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Sökning: L773:0022 2593 OR L773:1468 6244

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1.
  • Ain, Noor Ul, et al. (författare)
  • Novel form of rhizomelic skeletal dysplasia associated with a homozygous variant in GNPNAT1
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 0022-2593 .- 1468-6244. ; 58:5, s. 351-356
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Studies exploring molecular mechanisms underlying congenital skeletal disorders have revealed novel regulators of skeletal homeostasis and shown protein glycosylation to play an important role.OBJECTIVE: To identify the genetic cause of rhizomelic skeletal dysplasia in a consanguineous Pakistani family.METHODS: Clinical investigations were carried out for four affected individuals in the recruited family. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was completed using DNA from two affected and two unaffected individuals from the family. Sequencing data were processed, filtered and analysed. In silico analyses were performed to predict the effects of the candidate variant on the protein structure and function. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were used to study the effect of Gnpnat1 gene knockdown in primary rat chondrocytes.RESULTS: The patients presented with short stature due to extreme shortening of the proximal segments of the limbs. Radiographs of one individual showed hip dysplasia and severe platyspondyly. WGS data analyses identified a homozygous missense variant c.226G>A; p.(Glu76Lys) in GNPNAT1, segregating with the disease. Glucosamine 6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase, encoded by the highly conserved gene GNPNAT1, is one of the enzymes required for synthesis of uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine, which participates in protein glycosylation. Knockdown of Gnpnat1 by siRNAs decreased cellular proliferation and expression of chondrocyte differentiation markers collagen type 2 and alkaline phosphatase, indicating that Gnpnat1 is important for growth plate chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation.CONCLUSIONS: This study describes a novel severe skeletal dysplasia associated with a biallelic, variant in GNPNAT1. Our data suggest that GNPNAT1 is important for growth plate chondrogenesis.
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2.
  • Akimoto, Chizuru, et al. (författare)
  • A blinded international study on the reliability of genetic testing for GGGGCC-repeat expansions in C9orf72 reveals marked differences in results among 14 laboratories
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics. - 0022-2593 .- 1468-6244. ; 51:6, s. 419-424
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The GGGGCC-repeat expansion in C9orf72 is the most frequent mutation found in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Most of the studies on C9orf72 have relied on repeat-primed PCR (RP-PCR) methods for detection of the expansions. To investigate the inherent limitations of this technique, we compared methods and results of 14 laboratories. Methods The 14 laboratories genotyped DNA from 78 individuals (diagnosed with ALS or FTD) in a blinded fashion. Eleven laboratories used a combination of amplicon-length analysis and RP-PCR, whereas three laboratories used RP-PCR alone; Southern blotting techniques were used as a reference. Results Using PCR-based techniques, 5 of the 14 laboratories got results in full accordance with the Southern blotting results. Only 50 of the 78 DNA samples got the same genotype result in all 14 laboratories. There was a high degree of false positive and false negative results, and at least one sample could not be genotyped at all in 9 of the 14 laboratories. The mean sensitivity of a combination of amplicon-length analysis and RP-PCR was 95.0% (73.9-100%), and the mean specificity was 98.0% (87.5-100%). Overall, a sensitivity and specificity of more than 95% was observed in only seven laboratories. Conclusions Because of the wide range seen in genotyping results, we recommend using a combination of amplicon-length analysis and RP-PCR as a minimum in a research setting. We propose that Southern blotting techniques should be the gold standard, and be made obligatory in a clinical diagnostic setting.
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3.
  • Albagha, O M E, et al. (författare)
  • Association of oestrogen receptor alpha gene polymorphisms with postmenopausal bone loss, bone mass, and quantitative ultrasound properties of bone.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics. - 0022-2593 .- 1468-6244. ; 42:3, s. 240-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The gene encoding oestrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) appears to regulate bone mineral density (BMD) and other determinants of osteoporotic fracture risk. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between common polymorphisms and haplotypes of the ESR1 gene and osteoporosis related phenotypes in a population based cohort of 3054 Scottish women. RESULTS: There was a significant association between a common haplotype "px", defined by the PvuII and XbaI restriction fragment length polymorphisms within intron 1 of the ESR1 gene, and femoral neck bone loss in postmenopausal women who had not received hormone replacement therapy (n = 945; p = 0.009). Annual rates of femoral neck bone loss were approximately 14% higher in subjects who carried one copy of px and 22% higher in those who carried two copies, compared with those who did not carry the px haplotype. The px haplotype was associated with lower femoral neck BMD in the postmenopausal women (p = 0.02), and with reduced calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) values in the whole study population (p = 0.005). There was no association between a TA repeat polymorphism in the ESR1 promoter and any phenotype studied, though on long range haplotype analysis subjects with a smaller number of TA repeats who also carried the px haplotype had reduced BUA values. CONCLUSIONS: The ESR1px haplotype is associated with reduced hip BMD values and increased rates of femoral neck bone loss in postmenopausal women. An association with BUA may explain the fact that ESR1 intron 1 alleles predict osteoporotic fractures by a mechanism partly independent of differences in BMD.
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4.
  • Arnell, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • The genetics of primary nocturnal enuresis: inheritance and suggestion of a second major gene on chromosome 12q
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics. - 0022-2593 .- 1468-6244. ; 34:5, s. 360-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE), or bedwetting at night, affects approximately 10% of 6 year old children. Genetic components contribute to the pathogenesis and recently one locus was assigned to chromosome 13q. We evaluated the genetic factors and the pattern of inheritance for PNE in 392 families. Dominant transmission was observed in 43% and an apparent recessive mode of inheritance was observed in 9% of the families. Among the 392 probands the ratio of males to females was 3:1 indicating sex linked or sex influenced factors. Linkage to candidate regions was tested in 16 larger families segregating for autosomal dominant PNE. A gene for PNE was excluded from chromosome 13q in 11 families, whereas linkage to the interval D13S263-D13S291 was suggested (Zmax = 2.1) in three families. Further linkage analyses excluded about 1/3 of the genome at a 10 cM resolution except the region around D12S80 on chromosome 12q that showed a positive two point lod score in six of the families (Zmax = 4.2). This locus remains suggestive because the material was not sufficiently large to give evidence for heterogeneity. Our pedigree analysis indicates that major genes are involved in a large proportion of PNE families and the linkage results suggest that such a gene is located on chromosome 12q.
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7.
  • Clendenning, M, et al. (författare)
  • A frame-shift mutation of PMS2 is a widespread cause of Lynch syndrome
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 0022-2593 .- 1468-6244. ; 45:6, s. 340-345
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: When compared to the other mismatch repair genes involved in Lynch syndrome, the identification of mutations within PMS2 has been limited (<2% of all identified mutations), yet the immunohistochemical analysis of tumour samples indicates that approximately 5% of Lynch syndrome cases are caused by PMS2. This disparity is primarily due to complications in the study of this gene caused by interference from pseudogene sequences. Methods: Using a recently developed method for detecting PMS2 specific mutations, we have screened 99 patients who are likely candidates for PMS2 mutations based on immunohistochemical analysis. Results: We have identified a frequently occurring frame-shift mutation (c.736_741del 6ins11) in 12 ostensibly unrelated Lynch syndrome patients (20% of patients we have identified with a deleterious mutation in PMS2, n = 61). These individuals all display the rare allele (population frequency <0.05) at a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in exon 11, and have been shown to possess a short common haplotype, allowing us to calculate that the mutation arose around 1625 years ago (65 generations; 95% confidence interval 22 to 120). Conclusion: Ancestral analysis indicates that this mutation is enriched in individuals with British and Swedish ancestry. We estimate that there are >10 000 carriers of this mutation in the USA alone. The identification of both the mutation and the common haplotype in one Swedish control sample (n = 225), along with evidence that Lynch syndrome associated cancers are rarer than expected in the probands' families, would suggest that this is a prevalent mutation with reduced penetrance.
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8.
  • Dahgam, Santosh, et al. (författare)
  • Haplotypes of the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene are strongly associated with exhaled nitric oxide levels in adults: a population-based study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics. - 0022-2593 .- 1468-6244. ; 51:7, s. 449-454
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Previous genetic association studies have reported evidence for association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the NOS2 gene, encoding inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), to variation in levels of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) in children and adults. In this study, we evaluated 10 SNPs in the region of chromosome 17 from 26.07Mb to 26.13Mb to further understand the contribution of NOS2 to variation in levels of FENO. Methods In a cohort of 5912 adults 25-75years of age, we investigated the relationship between NOS2 haplotypes and FENO, and effect modification by asthma. Results Seven common (frequency 5%) haplotypes (H1-H7) were inferred from all possible haplotype combinations. One haplotype (H3) was significantly associated with lower levels of FENO: -5.8% (95% CI -9.8 to -1.7; p=0.006) compared with the most common baseline haplotype H1. Two haplotypes (H5 and H6) were significantly associated with higher levels of FENO: +10.7% (95% CI 5.0 to 16.7; p=0.0002) and +14.9% (95% CI 10.6 to 19.3; p=7.8x10(-13)), respectively. The effect of haplotype H3 was mainly seen in subjects with asthma (-21.6% (95% CI -33.5 to -5.9)) and was not significant in subjects without asthma (-4.2% (95% CI -8.4 to 0.2)). The p value for interaction between H3 and asthma status was 0.004. Conclusions Our findings suggest that several common haplotypes in the NOS2 gene contribute to variation in FENO in adults. We also saw some evidence of effect modification by asthma status on haplotype H3.
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10.
  • Dahlqvist, Johanna, et al. (författare)
  • Congenital ichthyosis : mutations in ichthyin are associated with specific structural abnormalities in the granular layer of epidermis
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics. - 0022-2593 .- 1468-6244. ; 44:10, s. 615-620
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) is a heterogeneous group of skin disorders. Several mutant genes have been identified in ARCI, but the association between genotype and phenotype is poorly understood. Methods: To investigate genotype–phenotype correlations in ARCI, we selected 27 patients from 18 families with specific ultrastructural features of the epidermis. The characteristic findings using electron microscopy (EM) were abnormal lamellar bodies and elongated membranes in the stratum granulosum, classified as ARCI EM type III. DNA samples from a subset of affected individuals were screened for homozygous genomic regions, and a candidate gene region was identified on chromosome 5q33. The region coincides with the ichthyin gene, previously reported as mutated in ARCI. Results: Mutation screening of ichthyin revealed missense or splice-site mutations in affected members from 16 of 18 (89%) families with characteristics of ARCI EM type III. In a control group of 18 patients with ARCI without EM findings consistent with type III, we identified one patient homozygous for a missense mutation in ichthyin. Discussion: Our findings indicate a strong association between ultrastructural abnormalities in the granular layer of epidermis and ichthyin mutations. The results also suggest that EM provides a tool for specific diagnosis in a genetically homogenous subgroup of patients with ARCI.
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