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Sökning: L773:0012 1797 OR L773:1939 327X > (2010-2014)

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1.
  • Alanentalo, Tomas, et al. (författare)
  • Quantification and 3-D imaging of the insulitis-induced destruction of β-cells in murine type 1 diabetes
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 59:7, s. 1756-1764
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The aim of this study was to refine the information regarding the quantitative and spatial dynamics of infiltrating lymphocytes and remaining beta-cell volume during the progression of type 1 diabetes in the NOD mouse model of the disease.Research design and methods: Using an ex vivo technique, optical projection tomography (OPT), we quantified and assessed the 3D spatial development and progression of insulitis and beta-cell destruction in pancreas from diabetes prone NOD and non-diabetes prone congenic NOD.H-2b mice between 3 and 16 weeks of age.Results: Together with results showing the spatial dynamics of the insulitis process we provide data of beta-cell volume distributions down to the level of the individual islets and throughout the pancreas during the development and progression of type 1 diabetes. Our data provide evidence for a compensatory growth potential of the larger insulin(+) islets during the later stages of the disease around the time point for development of clinical diabetes. This is in contrast to smaller islets, which appear less resistant to the autoimmune attack. We also provide new information on the spatial dynamics of the insulitis process itself, including its apparently random distribution at onset, the local variations during its further development, and the formation of structures resembling tertiary lymphoid organs at later phases of insulitis progression.Conclusions: Our data provides a powerful tool for phenotypic analysis of genetic and environmental effects on type 1 diabetes etiology as well as for evaluating the potential effect of therapeutic regimes.
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2.
  • Arner, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Adipocyte Turnover : Relevance to Human Adipose Tissue Morphology
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 59:1, s. 105-109
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE-Adipose tissue may contain few large adipocytes (hypertrophy) or many small adipocytes (hyperplasia). We investigated factors of putative importance for adipose tissue morphology. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-Subcutaneous adipocyte size and total fat mass were compared in 764 subjects with BMI 18-60 kg/m(2). A morphology value was defined as tire difference between the measured adipocyte volume and the expected volume given by a curved-line fit for a given body fat mass and was related to insulin values. In 35 subjects, in vivo adipocyte turnover was measured by exploiting incorporation of atmospheric C-14 into DNA. RESULTS-Occurrence of hyperplasia (negative morphology value) or hypertrophy (positive morphology value) was independent of sex and body weight but con-elated with fasting plasma insulin levels and insulin sensitivity, independent of adipocyte volume (beta-coefficient = 0.3, P < 0.0001). Total adipocyte number and morphology were negatively related (r = -0.66); i.e., the total adipocyte number was greatest in pronounced hyperplasia and smallest in pronounced hypertrophy. The absolute number of new adipocytes generated each year was 70% lower (P < 0.001) in hypertrophy than in hyperplasia, and individual values for adipocyte generation and morphology were strongly related (r = 0.7, P < 0.001). The relative death rate (similar to 10% per year) or mean age of adipocytes (similar to 10 years) was not correlated with morphology. CONCLUSIONS-Adipose tissue morphology correlates with insulin measures and is linked to the total adipocyte number independently of sex and body fat level. Low generation rates of adipocytes associate with adipose tissue hypertrophy, whereas high generation rates associate with adipose hyperplasia. Diabetes 59:105-109, 2010
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3.
  • Barker, Adam, et al. (författare)
  • Association of genetic loci with glucose levels in childhood and adolescence a meta-analysis of over 6,000 children
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 60:6, s. 1805-1812
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE-To investigate whether associations of common genetic variants recently identified for fasting glucose or insulin levels in nondiabetic adults are detectable in healthy children and adolescents. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-A total of 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with fasting glucose were genotyped in six studies of children and adolescents of European origin, including over 6,000 boys and girls aged 9-16 years. We performed meta-analyses to test associations of individual SNPs and a weighted risk score of the 16 loci with fasting glucose. RESULTS-Nine loci were associated with glucose levels in healthy children and adolescents, with four of these associations reported in previous studies and five reported here for the first time (GLIS3, PROX1, SLC2A2, ADCY5, and CRY2). Effect sizes were similar to those in adults, suggesting age-independent effects of these fasting glucose loci. Children and adolescents carrying glucose-raising alleles of G6PC2, MTNR1B, GCK, and GLIS3 also showed reduced p-cell function, as indicated by homeostasis model assessment of beta-cell function. Analysis using a weighted risk score showed an increase [beta (95% CI)] in fasting glucose level of 0.026 mrnol/L (0.021-0.031) for each unit increase in the score. CONCLUSIONS-Novel fasting glucose loci identified in genome-wide association studies of adults are associated with altered fasting glucose levels in healthy children and adolescents with effect sizes comparable to adults. In nondiabetic adults, fasting glucose changes little over time, and our results suggest that age-independent effects of fasting glucose loci contribute to long-term interindividual differences in glucose levels from childhood onwards. Diabetes 60:1805-1812, 2011
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4.
  • Benedict, Christian, et al. (författare)
  • Intranasal Insulin Enhances Postprandial Thermogenesis and Lowers Postprandial Serum Insulin Levels in Healthy Men
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 60:1, s. 114-118
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE Animal studies indicate a prominent role of brain insulin signaling in the regulation of peripheral energy metabolism. We determined the effect of intranasal insulin, which directly targets the brain, on glucose metabolism and energy expenditure in humans.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSIn a double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced within-subject comparison, 19 healthy normal-weight men (18-26 years old) were intranasally administered 160 IU human insulin after an overnight fast. Energy expenditure assessed via indirect calorimetry and blood concentrations of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and free fatty acids (FFAs) were measured before and after insulin administration and the subsequent consumption of a high-calorie liquid meal of 900 kcal.RESULTSIntranasal insulin, compared with placebo, increased postprandial energy expenditure, i.e., diet-induced thermogenesis, and decreased postprandial concentrations of circulating insulin and C-peptide, whereas postprandial plasma glucose concentrations did not differ from placebo values. Intranasal insulin also induced a transient decrease in prandial serum FFA levels.CONCLUSIONSEnhancing brain insulin signaling by means of intranasal insulin administration enhances the acute thermoregulatory and glucoregulatory response to food intake, suggesting that central nervous insulin contributes to the control of whole-body energy homeostasis in humans.
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5.
  • Benedict, Christian, et al. (författare)
  • The fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) is linked to higher plasma levels of the hunger hormone ghrelin and lower serum levels of the satiety hormone leptin in older adults
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 63:11, s. 3955-3959
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The mechanisms through which common polymorphisms in the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) drive the development of obesity in humans are poorly understood. By using C: ross-sectional data from 985 elderly (50% females) who participated at age 70 years in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors, circulating levels of ghrelin and leptin were measured after an overnight fast. In addition, subjects were genotyped for FTO rs17817449 (AA, n=345 (35%); AC/CA, n=481 (48.8%); CC, n=159 (16.1%). Linear regression analyses controlling for sex, self-reported physical activity level, fasting plasma glucose, and body mass index were utilized. A positive relationship between the number of FTO C risk alleles and plasma ghrelin levels was found (P=0.005; relative plasma ghrelin difference between CC and AA carriers = ∼9%). In contrast, serum levels of the satiety enhancing hormone leptin were inversely linked to the number of FTO C risk alleles (P=0.001; relative serum leptin difference between CC and AA carriers = ∼11%). These associations were also found when controlling for waist circumference. The present findings suggest that FTO may facilitate weight gain in humans by shifting the endocrine balance from the satiety hormone leptin toward the hunger promoting hormone ghrelin.
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6.
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7.
  • Cardwell, Chris R, et al. (författare)
  • Interbirth Interval Is Associated With Childhood Type 1 Diabetes Risk
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : American Diabetes Association. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 61:3, s. 702-707
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Short interbirth interval has been associated with maternal complications and childhood autism and leukemia, possibly due to deficiencies in maternal micronutrients at conception or increased exposure to sibling infections. A possible association between interbirth interval and subsequent risk of childhood type 1 diabetes has not been investigated. A secondary analysis of 14 published observational studies of perinatal risk factors for type 1 diabetes was conducted. Risk estimates of diabetes by category of interbirth interval were calculated for each study. Random effects models were used to calculate pooled odds ratios (ORs) and investigate heterogeneity between studies. Overall, 2,787 children with type 1 diabetes were included. There was a reduction in the risk of childhood type 1 diabetes in children born to mothers after interbirth intervals andlt;3 years compared with longer interbirth intervals (OR 0.82 [95% CI 0.72-0.93]). Adjustments for various potential confounders little altered this estimate. In conclusion, there was evidence of a 20% reduction in the risk of childhood diabetes in children born to mothers after interbirth intervals andlt;3 years.
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8.
  • Carobbio, Stefania, et al. (författare)
  • Adaptive changes of the Insig1/SREBP1/SCD1 set point help adipose tissue to cope with increased storage demands of obesity
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : Cell Press. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 62:11, s. 3697-3708
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The epidemic of obesity imposes unprecedented challenges on human adipose tissue (WAT) storage capacity that may benefit from adaptive mechanisms to maintain adipocyte functionality. Here, we demonstrate that changes in the regulatory feedback set point control of Insig1/SREBP1 represent an adaptive response that preserves WAT lipid homeostasis in obese and insulin-resistant states. In our experiments, we show that Insig1 mRNA expression decreases in WAT from mice with obesity-associated insulin resistance and from morbidly obese humans and in in vitro models of adipocyte insulin resistance. Insig1 downregulation is part of an adaptive response that promotes the maintenance of SREBP1 maturation and facilitates lipogenesis and availability of appropriate levels of fatty acid unsaturation, partially compensating the antilipogenic effect associated with insulin resistance. We describe for the first time the existence of this adaptive mechanism in WAT, which involves Insig1/SREBP1 and preserves the degree of lipid unsaturation under conditions of obesity-induced insulin resistance. These adaptive mechanisms contribute to maintain lipid desaturation through preferential SCD1 regulation and facilitate fat storage in WAT, despite on-going metabolic stress.
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9.
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10.
  • Christoffersson, Gustaf, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical and Experimental Pancreatic Islet Transplantation to Striated Muscle : Establishment of a Vascular System Similar to that in Native Islets
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 59:10, s. 2569-2578
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Curing type 1 diabetes by transplanting pancreatic islets into the liver is associated with poor long-term outcome and graft failure at least partly due to inadequate graft revascularization. The aim of the current study was to evaluate striated muscle as a potential angiogenic site for islet transplantation. Research Design and Methods: The current study presents a new experimental model which is found applicable to clinical islet transplantation. Islets were implanted into striated muscle where after intra-islet vascular density and blood flow were visualized with intravital and confocal microscopy in mice, and by magnetic resonance imaging in three auto-transplanted pancreatectomized patients. Mice were rendered neutropenic by repeated injections of Gr-1 antibody and diabetes was induced by alloxan treatment. Results: Contrary to liver-engrafted islets, islets transplanted to mouse muscle were revascularized with vessel densities and blood flow entirely comparable to islets within intact pancreas. Initiation of islet revascularization at the muscular site was dependent on neutrophils, and the function of islets transplanted to muscle was proven by curing diabetic mice. The experimental data were confirmed in auto-transplanted patients where higher plasma volumes were measured in islets engrafted in forearm muscle compared to adjacent muscle tissue through high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Conclusions: This study presents a novel paradigm in islet transplantation whereby recruited neutrophils are crucial for the functionally restored intra-islet blood perfusion following transplantation to striated muscle under experimental and clinical situations.
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