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Sökning: L773:0004 8674 OR L773:1440 1614

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1.
  • Bruce, C., et al. (författare)
  • Hazard Perception Skills Of Young Drivers With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Can Be Improved With Computer-Based Training : A Feasibility Trial
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Australian and New Zealand journal of psychiatry (Print). - : Sage Publications. - 0004-8674 .- 1440-1614. ; 51:Suppl. 1, s. 122-122
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Young drivers with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at higher risk of road traffic injuries than their peers. Increased risk correlates with poor hazard perception skill. Few studies have investigated hazard perception training using computer applications such as DriveSmart with this group of drivers.Objectives: To: determine the magnitude of the between-group and within-subject change in hazard perception skills among young drivers with ADHD-exposed/delayed exposure to DriveSmart training and determine whether training-facilitated change in hazard perception is maintained over time.Methods: Australian feasibility study. Twenty-five drivers with a diagnosis of ADHD were randomized to the intervention or control group. Participants in the intervention group received a computer training session using DriveSmart, while the control group watched a documentary video. The design included a delayed treatment for the control group. The participants’ hazard perception skill was measured on the University of Queensland Hazard Perception Test (HPT) post training and at 6-week follow-up.Findings: After adjusting for baseline scores, there was a significant between-group difference (p = 0.023, partial η2 = 0.212) and a significant within-subject difference post intervention in the experimental group. There was no significant difference between post intervention and 6-week follow-up scores in the experimental group.Conclusions: The hazard perception skills of participants improved following training and were largely sustained. We found a large effect size consistent with one prior study. A full-scale trial is feasible.
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  • Manning, Victoria, et al. (författare)
  • Substance use outcomes following treatment : Findings from the Australian Patient Pathways Study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Australian and New Zealand journal of psychiatry (Print). - 0004-8674 .- 1440-1614. ; 51:2, s. 177-189
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Aims: Our understanding of patient pathways through specialist Alcohol and Other Drug treatment and broader health/welfare systems in Australia remains limited. This study examines how treatment outcomes are influenced by continuity in specialist Alcohol and Other Drug treatment, engagement with community services and mutual aid, and explores differences between clients who present with a primary alcohol problem relative to those presenting with a primary drug issue.Method: In a prospective, multi-site treatment outcome study, 796 clients from 21 Alcohol and Other Drug services in Victoria and Western Australia completed a baseline interview between January 2012 and January 2013. A total of 555 (70%) completed a follow-up assessment of subsequent service use and Alcohol and Other Drug use outcomes 12-months later. Results: Just over half of the participants (52.0%) showed reliable reductions in use of, or abstinence from, their primary drug of concern. This was highest among clients with meth/amphetamine (66%) as their primary drug of concern and lowest among clients with alcohol as their primary drug of concern (47%), with 31% achieving abstinence from all drugs of concern. Continuity of specialist Alcohol and Other Drug care was associated with higher rates of abstinence than fragmented Alcohol and Other Drug care. Different predictors of treatment success emerged for clients with a primary drug problem as compared to those with a primary alcohol problem; mutual aid attendance (odds ratio=2.5) and community service engagement (odds ratio=2.0) for clients with alcohol as the primary drug of concern, and completion of the index treatment (odds ratio=2.8) and continuity in Alcohol and Other Drug care (odds ratio=1.8) when drugs were the primary drugs of concern.Conclusion: This is the first multi-site Australian study to include treatment outcomes for alcohol and cannabis users, who represent 70% of treatment seekers in Alcohol and Other Drug services. Results suggest a substantial proportion of clients respond positively to treatment, but that clients with alcohol as their primary drug problem may require different treatment pathways, compared to those with illicit drug issues, to maximise outcomes.
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  • McEwan, Troy E., et al. (författare)
  • The role of psychopathology in stalking by adult strangers and acquaintances
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Australian and New Zealand journal of psychiatry (Print). - : Sage Publications. - 0004-8674 .- 1440-1614. ; 47:6, s. 546-555
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Individuals who stalk strangers and acquaintances are under-studied, although there is some evidence suggesting a greater prevalence of psychopathology than is present in those who stalk former partners. This study investigated the nature and prevalence of psychopathology in a sample of stranger and acquaintance stalkers and whether psychopathology was associated with increased duration or serial stalking in this group. It was hypothesised that mental illness, and specifically psychosis, would be more prevalent among strangers and acquaintances than among ex-intimate stalkers.METHOD: Two hundred and eleven stalkers (10% female; mean age = 35, SD = 10.8; 71 ex-intimates) were recruited between 2002 and 2007 from a specialist service in Melbourne, Australia. Each underwent psychiatric and psychological assessment and disorders were diagnosed according to DMS-IV-TR criteria. Non-parametric independent sample tests were used to examine associations between relationship type and psychopathology, and to identify individual and stalking-related characteristics associated with increased duration and serial stalking.RESULTS: Axis I disorders were significantly more prevalent among strangers and acquaintances than ex-intimates (71% vs 48%, OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.4 to 4.7), as were psychotic disorders (29% vs 9%, OR = 4.4, 95% CI = 1.8 to 10.9). Psychosis was significantly associated with increased duration of stalking behaviour (U = 3043, p < 0.001). Those with a personality disorder were twice as likely to have stalked multiple times (OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.2 to 5.0).CONCLUSIONS: Those who stalk strangers and acquaintances are often mentally ill and psychopathology is associated with more persistent and recurrent stalking behaviour. Although limited by the use of clinical interview rather than structured assessment, these findings strongly support the argument for routine mental health assessment of stranger and acquaintance stalkers who become involved with the criminal justice system.
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  • Titov, Nickolai, et al. (författare)
  • The first 30 months of the MindSpot Clinic: Evaluation of a national e-mental health service against project objectives
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Australian and New Zealand journal of psychiatry (Print). - : SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD. - 0004-8674 .- 1440-1614. ; 51:12, s. 1227-1239
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The MindSpot Clinic provides online mental health services to Australian adults with anxiety and depression. This paper describes users of MindSpot between January 2013 and June 2015. Outcomes are considered against three key objectives: improving access to mental health services, improving public awareness of how to access services and providing evidence-based treatments. Method: Website traffic data were examined to determine patterns of use. Demographic characteristics, past service utilisation and reasons for contacting MindSpot were analysed. Outcomes for patients enrolled in a MindSpot treatment course were also analysed. Primary outcomes were scores on the 9-Item Patient Health Questionnaire, Generalised Anxiety Disorder 7-Item, Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version, administered at assessment, post-treatment and 3-month follow-up. Results: The website was visited by almost 500,000 Australians, of which 33,990 adults started assessments, and 25,469 people completed assessment and were eligible for analysis. Mean age was 36.4 years (standard deviation = 13.3 years; range = 18-94 years), and 72% were female. The proportion living in rural or remote regions and who identified as Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander closely matched national statistics. The majority (82%) reported that they were not currently in contact with mental health services. Most patients sought an assessment, information about treatment options, or referral to another service, and only 24% of those completing an assessment commenced a MindSpot treatment course. Of these, large clinical effects (d: 0.7-2.4; average symptom reductions: 25.5% to 61.6%) were found from assessment to follow-up on all outcome measures. Deterioration ranged from 1.0% to 4.3%. Conclusion: Based on the number of website visits, completed assessments and treatment outcomes, MindSpot achieved its three programme objectives. This model of service provision has considerable value as a complement to existing services, and is proving particularly important for improving access for people not using existing services.
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