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1.
  • Karlöf, Eva, et al. (författare)
  • Correlation of computed tomography with carotid plaque transcriptomes associates calcification with lesion-stabilization
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Atherosclerosis. - Stockholm : ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD. - 0021-9150 .- 1879-1484. ; 288, s. 175-185
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and aims: Unstable carotid atherosclerosis causes stroke, but methods to identify patients and lesions at risk are lacking. We recently found enrichment of genes associated with calcification in carotid plaques from asymptomatic patients. Here, we hypothesized that calcification represents a stabilising feature of plaques and investigated how macro-calcification, as estimated by computed tomography (CT), correlates with gene expression profiles in lesions. Methods: Plaque calcification was measured in pre-operative CT angiographies. Plaques were sorted into high- and low-calcified, profiled with microarrays, followed by bioinformatic analyses. Immunohistochemistry and qPCR were performed to evaluate the findings in plaques and arteries with medial calcification from chronic kidney disease patients. Results: Smooth muscle cell (SMC) markers were upregulated in high-calcified plaques and calcified plaques from symptomatic patients, whereas macrophage markers were downregulated. The most enriched processes in high-calcified plaques were related to SMCs and extracellular matrix (ECM) organization, while inflammation, lipid transport and chemokine signaling were repressed. These findings were confirmed in arteries with high medial calcification. Proteoglycan 4 (PRG4) was identified as the most upregulated gene in association with plaque calcification and found in the ECM, SMA+ and CD68+/TRAP + cells. Conclusions: Macro-calcification in carotid lesions correlated with a transcriptional profile typical for stable plaques, with altered SMC phenotype and ECM composition and repressed inflammation. PRG4, previously not described in atherosclerosis, was enriched in the calcified ECM and localized to activated macrophages and smooth muscle-like cells. This study strengthens the notion that assessment of calcification may aid evaluation of plaque phenotype and stroke risk.
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2.
  • Tornvall, P, et al. (författare)
  • Autoantibodies against modified low-density lipoproteins in coronary artery disease
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Atherosclerosis. - : Elsevier. - 1879-1484 .- 0021-9150. ; 167:2, s. 347-353
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: To evaluate the importance of different autoantibodies against modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Background: Previous studies of autoantibodies against LDL have shown that patients with CAD have increased titers of autoantibodies against LDL modified by copper and malondialdehyde (MDA), whereas there is a lack of information about autoantibody titers against LDL modified by hypochlorite (HOCl). Studies of autoantibodies in relation to severity of atherosclerosis are few and have reached divergent results. Furthermore, no data exist on the relationship between autoantibody titers and prognosis. Methods: Titers of autoantibodies against copper-, MDA- and HOCl-modified LDL were determined in serum by ELISA. Autoantibody titers in young male survivors of a first myocardial infarction were compared with those of healthy controls and related to coronary angiographic findings and to prognosis during I I years of follow-up. Results: Patients had higher titers of autoantibodies against LDL modified by copper and MDA than controls. In contrast, no consistent associations were found between autoantibody titers and global severity of coronary atherosclerosis or number and severity of coronary stenoses and prognosis. Conclusions: The prognostic value of autoantibodies against modified LDL is limited in young postinfarction patients despite the fact that autoantibody titers against copper- and NIDA-modified LDL are raised compared with healthy controls. Furthermore, the results indicate that autoantibodies against modified LDL are not protective in later stages of coronary atherosclerosis. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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3.
  • Xu, Cang-Bao, et al. (författare)
  • D-erythro-N,N-dimethylsphingosine inhibits bFGF-induced proliferation of cerebral, aortic and coronary smooth muscle cells.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Atherosclerosis. - : Elsevier. - 1879-1484 .- 0021-9150. ; 164:2, s. 237-243
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The role of sphingosine kinase (SphK) on basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-induced proliferation of cerebral, aortic and coronary smooth muscle cells (SMC) was addressed using D-erythro-N,N-dimethylsphingosine (DMS), an inhibitor of SphK which blocks conversion of sphingosine to sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). DMS concentration-dependently reduced the bFGF-induced proliferation of rat cerebral and aortic, and human coronary SMC. This suggests that SphK is one of the key enzymes in the mitogenic response to bFGF in vascular SMC as supported by the finding that S1P stimulated proliferation of SMC. Fumonisin B1, a dihydroceramidesynthase inhibitor which blocks the conversion of dihydrosphingosine to seramide, did not affect SMC proliferation induced by bFGF. Staurosporine, an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC), inhibited proliferation of SMC induced by bFGF, and both bFGF- and S1P-induced proliferation of SMC was sensitive to pertussis toxin (PTX), an inhibitor of Gi-protein activity. The present study thus demonstrates that SphK, PKC and Gi-protein activities are required for bFGF-mitogenic signaling in SMC. The bFGF mitogenic effect in vascular SMC might at least in part act via the SphK pathway and a Gi-protein.
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