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1.
  • Roquer-Beni, Laura, et al. (författare)
  • Management-dependent effects of pollinator functional diversity on apple pollination services : A response–effect trait approach
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Applied Ecology. - : John Wiley & Sons Inc.. - 0021-8901 .- 1365-2664. ; 58:12, s. 2843-2853
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Functional traits mediate the response of communities to disturbances (response traits) and their contribution to ecosystem functions (effect traits). To predict how anthropogenic disturbances influence ecosystem services requires a dual approach including both trait concepts. Here, we used a response–effect trait conceptual framework to understand how local and landscape features affect pollinator functional diversity and pollination services in apple orchards. We worked in 110 apple orchards across four European regions. Orchards differed in management practices. Low-intensity (LI) orchards were certified organic or followed close-to-organic practices. High-intensity (HI) orchards followed integrated pest management practices. Within each management type, orchards encompassed a range of local (flower diversity, agri-environmental structures) and landscape features (orchard and pollinator-friendly habitat cover). We measured pollinator visitation rates and calculated trait composition metrics based on 10 pollinator traits. We used initial fruit set as a measure of pollination service. Some pollinator traits (body size and hairiness) were negatively related to orchard cover and positively affected by pollinator-friendly habitat cover. Bee functional diversity was lower in HI orchards and decreased with increased landscape orchard cover. Pollination service was not associated with any particular trait but increased with pollinator trait diversity in LI orchards. As a result, LI orchards with high pollinator trait diversity reached levels of pollination service similar to those of HI orchards. Synthesis and applications. Pollinator functional diversity enables pollinator communities to respond to agricultural intensification and to increase pollination function. Our results show that efforts to promote biodiversity provide greater returns in low-intensity than in high-intensity orchards. The fact that low-intensity orchards with high pollinator functional diversity reach levels of pollination services similar to those of high-intensity orchards provides a compelling argument for the conversion of high-intensity into low-intensity farms.
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2.
  • Porcel Vilches, Mario, et al. (författare)
  • Organic management in apple orchards: Higher impacts on biological control than on pollination
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Applied Ecology. - : Wiley: 12 months. - 0021-8901 .- 1365-2664. ; 55, s. 2779-2789
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • 1. Intensive agricultural management negatively affects both natural enemies of pests and pollinators. Such management also has the potential to adversely affect the ecosystem services that these communities confer. Organic management has been proposed as an alternative method to mitigate such problems by restoring the services provided by arthropod communities.2. We evaluated the effect of organic management on two ecosystem services provided by arthropods in apple orchards: pollination and biological control. We used relative decrease in colonies to assess biological control of the major apple aphid pest, and measured pollination through fruit set, number of seeds per apple and pollinator visitation. Additionally, we monitored the organisms responsible for pollination and biological control services and established the impact of pollination on apple quality.3. Our results show a strong effect of organic management on biological control and on the temporal dynamic of natural enemy-pest interactions. Parameters such as aphid colony suppression, first and repeated occurrence of natural enemies, natural enemy species evenness and natural enemy abundance were significantly higher in organic compared to conventional orchards. Predatory bugs were the natural enemies best-affected by organic management and played a key role in early predation of aphids preventing colony growth.4. In this instance, pollination was not influenced by organic management. It is likely due to the temporal scale at which this service is delivered, a scale that differs greatly from biological control, combined with differences in the dispersal capacity of the organisms involved. Fruit weight, calcium, potassium and magnesium content were positively affected by pollination success.5. Synthesis and applications. We found that organic management in apple orchards preserves the local natural enemy community, and specifically predatory bug populations, essential for early aphid colony suppression. Our results suggest that, in conventional orchards, local management options that decrease or even eliminate pesticide use early in the season would increase the biological control of aphids. This would lead to reduction in apple damage at harvest. Our results on pollination success indicate that the implementation of organic management at orchard scale does not enhance pollination services for apple growers.
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3.
  • Rader, Romina, et al. (författare)
  • Organic farming and heterogeneous landscapes positively affect different measures of plant diversity
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Applied Ecology. - : John Wiley & Sons Inc.. - 1365-2664 .- 0021-8901. ; 51:6, s. 1544-1553
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Increasing landscape heterogeneity and organic farming practices are known to enhance species richness in agroecosystems. However, little is known about the consequences of these management options on other biodiversity components such as community composition, phylogenetic structure and functional diversity which may be more closely linked to ecosystem functioning. We surveyed semi-natural plant communities within the uncultivated field margins of 18 arable farms in Skane, south Sweden. We investigated how taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity responds to landscape heterogeneity (presence of semi-natural habitat) and farm management intensity (organic vs. conventional farming). Plant species richness and functional diversity metrics all responded positively to landscape heterogeneity, with the strongest effect occurring on conventional farms. Community composition differed with farm management, and mean phylogenetic relatedness, an indicator of phylogenetic structure, was significantly higher on the field margins of organic compared to conventional farms. Individual plant functional groups themselves responded in unique ways to land management and landscape heterogeneity.Synthesis and applications. Management strategies that promote the conservation of heterogeneous landscapes (i.e. a higher proportion of semi-natural habitats) and organic farm management practices are important for maintaining plant phylogenetic, functional and taxonomic diversity in agroecosystems. Accommodating various forms of diversity is important to ensure that ecosystems have the greatest possible array of species ecologies'. Such measures will help to improve the capacity of these ecosystems to provide multiple ecosystem functions, including the sustaining and regulating services of benefit to people. Management strategies that promote the conservation of heterogeneous landscapes (i.e. a higher proportion of semi-natural habitats) and organic farm management practices are important for maintaining plant phylogenetic, functional and taxonomic diversity in agroecosystems. Accommodating various forms of diversity is important to ensure that ecosystems have the greatest possible array of species ecologies'. Such measures will help to improve the capacity of these ecosystems to provide multiple ecosystem functions, including the sustaining and regulating services of benefit to people.
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4.
  • Baeten, Lander, et al. (författare)
  • Identifying the tree species compositions that maximize ecosystem functioning in European forests
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Applied Ecology. - 0021-8901 .- 1365-2664. ; 56:3, s. 733-744
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • 1. Forest ecosystem functioning generally benefits from higher tree species richness, but variation within richness levels is typically large. This is mostly due to the contrasting performances of communities with different compositions. Evidence-based understanding of composition effects on forest productivity, as well as on multiple other functions will enable forest managers to focus on the selection of species that maximize functioning, rather than on diversity per se.2. We used a dataset of 30 ecosystem functions measured in stands with different species richness and composition in six European forest types. First, we quantified whether the compositions that maximize annual above-ground wood production (productivity) generally also fulfil the multiple other ecosystem functions (multifunctionality). Then, we quantified the species identity effects and strength of interspecific interactions to identify the "best" and "worst" species composition for multifunctionality. Finally, we evaluated the real-world frequency of occurrence of best and worst mixtures, using harmonized data from multiple national forest inventories.3. The most productive tree species combinations also tended to express relatively high multifunctionality, although we found a relatively wide range of compositions with high- or low-average multifunctionality for the same level of productivity. Monocultures were distributed among the highest as well as the lowest performing compositions. The variation in functioning between compositions was generally driven by differences in the performance of the component species and, to a lesser extent, by particular interspecific interactions. Finally, we found that the most frequent species compositions in inventory data were monospecific stands and that the most common compositions showed below-average multifunctionality and productivity.4. Synthesis and applications. Species identity and composition effects are essential to the development of high-performing production systems, for instance in forestry and agriculture. They therefore deserve great attention in the analysis and design of functional biodiversity studies if the aim is to inform ecosystem management. A management focus on tree productivity does not necessarily trade-off against other ecosystem functions; high productivity and multifunctionality can be combined with an informed selection of tree species and species combinations.
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5.
  • Brunet, Jörg, et al. (författare)
  • Immigration credit of temperate forest herbs in fragmented landscapes—Implications for restoration of habitat connectivity
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Applied Ecology. - 0021-8901 .- 1365-2664. ; 58:10, s. 2195-2206
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In many agricultural landscapes, it is important to restore networks of forests to provide habitat and stepping stones for forest specialist taxa. More knowledge is, however, needed on how to facilitate the immigration of such taxa in restored forest patches. Here, we present the first chronosequence study to quantify the dynamics of immigration credits of forest specialist plants in post-arable forest patches.We studied the distribution of herbaceous forest specialist plant species in 54 post-arable broadleaved forest patches along gradients of age (20–140 years since forest establishment), distance from ancient forest (0–2,600 m) and patch area (0.5–9.6 ha). With linear mixed models, we estimated the effects of these factors on species richness, patch means of four dispersal-related plant traits and with generalized linear models on the occurrence of 20 individual species.Post-arable forest patch age and spatial isolation from ancient forest, but not patch size, were important predictors for species richness of forest specialists, suggesting that also small patches are valuable for habitat connectivity. Compared to species richness in ancient forest stands, the immigration credit was reduced by more than 90% after 80 years in post-arable forest patches contiguous to ancient forest compared to 40% after 80 years and 60% after 140 years in isolated patches (at least 100 m to next forest). Tall-growing species with adaptations to long-distance dispersal were faster colonizers, whereas species with heavy diaspores and clonal growth were slower to colonize.Synthesis and applications. We show that post-arable oak plantations have a high potential for restoration of forest herb vegetation. Dispersal-related plant traits play a key role in explaining interspecific differences among forest specialists. To facilitate forest herb immigration across all functional groups in agricultural landscapes, we suggest to create clusters of relatively small new forest patches nearby older forest with source populations.
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6.
  • Yamaura, Yuichi, et al. (författare)
  • From nature reserve to mosaic management : Improving matrix survival, not permeability, benefits regional populations under habitat loss and fragmentation
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Journal of Applied Ecology. - 0021-8901 .- 1365-2664.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although matrix improvement in fragmented landscapes is a promising conservation measure, matrix permeability (willingness of an organism to enter the matrix) and movement survival in the matrix are usually aggregated. Consequently, it is unknown which matrix property needs to be improved. It also remains unclear whether matrix upgrading from dispersal passage to providing reproduction opportunities has large conservation benefits and whether there are interactive effects between habitat and matrix management.We examined matrix effects on regional populations across a gradient of habitat loss and fragmentation using simulation experiments that integrated demographic processes and movement modelling based on circuit theory. We separately modified the levels of matrix permeability and movement survival to evaluate their individual effects. We also altered the amount and configuration of not only habitat but also improved matrix to assess their effects on population vital rates (size, survival and density).In binary landscapes comprising habitat and unimproved matrix, matrix movement survival had larger effects on population vital rates than matrix permeability. Increasing movement survival increased vital rates, yet, increasing matrix permeability decreased vital rates. Increased permeability required corresponding increased movement survival to offset potential negative population outcomes.When subsets of the matrix functioning as dispersal passage only (where no reproduction opportunities existed) were improved, increasing matrix permeability but holding movement survival constant reduced all vital rates, especially with increasing habitat fragmentation. In contrast, when movement survival increased, vital rates increased given strong habitat fragmentation. The benefits of upgrading dispersal passage to provide reproduction opportunities for population survival were greatest when habitat amount was moderate. We also found synergetic effects between amounts of habitat and improved matrix, and the benefits of matrix improvement were promoted when improvement was achieved in a spatially aggregated manner.Synthesis and applications. Matrix improvement and connectivity modelling aimed at increasing movement survival will likely bring larger conservation benefits than those for improving permeability alone. Buffering and connecting habitat remnants with improved matrix could provide benefits as long as movement survival is increased. Simultaneous implementation of habitat management and matrix improvement would yield synergistic conservation benefits.
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7.
  • Zewdie, Beyene, 1983-, et al. (författare)
  • Plant biodiversity declines with increasing coffee yield in Ethiopia's coffee agroforests
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Journal of Applied Ecology. - 0021-8901 .- 1365-2664.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Tropical agroforestry systems provide farmers with resources for their livelihoods, but are also well-recognized as refuges for biodiversity. However, the relationship between yield and biodiversity might be negative in these systems, reflecting a potential trade-off between managing for increased yield or biodiversity. The potential for synergies will depend partly on the shape of the biodiversity–yield relationship, where a concave relationship suggests a faster decline in biodiversity with increasing yields than a linear or convex shape.We studied the relationship between biodiversity (plant species richness and composition) and coffee yield along a gradient of management in south-western Ethiopia, coffee's native range. We inventoried species richness and community compoasition of woody plants, herbaceous plants and bryophytes at 60 sites. We also measured coffee management-related variables and assessed coffee yield for 3 consecutive years at each site.Species richness of woody plants had a concave relationship with coffee yield, that is, tree richness declined fast initially before levelling out at higher yields, whereas there was no relationship between coffee yield and species richness of herbaceous plants or bryophytes. Species composition of woody plants, herbaceous plants and bryophytes all had a concave relationship with coffee yield.From a methodological perspective, we found that multi-year data on yield were necessary to reliably assess the relationship between biodiversity and yield, and that the number of coffee shrubs or coffee dominance were poor proxies for yield when trying to capture the biodiversity–yield relationship.Synthesis and applications. The concave relationship between biodiversity components (species richness and composition) and yield suggests that there is a strong conflict between the goals of increasing production and conserving biodiversity. However, it is important to recognize that this pattern is largely driven by the very low-yielding sites in natural forests. Here, even minor intensification of coffee management seems to rapidly erode biodiversity. Along the rest of the productivity gradient, there was generally no negative relationship between yield and biodiversity, implying opportunities for developing strategies for increasing yields without biodiversity loss.
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8.
  • Aguilera Nuñez, Guillermo, et al. (författare)
  • Organic fertilisation enhances generalist predators and suppresses aphid growth in the absence of specialist predators
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Applied Ecology. - : Wiley: 12 months. - 0021-8901 .- 1365-2664. ; 58, s. 1455-1465
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Biological control by natural enemies is a valuable ecosystem service. The predator community in a crop field is a combination of predators dwelling in the field and those moving into it from the surrounding landscape. The former is mainly affected by field management, the latter more by the composition of the surrounding landscape. Yet, separate and combined effects of local and landscape management on pest suppression have seldom been investigated.We set-up mesocosms within an existing long-term agricultural field experiment to investigate the effects of local management of organic manure or inorganic mineral fertilisation, and simulated the spillover from the surrounding landscape of different predator types: no predators, generalist predators (wolf spiders) and specialist predators (ladybirds). We examined whether aphid density was driven by top-down or bottom-up processes under different fertilisation treatments, and how the magnitude of pest suppression was affected by predator community composition.We found positive synergistic effects between manure fertilisation and predator spillover on the suppression of aphid growth. Top-down suppression of aphids was more effective under manure fertilisation and in presence of specialist predators (ladybirds). Bottom-up effects on the plant biomass growth dominated in inorganically fertilised plots.Organic and inorganic fertilisation gave the same yield, but through different mechanisms. The abundance of locally emerging predators in the manure treatment increased top-down pest suppression yielding plant biomass levels comparable with inorganically fertilised plants, being the latter driven by bottom-up effects.Synthesis and applications. Organic fertilisation enhanced local emergence of predators increasing top-down pest suppression. In contrast, local predator communities were unable to suppress aphid populations in inorganic and no fertilisation treatments. Here, predator inflow from outside the crop field was essential for lowering aphid population growth. Managing landscapes to promote mobile predators emerges as particularly important for crop fields without manure amendments. We advise the active promotion of both local predators in the crop field and mobile predators in the landscape to secure the conservation of biological insect pest suppression.
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9.
  • Allen, Craig R., et al. (författare)
  • Quantifying spatial resilience
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Applied Ecology. - 0021-8901 .- 1365-2664. ; 53:3, s. 625-635
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • 1. Anthropogenic stressors affect the ecosystems upon which humanity relies. In some cases when resilience is exceeded, relatively small linear changes in stressors can cause relatively abrupt and nonlinear changes in ecosystems. 2. Ecological regime shifts occur when resilience is exceeded and ecosystems enter a new local equilibrium that differs in its structure and function from the previous state. Ecological resilience, the amount of disturbance that a system can withstand before it shifts into an alternative stability domain, is an important framework for understanding and managing ecological systems subject to collapse and reorganization. 3. Recently, interest in the influence of spatial characteristics of landscapes on resilience has increased. Understanding how spatial structure and variation in relevant variables in landscapes affects resilience to disturbance will assist with resilience quantification, and with local and regional management. 4. Synthesis and applications. We review the history and current status of spatial resilience in the research literature, expand upon existing literature to develop a more operational definition of spatial resilience, introduce additional elements of a spatial analytical approach to understanding resilience, present a framework for resilience operationalization and provide an overview of critical knowledge and technology gaps that should be addressed for the advancement of spatial resilience theory and its applications to management and conservation.
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10.
  • Angeler, David, et al. (författare)
  • FORUM: Effective management of ecological resilience – are we there yet?
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Applied Ecology. - : Wiley: 12 months. - 0021-8901 .- 1365-2664. ; 52, s. 1311-1315
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ecological resilience is developing into a credible paradigm for policy development and environmental management for preserving natural capital in a rapidly changing world. However, resilience emerges from complex interactions, limiting the translation of theory into practice. Main limitations include the following: (i) difficulty in quantification and detection of changes in ecological resilience, (ii) a lack of empirical evidence to support preventative orproactive management and (iii) difficulties in managing processes operating across socio-ecological systems that vary in space and time. We highlight recent research with the potential to address these limitations including new and/or improved indicators of resilience and tools to assess scale as a driver of resilience.Synthesis and applications. Effective resilience-based management must be adaptive in nature. To support this, we propose an operational model using resilience-based iterative management actions operating across scales.Effective resilience-based management must be adaptive in nature. To support this, we propose an operational model using resilience-based iterative management actions operating across scales.
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