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Sökning: L773:0009 9147 OR L773:1530 8561 > (2015-2019)

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  • Ahmad, Shafqat, et al. (författare)
  • Adiposity and genetic factors in relation to triglycerides and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the women's genome health study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry. - : American Association for Clinical Chemistry. - 0009-9147 .- 1530-8561. ; 64:1, s. 231-241
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Previous results from Scandinavian cohorts have shown that obesity accentuates the effects of common genetic susceptibility variants on increased triglycerides (TG). Whether such interactions are present in the US population and further selective for particular TG-rich lipoprotein subfractions is unknown. METHODS: We examined these questions using body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) among women of European ancestry from the Women's Genome Health Study (WGHS) (n = 21840 for BMI; n = 19313 for WC). A weighted genetic risk score (TGwGRS) based on 40 published TG-associated singlenucleotide polymorphisms was calculated using published effect estimates. RESULTS: Comparing overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) and normal weight (BMI = 25 kg/m2) WGHS women, each unit increase of TG-wGRS was associated with TG increases of 1.013% and 1.011%, respectively, and this differential association was significant (Pinteraction = 0.014). Metaanalyses combining results forWGHSBMI with the 4 Scandinavian cohorts (INTER99, HEALTH2006, GLACIER, MDC) (total n = 40026) yielded a more significant interaction (Pinteraction = 0.001). Similarly, we observed differential association of the TG-wGRS with TG (Pinteraction = 0.006) in strata of WC ( <80 cm vs <80 cm). Metaanalysis with 2 additional cohorts reporting WC (INTER99 and HEALTH2006) (total n = 27834) was significant with consistent effects (Pinteraction = 0.006). We also observed highly significant interactions of the TG-wGRS across the strata of BMI with very large, medium, and small TG-rich lipoprotein subfractions measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (all Pinteractions = 0.0001). The differential effects were strongest for very large TG-rich lipoprotein. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the original findings and suggest that obese individuals may be more susceptible to aggregated genetic risk associated with common TG-raising alleles, with effects accentuated in the large TG-rich lipoprotein subfraction.
  • Beck, O., et al. (författare)
  • Potential of Mass Spectrometry in Developing Clinical Laboratory Biomarkers of Nonvolatiles in Exhaled Breath
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 0009-9147 .- 1530-8561. ; 62:1, s. 84-91
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Exhaled breath contains nonvolatile substances that are part of aerosol particles of submicrometer size. These particles are formed and exhaled as a result of normal breathing and contain material from distal airways of the respiratory system. Exhaled breath can be used to monitor biomarkers of both endogenous and exogenous origin and constitutes an attractive specimen for medical investigations. CONTENT: This review summarizes the present status regarding potential biomarkers of nonvolatile compounds in exhaled breath. The field of exhaled breath condensate is briefly reviewed, together with more recent work on more selective collection procedures for exhaled particles. The relation of these particles to the surfactant in the terminal parts of the respiratory system is described. The literature on potential endogenous low molecular weight compounds as well as protein biomarkers is reviewed. The possibility to measure exposure to therapeutic and abused drugs is demonstrated. Finally, the potential future role and importance of mass spectrometry is discussed. SUMMARY: Nonvolatile compounds exit the lung as aerosol particles that can be sampled easily and selectively. The clinical applications of potential biomarkers in exhaled breath comprise diagnosis of disease, monitoring of disease progress, monitoring of drug therapy, and toxicological investigations. (C) 2015 American Association for Clinical Chemistry
  • Carlsson, Sigrid, 1982, et al. (författare)
  • Perspective on prostate cancer screening
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 0009-9147 .- 1530-8561. ; 65:1, s. 24-27
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  • Chan, Mark Y., et al. (författare)
  • Temporal biomarker profiling reveals longitudinal changes in risk of death or myocardial infarction in Non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry. - : American Association for Clinical Chemistry. - 0009-9147 .- 1530-8561. ; 63:7, s. 1214-1226
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: There are conflicting data on whether changes in N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentrations between time points (delta NT-proBNP and hs-CRP) are associated with a change in prognosis. METHODS: We measured NT-proBNP and hs-CRP at 3 time points in 1665 patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEACS). Cox proportional hazards was applied to the delta between temporal measurements to determine the continuous association with cardiovascular events. Effect estimates for delta NT-proBNP and hs-CRP are presented per 40% increase as the basic unit of temporal change. RESULTS: Median NT-proBNP was 370.0 (25th, 75th percentiles, 130.0, 996.0), 340.0 (135.0, 875.0), and 267.0 (111.0, 684.0) ng/L; and median hs-CRP was 4.6 (1.7, 13.1), 1.9 (0.8, 4.5), and 1.8 (0.8, 4.4) mg/L at baseline, 30 days, and 6 months, respectively. The deltas between baseline and 6 months were the most prognostically informative. Every 40% increase of delta NTproBNP (baseline to 6 months) was associated with a 14% greater risk of cardiovascular death (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.14, 95% CI, 1.03-1.27) and with a 14% greater risk of all-cause death (adjusted HR 1.14, 95% CI, 1.04 -1.26), while every 40% increase of delta hs- CRP (baseline to 6 months) was associated with a 9% greater risk of the composite end point (adjusted HR 1.09, 95% CI, 1.02-1.17) and a 10% greater risk of myocardial infarction (adjusted HR 1.10, 95%, CI 1.00 -1.20). CONCLUSIONS: Temporal changes in NT-proBNP and hs-CRP are quantitatively associated with future cardiovascular events, supporting their role in dynamic risk stratification of NSTEACS.
  • Drogan, Dagmar, et al. (författare)
  • Untargeted Metabolic Profiling Identifies Altered Serum Metabolites of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a Prospective, Nested Case Control Study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 0009-9147 .- 1530-8561. ; 61:3, s. 487-497
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND:Application of metabolite profiling could expand the etiological knowledge of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). However, few prospective studies apply broad untargeted metabolite profiling to reveal the comprehensive metabolic alterations preceding the onset of T2D. METHODS: We applied untargeted metabolite profiling in serum samples obtained from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam cohort comprising 300 individuals who developed T2D after a median follow-up time of 6 years and 300 matched controls. For that purpose, we used ultraperformance LC-MS with a protocol specifically designed for large-scale metabolomics studies with regard to robustness and repeatability. After multivariate classification to select metabolites with the strongest contribution to disease classification, we applied multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression to assess the association of these metabolites with T2D.RESULTS: Among several alterations in lipid metabolism, there was an inverse association with T2D for metabolites chemically annotated as lysophosphatidylcholine(dm16:0) and phosphatidylcholine(O-20:0/O-20:0). Hexose sugars were positively associated with T2D, whereas higher concentrations of a sugar alcohol and a deoxyhexose sugar reduced the odds of diabetes by approximately 60% and 70%, respectively. Furthermore, there was suggestive evidence for a positive association of the circulating purine nucleotide isopentenyladenosine-5' -monophosphate with incident T2D.CONCLUSIONS: This study constitutes one of the largest metabolite profiling approaches of T2D biomarkers in a prospective study population. The findings might help generate new hypotheses about diabetes etiology and develop further targeted studies of a smaller number of potentially important metabolites. (C) 2014 American Association for Clinical Chemistry
  • Ebai, Tonge, et al. (författare)
  • Analytically Sensitive Protein Detection in Microtiter Plates by Proximity Ligation with Rolling Circle Amplification
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 0009-9147 .- 1530-8561. ; 63:9, s. 1497-1505
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Detecting proteins at low concentrations in plasma is crucial for early diagnosis. Current techniques in clinical routine, such as sandwich ELISA, provide sensitive protein detection because of a dependence on target recognition by pairs of antibodies, but detection of still lower protein concentrations is often called for. Proximity ligation assay with rolling circle amplification (PLARCA) is a modified proximity ligation assay (PLA) for analytically specific and sensitive protein detection via binding of target proteins by 3 antibodies, and signal amplification via rolling circle amplification (RCA) in microtiter wells, easily adapted to instrumentation in use in hospitals.METHODS: Proteins captured by immobilized antibodies were detected using a pair of oligonucleotide-conjugated antibodies. Upon target recognition, these PLA probes guided oligonucleotide ligation, followed by amplification via RCA of circular DNA strands that formed in the reaction. The RCA products were detected by horseradish peroxidase-labeled oligonucleotides to generate colorimetric reaction products with readout in an absorbance microplate reader.RESULTS: We compared detection of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-8, p53, and growth differentiation factor-15 by PLARCA and conventional sandwich ELISA or immuno RCA. PLARCA detected lower concentrations of proteins and exhibited a broader dynamic range compared ELISA and iRCA using the same antibodies. IL-4 and IL-6 were detected in clinical samples at femtomolar concentrations, considerably lower than for ELISA.CONCLUSIONS: PLARCA offers detection of lower protein levels and increased dynamic ranges compared to ELISA. The PLARCA procedure may be adapted to routine instrumentation available in hospitals and research laboratories.
  • Eggers, Kai, 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of sex on cardiac troponin concentrations – A critical appraisal.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 0009-9147 .- 1530-8561. ; 63:9, s. 1457-1464
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND:The use of sex-specific cutoffs for cardiac troponin (cTn) is currently debated. Although endorsed by scientific working groups, concerns have been raised that sex-specific cutoffs may have only a small clinical effect at the cost of increased complexity in decision-making.METHODS:We reviewed studies investigating the interrelations between high-sensitivity (hs) cTn results and sex, diagnoses, and outcome. Investigated populations included community-dwelling subjects and patients with stable angina, congestive heart failure, or acute chest pain including those with acute coronary syndromes.RESULTS:Men usually have higher hs-cTn concentrations compared with women, regardless of the assessed population or the applied assay. The distribution and prognostic implications of hs-cTn concentrations indicate that women have a broader cardiovascular risk panorama compared with men, particularly at lower hs-cTn concentrations. At higher concentrations, particularly above the 99th percentile, this variation is often attenuated. Sex-specific hs-cTn 99th percentiles have so far shown clinical net benefit in only 1 study assessing patients with chest pain. However, several methodological aspects need to be considered when interpreting study results, e.g., issues related to the determination of the 99th percentiles, the selection bias, and the lack of prospective and sufficiently powered analyses.CONCLUSIONS:Available studies do not show a consistent clinical superiority of sex-specific hs-cTn 99th percentiles. This may reflect methodological aspects. However, from a pathobiological perspective, the use of sex-specific hs-cTn 99th percentiles makes sense for the ruling in of myocardial infarction. We propose a new approach to hs-cTn 99th cutoffs taking into account the analytical properties of the used assays.
  • Eggers, Kai M., 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • Application of Cardiac Troponin in Cardiovascular Diseases Other Than Acute Coronary Syndrome
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry. - : AMER ASSOC CLINICAL CHEMISTRY. - 0009-9147 .- 1530-8561. ; 63:1, s. 223-235
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Increased cardiac troponin concentrations in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) identify patients with ongoing cardiomyocyte necrosis who are at increased risk. However, with the use of more precise assays, cardiac troponin increases are commonly noted in other cardiovascular conditions as well. This has generated interest in the use of cardiac troponin for prognostic assessment and clinical management of these patients. In this review, we have summarized the data from studies investigating the implications of cardiac troponin concentrations in various acute and chronic conditions beyond ACS,, i.e., heart failure, myocarditis, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, aortic dissection, supraventricular arrhythmias, valve disease, pulmonary arterial hypertension, stroke, and in the perioperative setting. CONTENT: Cardiac troponin concentrations are often detectable and frankly increased in non-ACS conditions, in particular when measured with high-sensitivity (hs) assays. With the exception of myocarditis and Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, cardiac troponin concentrations carry strong prognostic information, mainly with respect to mortality, or incipient and/or worsening heart failure. Studies investigating the prognostic benefit associated with cardiac troponin guided treatments however, are almost lacking and the potential role of cardiac troponin in the management of non-ACS conditions is not defined. SUMMARY: Increased cardiac troponin indicates increased risk for adverse outcome in patients with various cardiovascular conditions beyond ACS. Routine measurement of cardiac troponin concentrations can however, not be generally recommended unless there is a suspicion of ACS. Nonetheless, any finding of an increased cardiac troponin concentration in a patient without ACS should at least prompt the search for possible underlying conditions and these should be managed meticulously according to current guidelines to improve outcome.
  • Eggers, Kai M., 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • Cardiac Troponins and Their Prognostic Importance in Patients with Suspected Acute Coronary Syndrome and Renal Dysfunction
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 0009-9147 .- 1530-8561. ; 63:8, s. 1409-1417
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Cardiac troponin (cTn) is important for risk assessment in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS). cTn concentrations may, however, be affected by renal dysfunction, and the clinical importance of this interrelation is not well established. We investigated the association between cTnT and cTnI (measured with conventional assays and a more sensitive assay) with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and also assessed the ability of cTn to predict the 1-year all-cause mortality. METHODS: This retrospective registry-based study used data from 309454 admissions to Swedish coronary care units. cTn associations with eGFR and mortality were assessed using different regression models and by calculating multivariable-adjusted c-statistics. RESULTS: cTnT concentrations exhibited stronger associations with eGFR than cTnI concentrations (conventional cTnT assay: beta = -0.113; more sensitive cTnT assay: beta = -0.186; pooled conventional cTnI assays: beta = -0.098). Overall, cTnT provided greater prognostic accuracy than cTnI. This was most evident in non-ACS patients with normal or mildly reduced eGFR when using the more sensitive assay. Despite higher mortality rates, no consistent increases in the c-statistics of cTn were seen with severely reduced eGFR irrespective of the presence of ACS or non-ACS. CONCLUSIONS: cTnT concentrations exhibited stronger associations with reduced eGFR than cTnI concentrations in patients admitted because of suspected ACS. cTnT, particularly when measured using the more sensitive assay, also tended to be a stronger prognosticator. However, the relative significance of the obtained results must be considered in the context of the severity of renal dysfunction and whether ACS is present.
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