes. Important deviations from the NIST-database for a selection of perturbed Rydberg series are discussed in detail.
  • Babusiaux, C., et al. (författare)
  • Observational Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 616
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Gaia Data Release 2 provides high-precision astrometry and three-band photometry for about 1.3 billion sources over the full sky. The precision, accuracy, and homogeneity of both astrometry and photometry are unprecedented. Aims. We highlight the power of the Gaia DR2 in studying many fine structures of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (HRD). Gaia allows us to present many different HRDs, depending in particular on stellar population selections. We do not aim here for completeness in terms of types of stars or stellar evolutionary aspects. Instead, we have chosen several illustrative examples. Methods. We describe some of the selections that can be made in Gaia DR2 to highlight the main structures of the Gaia HRDs. We select both field and cluster (open and globular) stars, compare the observations with previous classifications and with stellar evolutionary tracks, and we present variations of the Gaia HRD with age, metallicity, and kinematics. Late stages of stellar evolution such as hot subdwarfs, post-AGB stars, planetary nebulae, and white dwarfs are also analysed, as well as low-mass brown dwarf objects. Results. The Gaia HRDs are unprecedented in both precision and coverage of the various Milky Way stellar populations and stellar evolutionary phases. Many fine structures of the HRDs are presented. The clear split of the white dwarf sequence into hydrogen and helium white dwarfs is presented for the first time in an HRD. The relation between kinematics and the HRD is nicely illustrated. Two different populations in a classical kinematic selection of the halo are unambiguously identified in the HRD. Membership and mean parameters for a selected list of open clusters are provided. They allow drawing very detailed cluster sequences, highlighting fine structures, and providing extremely precise empirical isochrones that will lead to more insight in stellar physics. Conclusions. Gaia DR2 demonstrates the potential of combining precise astrometry and photometry for large samples for studies in stellar evolution and stellar population and opens an entire new area for HRD-based studies.
  • Baratella, M., et al. (författare)
  • The Gaia -ESO Survey : A new approach to chemically characterising young open clusters: I. Stellar parameters, and iron-peak, α -, and proton-capture elements
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 634
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Open clusters are recognised as excellent tracers of Galactic thin-disc properties. At variance with intermediate-age and old open clusters, for which a significant number of studies is now available, clusters younger than ≲ 150 Myr have been mostly overlooked in terms of their chemical composition until recently (with few exceptions). On the other hand, previous investigations seem to indicate an anomalous behaviour of young clusters, which includes (but is not limited to) slightly sub-solar iron (Fe) abundances and extreme, unexpectedly high barium (Ba) enhancements. Aims. In a series of papers, we plan to expand our understanding of this topic and investigate whether these chemical peculiarities are instead related to abundance analysis techniques. Methods. We present a new determination of the atmospheric parameters for 23 dwarf stars observed by the Gaia-ESO survey in five young open clusters (τ < 150 Myr) and one star-forming region (NGC 2264). We exploit a new method based on titanium (Ti) lines to derive the spectroscopic surface gravity, and most importantly, the microturbulence parameter. A combination of Ti and Fe lines is used to obtain effective temperatures. We also infer the abundances of Fe » I, Fe » II, Ti » I, Ti » II, Na » I, Mg » I, Al » I, Si » I, Ca » I, Cr » I, and Ni » I. Results. Our findings are in fair agreement with Gaia-ESO iDR5 results for effective temperatures and surface gravities, but suggest that for very young stars, the microturbulence parameter is over-estimated when Fe lines are employed. This affects the derived chemical composition and causes the metal content of very young clusters to be under-estimated. Conclusions. Our clusters display a metallicity [Fe/H] between +0.04 ± 0.01 and +0.12 ± 0.02; they are not more metal poor than the Sun. Although based on a relatively small sample size, our explorative study suggests that we may not need to call for ad hoc explanations to reconcile the chemical composition of young open clusters with Galactic chemical evolution models.
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