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  • Byström, Anders S, et al. (författare)
  • Differentially expressed trmD ribosomal protein operon of Escherichia coli is transcribed as a single polycistronic mRNA species
  • 1989
  • Ingår i: Journal of Molecular Biology. - : Academic Press. - 0022-2836 .- 1089-8638. ; 208:4, s. 575-586
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The trmD operon is a four-cistron operon in which the first and fourth genes encode ribosomal proteins S16 (rpsP) and L19 (rplS), respectively. The second gene encodes a 21,000 Mr polypeptide of unknown function and the third gene (trmD) encodes the enzyme tRNA(m1G37)methyltransferase, which catalyzes the formation of 1-methylguanosine (m1G) next to the 3' end of the anticodon (position 37) of some tRNAs in Escherichia coli. Here we show under all regulatory conditions studied, transcription initiates at one unique site, and the entire operon is transcribed into one polycistronic mRNA. Between the promoter and the first gene, rpsP, an attenuator-like structure is found (delta G = -18 kcal; 1 cal = 4.184 J), followed by four uridine residues. This structure is functional in vitro, and terminates more than two-thirds of the transcripts. The different parts of the trmD operon mRNA decay at a uniform rate. The stability of the trmD mRNA is not reduced with decreasing growth rate, which is in contrast to what has been found for other ribosomal protein mRNAs. Furthermore, earlier experiments have shown the existence of differential expression as well as non-co-ordinate regulation within the operon. Our results are consistent with the regulation of the trmD operon being due to some mechanism(s) operating at the post-transcriptional level, and do not involve differential degradation of different mRNA segments, internal promoters or internal terminators.
  • Emanuelsson, Olof, et al. (författare)
  • In silico prediction of the peroxisomal proteome in fungi, plants and animals.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Journal of Molecular Biology. - 0022-2836 .- 1089-8638. ; 330:2, s. 443-456
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In an attempt to improve our abilities to predict peroxisomal proteins, we have combined machine-learning techniques for analyzing peroxisomal targeting signals (PTS1) with domain-based cross-species comparisons between eight eukaryotic genomes. Our results indicate that this combined approach has a significantly higher specificity than earlier attempts to predict peroxisomal localization, without a loss in sensitivity. This allowed us to predict 430 peroxisomal proteins that almost completely lack a localization annotation. These proteins can be grouped into 29 families covering most of the known steps in all known peroxisomal pathways. In general, plants have the highest number of predicted peroxisomal proteins, and fungi the smallest number.
  • Hughes, Diarmaid, 1956- (författare)
  • Both genes for EF-Tu in Salmonella typhimurium are individually dispensible for growth
  • 1990
  • Ingår i: Journal of Molecular Biology. - 0022-2836 .- 1089-8638. ; 215:1, s. 41-51
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Each of the two genes encoding EF-Tu in Salmonella typhimurium has been inactivated using a mini-Mu MudJ insertion. Eleven independently isolated insertions are described, six in tufA and five in tufB. Transduction analysis shows that the inserted MudJ is 100% linked to the appropriate tuf gene. A mutant strain with electrophoretically distinguishable EF-TuA and EF-TuB was used to show, on two-dimensional gels, that the MudJ insertions result in the loss of the appropriate EF-Tu protein. Southern blotting, using cloned Escherichia coli tuf sequences as probes, shows that each MudJ insertion results in the physical breakage of the appropriate tuf gene. The degree of growth-rate impairment associated with each tuf inactivation is independent of which tuf gene is inactivated. The viability of S. typhimurium strains with either tuf gene inactive contrasts strongly with data suggesting that in the closely related bacterium E. coli, an active tufA gene is essential for growth. Finally the strains described here facilitate the analysis of phenotypes associated with individual mutant or wild-type Tus both in vivo and in vitro.
  • Kirsebom, Leif A, et al. (författare)
  • Differential effects of mutations in the protein and RNA moieties of RNase P on the efficiency of suppression by various tRNA suppressors
  • 1988
  • Ingår i: Journal of Molecular Biology. - : Elsevier BV. - 0022-2836 .- 1089-8638. ; 204:4, s. 879-888
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have studied the efficiency of suppression by tRNA suppressors in vivo in strains of Escherichia coli that harbor a mutation in the rnpA gene, the gene for the protein component (C5) of RNase P, and in strains that carry several different alleles of the rnpB gene, the gene for the RNA component (M1) of RNase P. Depending on the genetic background, different efficiencies of suppression by the various tRNA suppressors were observed. Thus, mutations in rnpA have separable and distinct effects from mutations in rnpB on the processing of tRNA precursors by RNase P. In addition, the efficiency of suppression by several derivatives of E. coli tRNA(Tyr) Su3 changed as the genetic background was altered.
  • Kirsebom, Leif A, et al. (författare)
  • Reaction in vitro of some mutants of RNase P with wild-type and temperature-sensitive substrates
  • 1989
  • Ingår i: Journal of Molecular Biology. - : Elsevier BV. - 0022-2836 .- 1089-8638. ; 207:4, s. 837-840
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The reaction of wild-type and two mutant derivatives of RNase P have been examined with wild-type and mutant substrates. We show that a mutant derivative of tRNA(Tyr)Su3, tRNA(Tyr)Su3A15, in which the G15.C48(57) base-pair essential for folding of the tRNA moiety is altered, is a temperature-sensitive suppressor in vivo. The precursor to tRNA(Tyr)Su3A15 is cleaved in a temperature-sensitive manner in vitro by RNase P and with a higher Km compared to the precursor to tRNA(Tyr)Su3. The precursor to tRNA(Tyr)Su3A2, another temperature-sensitive suppressor in vivo in which the G2.C71(80) base-pair in the acceptor stem is changed to A2.C71(80), behaves like the precursor to tRNA(Tyr)Su3 in vitro; that is, it is not cleaved in a temperature-sensitive manner. Therefore, there are at least two ways in which a suppressor tRNA can acquire a temperature-sensitive phenotype in vivo. One of the mutant derivatives of RNase P we have tested, rnpA49, which affects the protein cofactor of the enzyme, has a decreased kcat compared to wild-type, which can explain its phenotype in vivo.
  • Malisauskas, Mantas, et al. (författare)
  • Amyloid protofilaments from the calcium-binding protein equine lysozyme : formation of ring and linear structures depends on pH and metal ion concentration
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Journal of Molecular Biology. - 0022-2836 .- 1089-8638. ; 330:4, s. 879-890
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The calcium-binding equine lysozyme has been found to undergo conversion into amyloid fibrils during incubation in solution at acidic pH. At pH 4.5 and 57 °C, where equine lysozyme forms a partially unfolded molten globule state, the protein forms protofilaments with a width of ca. 2 nm. In the absence of Ca2+ the protofilaments are present as annular structures with a diameter of 40–50 nm. In the presence of 10 mM CaCl2 the protofilaments of equine lysozyme are straight or curved; they can assemble into thicker threads, but they do not appear to undergo circularisation. At pH 2.0, where the protein is more destabilised compared to pH 4.5, fibril formation occurs at 37 °C and 57 °C. At pH 2.0, both ring-shaped and linear protofilaments are formed, in which periodic repeats of ca 35 nm can be distinguished clearly. The rings constitute about 10% of all fibrillar species under these conditions and they are characterised by a larger diameter of 70–80 nm. All the structures bind Congo red and thioflavine T in a manner similar to fibrils associated with a variety of amyloid diseases. At pH 2.0, fibril formation is accompanied by some acidic hydrolysis, producing specific fragmentation of the protein, leading to the accumulation of two peptides in particular, consisting of residues 1–80 and 54–125. At the initial stages of incubation, however, full-length equine lysozyme represents the dominant species within the fibrils. We propose that the ring-shaped structures observed here, and in the case of disease-associated proteins such as -synuclein, could be a second generic type of amyloid structure in addition to the more common linear fibrils.
  • Masson, Patrick, et al. (författare)
  • Drosophila Proteasome Regulator REGγ : Transcriptional Activation by DNA Replication-related Factor DREF and Evidence for a Role in Cell Cycle Progression
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Journal of Molecular Biology. - 0022-2836 .- 1089-8638. ; 327:5, s. 1001-1012
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The proteasome regulator REG (PA28γ) is a conserved complex present in metazoan nuclei and is able to stimulate the trypsin-like activity of the proteasome in a non-ATP dependent manner. However, the in vivo function for REGγ in metazoan cells is currently unknown. To understand the role of Drosophila REGγ we have attempted to identify the type of promoter elements regulating its transcription. Mapping the site of the transcription initiation revealed a TATA-less promoter, and a sequence search identified elements found typically in Drosophila genes involved in cell cycle progression and DNA replication. In order to test the relevance of the motifs, REGγ transcriptional assays were carried out with mutations in the proposed promoter. Our results indicate that a single Drosophila replication-related element sequence, DRE, is essential for REGγ transcription. To confirm that REGγ has a role in cell cycle progression, the effect of removing REGγ from S2 cells was tested using RNA interference. Drosophila cells depleted of REGγ showed partial arrests in G1/S cell cycle transition. Immuno-staining of Drosophila embryos revealed that REGγ is typically localized to the nucleus during embryogenesis with increased levels present in invaginating cells during gastrulation. The REGγ was found dispersed throughout the cell volume within mitotic domains undergoing cell division. Finally, database searches suggest that the DRE system may regulate key members of the proteasome system in Drosophila.
  • Meining, Winfried, et al. (författare)
  • The structure of the N-terminal domain of riboflavin synthase in complex with riboflavin at 2.6 A resolution
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Journal of Molecular Biology. - 0022-2836 .- 1089-8638. ; 331:5, s. 1053-1063
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Riboflavin synthase of Escherichia coli is a homotrimer with a molecular mass of 70 kDa. The enzyme catalyzes the dismutation of 6,7-dimethyl-8(1'-D-ribityl)-lumazine, affording riboflavin and 5-amino-6-ribitylamino-2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione. The N-terminal segment (residues 1-87) and the C-terminal segment (residues 98-187) form beta-barrels with similar fold and a high degree of sequence similarity. A recombinant peptide comprising amino acid residues 1-97 forms a dimer, which binds riboflavin with high affinity. Here,we report the structure of this construct in complex with riboflavin at 2.6 Angstrom resolution. It is demonstrated that the complex can serve as a model for ligand-binding in the native enzyme. The structure and riboflavin-binding mode is in excellent agreement with structural information obtained from the native enzyme from Escherichia coli and riboflavin synthase from Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The implications for the binding specificity and the regiospecificity of the catalyzed reaction are discussed.
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