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  • Brand, Judith S, et al. (författare)
  • Time-dependent risk and predictors of venous thromboembolism in breast cancer patients: a population-based cohort study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Cancer. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics. - 0008-543X .- 1097-0142.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious complication of cancer and its treatment. The current study assessed the risk and clinical predictors of VTE in breast cancer patients by time since diagnosis. METHODS: This Swedish population-based study included 8338 breast cancer patients diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 in the Stockholm-Gotland region with complete follow-up until 2012. Their incidence of VTE was compared with the incidence among 39,013 age-matched reference individuals from the general population. Cox and flexible parametric models were used to examine associations with patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics, accounting for time-dependent effects. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 7.2 years, 426 breast cancer patients experienced a VTE event (cumulative incidence, 5.1%). The VTE incidence was 3-fold increased (hazard ratio [HR], 3.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.87-3.74) in comparison with the incidence in the general population and was highest 6 months after diagnosis (HR, 8.62; 95% CI, 6.56-11.33) with a sustained increase in risk thereafter (HR at 5 years, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.80-2.67). Independent predictors of VTE included the following: older age, being overweight, preexisting VTE, comorbid disease, tumor size > 40 mm, progesterone receptor (PR)-negative status, more than 4 affected lymph nodes, and receipt of chemo- and endocrine therapy. The impact of chemotherapy was limited to early-onset VTE, whereas comorbid disease and PR-negative status were more strongly associated with late-onset events. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the long-term risk of VTE in breast cancer patients and identifies a comprehensive set of clinical risk predictors. Temporal associations with patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics provide insight into the time-dependent etiology of VTE.
  • Lagergren, Jesper, et al. (författare)
  • Marital status, education, and income in relation to the risk of esophaegal and gastric cancer by histological type and site
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Cancer. - Stockholm : Wiley. - 0008-543X .- 1097-0142. ; 122:2, s. 207-212
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUNDMarital status, income, and education might influence the risk of esophageal and gastric cancer, but the literature is limited. A large study addressing subtypes of these tumors was used to clarify these associations.METHODSA nationwide, Swedish population–based cohort study from 1991 to 2010 included individuals who were 50 years old or older. Data on exposures, covariates, and outcomes were obtained from well-maintained registers. Four esophagogastric tumor subtypes were analyzed in combination and separately: esophageal adenocarcinoma, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, cardia adenocarcinoma, and noncardia gastric adenocarcinoma. Poisson regression was used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Analyses were stratified by sex and adjusted for confounders.RESULTSAmong 4,734,227 participants (60,634,007 person-years), 24,095 developed esophageal or gastric cancer. In comparison with individuals in a long marriage, increased IRRs were found among participants who were in a shorter marriage or were never married, remarried, divorced, or widowed. These associations were indicated for each tumor subtype but were generally stronger for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Higher education and income were associated with decreased IRRs in a seemingly dose-response manner and similarly for each subtype. In comparison with the completion of only primary school, higher tertiary education rendered an IRR of 0.64 (95% CI, 0.60-0.69) for men and an IRR of 0.68 (95% CI, 0.61-0.75) for women. Comparing participants in the highest and lowest income brackets (highest 20% vs lowest 20%) revealed an IRR of 0.74 (95% CI, 0.70-0.79) for men and an IRR of 0.83 (95% CI, 0.76-0.91) for women.CONCLUSIONSDivorce, widowhood, living alone, low educational attainment, and low income increase the risk of each subtype of esophageal and gastric cancer. These associations require attention when high-risk individuals are being identified.
  • Adell, Gunnar C. E., 1953-, et al. (författare)
  • Apoptosis in rectal carcinoma : Prognosis and recurrence after preoperative radiotherapy
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Cancer. - 0008-543X .- 1097-0142. ; 91:10, s. 1870-1875
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Rectal carcinoma is common, with considerable local recurrence and death rates. Preoperative radiotherapy and refined surgical techniques can improve local control. The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between apoptosis and the outcome of rectal carcinoma, with and without short-term preoperative radiotherapy.METHODS: Specimens were from 162 patients from the Southeast Swedish Health Care region included in the Swedish Rectal Cancer Trial between 1987-1990. New sections from the paraffin blocks of the preoperative biopsies and the surgical specimens were examined for apoptosis using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated digoxigenin nick end labeling (TUNEL) method.RESULTS: The mean percentage of apoptotic cells was 0.3% (0-4%) and 1.1% (0-14.5%) for the preoperative biopsy and the surgical specimen, respectively. The authors analyzed the surgical specimens from nonirradiated patients and divided them into three groups by apoptotic index (AI) as follows: 0%, 0-1%, and > 1%. A high AI was associated with a decreased local recurrence rate compared with an intermediate or a low AI (P = 0.024). There was no significant relation between AI and survival. There was a significant reduction in the local recurrence rate for irradiated patients compared with the nonirradiated in the low (P = 0.015) and intermediate (P = 0.038) AI groups. In the high AI group, there were few recurrences and no significant difference was observed between irradiated and nonirradiated patients. The relative risk of death from rectal carcinoma in Dukes A-C patients was not significantly decreased by radiotherapy, but, in the intermediate AI group, there was a trend (P = 0.08) in favor of the irradiated patients.CONCLUSION: A high AI in rectal carcinoma indicated a decreased local recurrence rate.
  • Eriksson, Barbro, et al. (författare)
  • Medical treatment and long-term survival in a prospective study of 84 patients with endocrine pancreatic tumors
  • 1990
  • Ingår i: Cancer. - 0008-543X .- 1097-0142. ; 65:9, s. 1883-1890
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A prospective study was performed on 84 patients with neuroendocrine pancreatic tumors. Fifty-nine (70%) had malignant tumors and received causal medical treatment. Streptozotocin in combination with 5-fluorouracil or doxorubicin was used as first-line treatment and produced overall objective responses in 20 of 44 (45%) patients with a median duration of response of 27.5 months. Thirty-two patients who failed on chemotherapy subsequently received interferon treatment and 20 (63%) responded objectively with a median duration of 20.5 months. Octreotide, third-line treatment in 14 patients, produced objective responses in four patients (28%) (median duration of response, 16 months). The median survival from diagnosis in malignant cases was 6.7 years. Even if none of the current medical therapies are curative for patients with malignant endocrine pancreatic tumors, a prolonged survival would be observed during the last decade. Since the age at diagnosis has not been dramatically reduced despite improvements in diagnostic methods, the prolonged survival might be attributed to causal medical treatment.
  • Fransson, Per, et al. (författare)
  • Quality of life and symptoms in a randomized trial of radiotherapy versus deferred treatment of localized prostate carcinoma
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Cancer. - : American Cancer Society. - 0008-543X .- 1097-0142. ; 92:12, s. 3111-3119
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Treatment of localized prostate carcinoma (LPC) using radiotherapy (RT) can induce disturbances in a patient's quality of life (QOL) and urinary and intestinal function. Late symptoms and QOL were evaluated in a randomized trial between RT and deferred treatment (DT).METHODS: Quality of life was evaluated with European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer's QLQ-C30 (+3) formula. Urinary and intestinal problems were evaluated with a validated symptom specific self-assessment questionnaire, QUFW94. The questionnaires were sent to 108 randomized patients with LPC and to an age-matched control group (n = 68). Mean age was 72 years. Mean total dose was 65 grays (Gy; 62.3-70 Gy). The median follow-up time from randomization was 40.6 months for the RT group and 30.4 months for the DT group.RESULTS: Social functioning was the only QOL scale in which a significant difference was found between the two patient groups and compared with the control group. Multivariate regression analysis showed that hematuria, incontinence, mucus, and planning of daily activities in response to intestinal problems caused this decrease in QOL in the RT group. A significant increase of intestinal problems was observed in the RT versus DT groups regarding mucus, stool leakage, intestinal blood, and planning of daily activity in response to intestinal problems.CONCLUSIONS: The RT patients showed increased levels of minor intestinal side effects compared with the DT patients and the controls, but the RT patients reported no decreased QOL except for decreased social functioning. This could be because this group developed coping skills or because of a low magnitude of side effects to influence the QOL.
  • Hillerdal, Gunnar, et al. (författare)
  • Hyaluronan in pleural effusions and in serum
  • 1991
  • Ingår i: Cancer. - 0008-543X .- 1097-0142. ; 67:9, s. 2410-2414
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It has been suggested that a high level of hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid, HYA) in pleural fluid is an indicator of malignant mesothelioma. In 78 consecutive patients with pleural effusion of various causes the HYA concentration was measured in pleural fluid samples and in serum. Nine patients had malignant pleural mesothelioma, and in three of them the HYA level in pleural fluid was 100 mg/l or more. In 42 patients with effusions due to metastatic malignancy, the mean HYA in the pleural fluid was 75 mg/l, and in five the HYA level was above 100 mg/l. Cardiac insufficiency caused the effusion in 11 patients, of whom two had a level above 100 mg/l in pleural fluid. Four patients had a serologically confirmed viral infection and had HYA levels in pleural fluid of 8, 157, 335, and 554 mg/l, respectively. One patient had postinfectious effusion with an HYA level in pleural exudate of 748 mg/l, the highest in this investigation. Two patients had benign asbestos pleural effusions, and both had high pleural HYA levels (256 and 490 mg/l, respectively). The serum HYA values were much lower than in the pleural fluid, namely from 15 to 480 micrograms/l; the levels were independent of the levels in the pleural fluid. Thus, a high level of HYA in pleural fluid is not specific for mesothelioma but can occur in other malignant or benign diseases, and a low level does not exclude mesothelioma.
  • Jahnson, Staffan, et al. (författare)
  • Tumor mapping of regional immunostaining for p21, p53, and mdm2 in locally advanced bladder carcinoma
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Cancer. - New York, USA : John Wiley & Sons. - 0008-543X .- 1097-0142. ; 89:3, s. 619-629
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The aim of this study was to elucidate the associations among immunostaining for p53, p21, and mdm2; their respective expression within each tumor; and the value of these variables for predicting treatment outcome after cystectomy for patients with locally advanced bladder carcinoma.Methods: The hospital records from all 173 patients treated with cystectomy for locally advanced urothelial bladder carcinoma between 1967 and 1992 were retrospectively reviewed. Three consecutive sections from biopsies taken before any treatment were stained using the standard immunohistochemical technique for p53, p21, and mdm2, respectively. The cutoff limit was 20% or more for positive p53 expression and 10% or more for positive p21 and mdm2 expression.Results: Positive immunostaining was observed for p53 in 98 tumors (57%), for p21 in 89 tumors (51%), and for mdm2 in only 16 tumors (9%). The only association found between immunostaining for the three antibodies was that most mdm2-positive tumors had positive p21 expression. Tumor mapping of regional immunostaining showed no association between immunostaining for p53 and p21. In a proportional hazards analysis, no association was found between the results of immunostaining for the three antibodies and treatment outcome.Conclusions: Positive or negative expression of p53, p21, or mdm2, or combinations of these, was not associated with cancer specific mortality after cystectomy for bladder carcinoma. There was no association between immunostaining for p21 and p53, whereas positive immunostaining for mdm2 was observed in a minority of the tumors. These results indicate that, in addition to p21, p53, and mdm2, there are other oncoproteins and tumor suppressor proteins along the p53 pathway that are involved in tumor development and progression.
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