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  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 703:2, s. 1249-1256
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Observations by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi mission of diffuse gamma-rays in a mid-latitude region in the third quadrant (Galactic longitude l from 200 degrees to 260 degrees and latitude vertical bar b vertical bar from 22 degrees to 60 degrees) are reported. The region contains no known large molecular cloud and most of the atomic hydrogen is within 1 kpc of the solar system. The contributions of gamma-ray point sources and inverse Compton scattering are estimated and subtracted. The residual gamma-ray intensity exhibits a linear correlation with the atomic gas column density in energy from 100 MeV to 10 GeV. The measured integrated gamma-ray emissivity is (1.63 +/- 0.05) x 10(-26) photons s(-1)sr(-1) H-atom(-1) and (0.66 +/- 0.02) x 10(-26) photons s(-1)sr(-1) H-atom(-1) above 100 MeV and above 300 MeV, respectively, with an additional systematic error of similar to 10%. The differential emissivity from 100 MeV to 10 GeV agrees with calculations based on cosmic ray spectra consistent with those directly measured, at the 10% level. The results obtained indicate that cosmic ray nuclei spectra within 1 kpc from the solar system in regions studied are close to the local interstellar spectra inferred from direct measurements at the Earth within similar to 10%.
  • Griffith, Emily, et al. (författare)
  • The Similarity of Abundance Ratio Trends and Nucleosynthetic Patterns in the Milky Way Disk and Bulge
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - : American Astronomical Society. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 909:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We compare abundance ratio trends in a sample of ∼11,000 Milky Way bulge stars (R GC < 3 kpc) from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) to those of APOGEE stars in the Galactic disk (5 kpc < R GC < 11 kpc). We divide each sample into low-Ia (high-[Mg/Fe]) and high-Ia (low-[Mg/Fe]) populations, and in each population, we examine the median trends of [X/Mg] versus [Mg/H] for elements X = Fe, O, Na, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and Ce. To remove small systematic trends of APOGEE abundances with stellar log(g), we resample the disk stars to match the log(g) distributions of the bulge data. After doing so, we find nearly identical median trends for low-Ia disk and bulge stars for all elements. High-Ia trends are similar for most elements, with noticeable (0.05-0.1 dex) differences for Mn, Na, and Co. The close agreement of abundance trends (with typical differences ≲0.03 dex) implies that similar nucleosynthetic processes enriched bulge and disk stars despite the different star formation histories and physical conditions of these regions. For example, we infer that differences in the high-mass slope of the stellar initial mass function between disk and bulge must have been ≲0.30. This agreement, and the generally small scatter about the median sequences, means that one can predict all of a bulge star's APOGEE abundances with good accuracy knowing only its measured [Mg/Fe] and [Mg/H] and the observed trends of disk stars.
  • Hasselquist, Sten, et al. (författare)
  • APOGEE Chemical Abundance Patterns of the Massive Milky Way Satellites
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - : Institute of Physics (IOP). - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 923:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The SDSS-IV Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) survey has obtained high-resolution spectra for thousands of red giant stars distributed among the massive satellite galaxies of the Milky Way (MW): the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC/SMC), the Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy (Sgr), Fornax (Fnx), and the now fully disrupted Gaia Sausage/Enceladus (GSE) system. We present and analyze the APOGEE chemical abundance patterns of each galaxy to draw robust conclusions about their star formation histories, by quantifying the relative abundance trends of multiple elements (C, N, O, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Fe, Ni, and Ce), as well as by fitting chemical evolution models to the [alpha/Fe]-[Fe/H] abundance plane for each galaxy. Results show that the chemical signatures of the starburst in the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) observed by Nidever et al. in the alpha-element abundances extend to C+N, Al, and Ni, with the major burst in the SMC occurring some 3-4 Gyr before the burst in the LMC. We find that Sgr and Fnx also exhibit chemical abundance patterns suggestive of secondary star formation epochs, but these events were weaker and earlier (similar to 5-7 Gyr ago) than those observed in the MCs. There is no chemical evidence of a second starburst in GSE, but this galaxy shows the strongest initial star formation as compared to the other four galaxies. All dwarf galaxies had greater relative contributions of AGB stars to their enrichment than the MW. Comparing and contrasting these chemical patterns highlight the importance of galaxy environment on its chemical evolution.
  • Landi, E., et al. (författare)
  • Hinode/EIS Measurements of Active-region Magnetic Fields
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - : American Astronomical Society. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 904:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The present work illustrates the potential of a new diagnostic technique that allows the measurement of the coronal magnetic field strength in solar active regions by utilizing a handful of bright Fe x and Fe xi lines commonly observed by the high-resolution Hinode/EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS). The importance of this new diagnostic technique is twofold: (1) the coronal magnetic field is probably the most important quantity in coronal physics, being at the heart of the processes regulating space weather and the properties of the solar corona, and (2) this technique can be applied to the existing EIS archive spanning from 2007 to 2020, including more than one full solar cycle and covering a large number of active regions, flares, and even coronal mass ejections. This new diagnostic technique opens the door to a whole new field of studies, complementing the magnetic field measurements from the upcoming DKIST and UCoMP ground-based observatories, and extending our reach to active regions observed on the disk and until now only sampled by radio measurements. In this work, we present a few examples of the application of this technique to EIS observations taken at different times during the EIS mission, and we discuss its current limitations and the steps to improve its accuracy. We also present a list of EIS observing sequences whose data include all of the lines necessary for the application of this diagnostic technique, to help the solar community navigate the immense set of EIS data and to find observations suitable for measuring the coronal magnetic field.
  • Nidever, David L., et al. (författare)
  • The Lazy Giants : APOGEE Abundances Reveal Low Star Formation Efficiencies in the Magellanic Clouds
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - : Institute of Physics (IOP). - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 895:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the first APOGEE metallicities and alpha-element abundances measured for 3600 red giant stars spanning a large radial range of both the Large (LMC) and Small Magellanic Clouds, the largest Milky Way (MW) dwarf galaxies. Our sample is an order of magnitude larger than that of previous studies and extends to much larger radial distances. These are the first results presented that make use of the newly installed southern APOGEE instrument on the du Pont telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. Our unbiased sample of the LMC spans a large range in metallicity, from [Fe/H] = -0.2 to very metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] -2.5, the most metal-poor Magellanic Cloud (MC) stars detected to date. The LMC [alpha/Fe]-[Fe/H] distribution is very flat over a large metallicity range but rises by similar to 0.1 dex at -1.0 < [Fe/H] less than or similar to -0.5. We interpret this as a sign of the known recent increase in MC star formation activity and are able to reproduce the pattern with a chemical evolution model that includes a recent "starburst." At the metal-poor end, we capture the increase of [alpha/Fe] with decreasing [Fe/H] and constrain the "alpha-knee" to [Fe/H] less than or similar to -2.2 in both MCs, implying a low star formation efficiency of similar to 0.01 Gyr(-1). The MC knees are more metal-poor than those of less massive MW dwarf galaxies such as Fornax, Sculptor, or Sagittarius. One possible interpretation is that the MCs formed in a lower-density environment than the MW, a hypothesis that is consistent with the paradigm that the MCs fell into the MW's gravitational potential only recently.
  • Ryde, Nils, et al. (författare)
  • Fluorine in the Solar Neighborhood : The Need for Several Cosmic Sources
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - : American Astronomical Society. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 893:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The cosmic origin of fluorine is still not well constrained. Several nucleosynthetic channels at different phases of stellar evolution have been suggested, but these must be constrained by observations. For this, the fluorine abundance trend with metallicity spanning a wide range is required. Our aim is to determine stellar abundances of fluorine for. We determine the abundances from HF lines in infrared K-band spectra (∼ 2.3,&mu m) of cool giants, observed with the IGRINS and Phoenix high-resolution spectrographs. We derive accurate stellar parameters for all our observed K giants, which is important as the HF lines are very temperature-sensitive. We find that [F/Fe] is flat as a function of metallicity at [F/Fe]∼0, but increases as the metallicity increases. The fluorine slope shows a clear secondary behavior in this metallicity range. We also find that the [F/Ce] ratio is relatively flat for, and that for two metal-poor (), s-process element-enhanced giants, we do not detect an elevated fluorine abundance. We interpret all of these observational constraints as indications that several major processes are at play for the cosmic budget of fluorine over time: from those in massive stars at low metallicities, through the asymptotic giant branch star contribution at, to processes with increasing yields with metallicity at supersolar metallicities. The origins of the latter, and whether or not Wolf-Rayet stars and/or novae could contribute at supersolar metallicities, is currently not known. To quantify these observational results, theoretical modeling is required. More observations in the metal-poor region are required to clarify the processes there.
  • Souto, Diogo, et al. (författare)
  • Stellar Characterization of M Dwarfs from the APOGEE Survey : A Calibrator Sample for M-dwarf Metallicities
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - : American Astronomical Society. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 890:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present spectroscopic determinations of the effective temperatures, surface gravities, and metallicities for 21 M dwarfs observed at high resolution (R ∼ 22,500) in the H band as part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-IV Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) survey. The atmospheric parameters and metallicities are derived from spectral syntheses with 1D LTE plane-parallel MARCS models and the APOGEE atomic/molecular line list, together with up-to-date H2O and FeH molecular line lists. Our sample range in T eff from ∼3200 to 3800 K, where 11 stars are in binary systems with a warmer (FGK) primary, while the other 10 M dwarfs have interferometric radii in the literature. We define an MKS-radius calibration based on our M-dwarf radii derived from the detailed analysis of APOGEE spectra and Gaia DR2 distances, as well as a mass-radius relation using the spectroscopically derived surface gravities. A comparison of the derived radii with interferometric values from the literature finds that the spectroscopic radii are slightly offset toward smaller values, with Δ = -0.01 ± 0.02 R∗/R o-. In addition, the derived M-dwarf masses based upon the radii and surface gravities tend to be slightly smaller (by ∼5%-10%) than masses derived for M-dwarf members of eclipsing binary systems for a given stellar radius. The metallicities derived for the 11 M dwarfs in binary systems, compared to metallicities obtained for their hotter FGK main-sequence primary stars from the literature, show excellent agreement, with a mean difference of [Fe/H](M dwarf - FGK primary) = +0.04 ± 0.18 dex, confirming the APOGEE metallicity scale derived here for M dwarfs.
  • Aartsen, M. G., et al. (författare)
  • A Search for IceCube Events in the Direction of ANITA Neutrino Candidates
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - : IOP PUBLISHING LTD. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 892:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • During the first three flights of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) experiment, the collaboration detected several neutrino candidates. Two of these candidate events were consistent with an ultra-high-energy upgoing air shower and compatible with a tau neutrino interpretation. A third neutrino candidate event was detected in a search for Askaryan radiation in the Antarctic ice, although it is also consistent with the background expectation. The inferred emergence angle of the first two events is in tension with IceCube and ANITA limits on isotropic cosmogenic neutrino fluxes. Here we test the hypothesis that these events are astrophysical in origin, possibly caused by a point source in the reconstructed direction. Given that any ultra-high-energy tau neutrino flux traversing the Earth should be accompanied by a secondary flux in the TeV-PeV range, we search for these secondary counterparts in 7 yr of IceCube data using three complementary approaches. In the absence of any significant detection, we set upper limits on the neutrino flux from potential point sources. We compare these limits to ANITA's sensitivity in the same direction and show that an astrophysical explanation of these anomalous events under standard model assumptions is severely constrained regardless of source spectrum.
  • Aartsen, M. G., et al. (författare)
  • Follow-up of Astrophysical Transients in Real Time with the IceCube Neutrino Observatory
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - : American Astronomical Society. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 910:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In multi-messenger astronomy, rapid investigation of interesting transients is imperative. As an observatory with a 4 pi steradian field of view, and similar to 99% uptime, the IceCube Neutrino Observatory is a unique facility to follow up transients, as well as to provide valuable insights for other observatories and inform their observational decisions. Since 2016, IceCube has been using low-latency data to rapidly respond to interesting astrophysical events reported by the multi-messenger observational community. Here, we describe the pipeline used to perform these followup analyses, and provide a summary of the 58 analyses performed as of July 2020. We find no significant signal in the first 58 analyses performed. The pipeline has helped inform various electromagnetic observation strategies, and has constrained neutrino emission from potential hadronic cosmic accelerators.
  • Abbasi, R., et al. (författare)
  • Search for High-energy Neutrinos from Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies with IceCube
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - : IOP Publishing Ltd. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 926:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) have infrared luminosities L-IR >= 10(12) L-circle dot, making them the most luminous objects in the infrared sky. These dusty objects are generally powered by starbursts with star formation rates that exceed 100M(circle dot) yr(-1), possibly combined with a contribution from an active galactic nucleus. Such environments make ULIRGs plausible sources of astrophysical high-energy neutrinos, which can be observed by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the South Pole. We present a stacking search for high-energy neutrinos from a representative sample of 75 ULIRGs with redshift z <= 0.13 using 7.5 yr of IceCube data. The results are consistent with a background-only observation, yielding upper limits on the neutrino flux from these 75 ULIRGs. For an unbroken E-2.5 power-law spectrum, we report an upper limit on the stacked flux Phi(90%)(nu mu+(nu) over bar mu) = 3.24 x 10(-14) TeV-1 cm(-2) S-1 (E/10 TeV)(-2.5) at 90% confidence level. In addition, we constrain the contribution of the ULIRG source population to the observed diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux as well as model predictions.
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