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Sökning: L773:0009 9147 OR L773:1530 8561 > (2020-2023) > (2021)

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  • Filges, Stefan, 1991, et al. (författare)
  • Digital Quantification of Chemical Oligonucleotide Synthesis Errors
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 0009-9147 .- 1530-8561. ; 67:10, s. 1384-1394
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Chemically synthesized oligonucleotides are vital to most nucleic acids-based technologies and several applications are sensitive to oligonucleotide sequence errors. However, it is challenging to identify and quantify the types and amount of errors in synthetic oligonucleotides. METHODS: We applied a digital sequencing approach using unique molecular identifiers to quantify errors in chemically synthesized oligonucleotides from multiple manufacturers with different synthesis strategies, purity grades, batches, and sequence context. RESULTS: We detected both deletions and substitutions in chemical oligonucleotide synthesis, but deletions were 7 times more common. We found that 97.2% of all analyzed oligonucleotide molecules were intact across all manufacturers and purity grades, although the number of oligonucleotide molecules with deletions ranged between 0.2% and 11.7% for different types. Different batches of otherwise identical oligonucleotide types also varied significantly, and batch effect can impact oligonucleotide quality more than purification. We observed a bias of increased deletion rates in chemically synthesized oligonucleotides toward the 5'-end for 1 out of 2 sequence configurations. We also demonstrated that the performance of sequencing assays depends on oligonucleotide quality. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that manufacturer, synthesis strategy, purity, batch, and sequence context all contribute to errors in chemically synthesized oligonucleotides and need to be considered when choosing and evaluating oligonucleotides. High-performance oligonucleotides are essential in numerous molecular applications, including clinical diagnostics.
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  • Kavsak, P. A., et al. (författare)
  • Cardiac Troponin Testing in Patients with COVID-19: A Strategy for Testing and Reporting Results
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 0009-9147 .- 1530-8561. ; 67:1, s. 107-113
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that emerged late in 2019 causing COVID-19 (coronavirus disease-2019) may adversely affect the cardiovascular system. Publications from Asia, Europe, and North America have identified cardiac troponin as an important prognostic indicator for patients hospitalized with COVID-19. We recognized from publications within the first 6 months of the pandemic that there has been much uncertainty on the reporting, interpretation, and pathophysiology of an increased cardiac troponin concentration in this setting. CONTENT: The purpose of this mini-review is: a) to review the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 and the cardiovascular system, b) to overview the strengths and weaknesses of selected studies evaluating cardiac troponin in patients with COVID-19, and c) to recommend testing strategies in the acute period, in the convalescence period and in long-term care for patients who have become ill with COVID-19. SUMMARY: This review provides important educational information and identifies gaps in understanding the role of cardiac troponin and COVID-19. Future, properly designed studies will hopefully provide the much-needed evidence on the path forward in testing cardiac troponin in patients with COVID-19.
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  • Mattila, O. S., et al. (författare)
  • Ultra-Early Differential Diagnosis of Acute Cerebral Ischemia and Hemorrhagic Stroke by Measuring the Prehospital Release Rate of GFAP
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 0009-9147 .- 1530-8561. ; 67:10, s. 1361-1372
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Plasma glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and tau are promising markers for differentiating acute cerebral ischemia (ACI) and hemorrhagic stroke (HS), but their prehospital dynamics and usefulness are unknown. METHODS: We performed ultra-sensitivite single-molecule array (Simoa((R))) measurements of plasma GFAP and total tau in a stroke code patient cohort with cardinal stroke symptoms [National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) >= 3]. Sequential sampling included 2 ultra-early samples, and a follow-up sample on the next morning. RESULTS: We included 272 cases (203 ACI, 60 HS, and 9 stroke mimics). Median (IQR) last-known-well to sampling time was 53 (35-90) minutes for initial prehospital samples, 90 (67-130) minutes for secondary acute samples, and 21 (16-24) hours for next morning samples. Plasma GFAP was significantly higher in patients with HS than ACI (P<0.001 for <1hour and <3hour prehospital samples, and <3hour secondary samples), while total tau showed no intergroup difference. The prehospital GFAP release rate (pg/mL/minute) occurring between the 2 very early samples was significantly higher in patients with HS than ACI [2.4 (0.6-14.1)] versus 0.3 (-0.3-0.9)pg/mL/minute, P<0.001. For cases with <3hour prehospital sampling (ACI n=178, HS n=59), a combined rule (prehospital GFAP >410pg/mL, or prehospital GFAP 90-410pg/mL together with GFAP release >0.6pg/mL/minute) enabled ruling out HS with high certainty (NPV 98.4%) in 68% of patients with ACI (sensitivity for HS 96.6%, specificity 68%, PPV 50%). CONCLUSIONS: In comparison to single-point measurement, monitoring the prehospital GFAP release rate improves ultra-early differentiation of stroke subtypes. With serial measurement GFAP has potential to improve future prehospital stroke diagnostics.
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