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Sökning: L773:0022 3808 OR L773:1537 534X

  • Resultat 1-10 av 27
  • [1]23Nästa
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1.
  • Aggeborn, Linuz, 1986-, et al. (författare)
  • The Effects of Fluoride in Drinking Water
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Political Economy. - Chicago : University of Chicago Press. - 0022-3808 .- 1537-534X. ; 129:2, s. 465-491
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Water fluoridation is a common, but debated, public policy. In this paper, we use Swedish registry data to study the causal effects of fluoride in the drinking water. We exploit exogenous variation in natural fluoride, stemming from variation in geological characteristics at water sources, to identify its effects. First, we reconfirm the long-established positive effect offluoride on dental health. Second, we estimate a zero-effect on cognitive ability – in contrast to several recent epidemiological studies. Third, fluoride is found to increase labor income.This effect is foremost driven by individuals from a lower socioeconomic background.
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2.
  • Almås, Ingvild, et al. (författare)
  • Cutthroat Capitalism versus Cuddly Socialism : Are Americans More Meritocratic and Efficiency-Seeking than Scandinavians?
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Political Economy. - : University of Chicago Press. - 0022-3808 .- 1537-534X. ; 128:5, s. 1753-1788
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There are striking differences in inequality and redistribution between the United States and Scandinavia. To study whether there are corresponding differences in social preferences, we conducted a large-scale international social preference experiment where Americans and Norwegians make distributive choices in identical environments. Combining the infrastructure of an international online labor market and that of a leading international data collection agency, we show that Americans and Norwegians differ significantly in fairness views, but not in the importance assigned to efficiency. We also provide causal evidence suggesting that fairness considerations are more fundamental for inequality acceptance than efficiency considerations.
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3.
  • Bagues, Manuel F., et al. (författare)
  • Women and power: Unpopular, unwilling, or held back? A comment
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Political Economy. - : University of Chicago Press. - 1537-534X .- 0022-3808. ; 128:5, s. 2010-2016
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Casas-Arce and Saiz (2015) study how gender quotas in candidate lists affect voting behavior using evidence fromthe introduction of quotas in the 2007 Spanish local elections in municipalities with more than 5,000 inhabitants. Using a difference-in-differences strategy, they show that parties that listed fewer female candidates in the previous election obtained more votes in the subsequent election in larger municipalities, a pattern that they attribute to the quota.We show robustness and placebo tests suggesting that the quota did not have an economically or statistically significant impact on voting behavior.
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4.
  • Blomquist, Sören, et al. (författare)
  • On Bunching and Identification of the Taxable Income Elasticity
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Political Economy. - : University of Chicago Press. - 0022-3808 .- 1537-534X. ; 129:8, s. 2320-2343
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The elasticity of taxable income is vital when predicting the effect of taxes. Bunching at kinks/notches has been used to estimate this elasticity. We show that when the preference distribution is unrestricted, bunching at a kink or a notch is not informative about the size of the elasticity, and neither is the entire distribution of taxable income. Bunching identifies the taxable income elasticity when the preference distribution is correctly specified across the kink and provides bounds under restrictions on the preference distribution. We find wide bounds in an empirical example based on upper and lower bounds for the preference density.
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7.
  • Dahlberg, Matz, et al. (författare)
  • Ethnic Diversity and Preferences for Redistribution
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Political Economy. - : University of Chicago Press. - 0022-3808 .- 1537-534X. ; 120:1, s. 41-76
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper investigates the causal link between the ethnic diversity in a society and its inhabitants' preferences for redistribution. We exploit exogenous variation in immigrant shares stemming from a nationwide program placing refugees in municipalities throughout Sweden during 1985-94 and match data on refugee placement to panel survey data on inhabitants of the receiving municipalities. We find significant, negative effects of increased immigration on the support for redistribution. The effect is especially pronounced among high-income earners. We also establish that estimates from earlier studies failing to identify causal effects are likely to be positively biased (i.e., less negative).
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8.
  • Fang, Dawei, 1983, et al. (författare)
  • Turning Up the Heat: The Discouraging Effect of Competition in Contests
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Political Economy. - : University of Chicago Press. - 0022-3808 .- 1537-534X. ; 128:5, s. 1940-1975
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We study contests in which contestants are homogeneous and have convex effort costs. Increasing contest competitiveness, by making prizes more unequal, scaling up the competition, or adding new contestants, always discourages effort. These results have significant implications: although often criticized as evidence of laxity or cronyism, muting competition (e.g., adopting softer grading curves or less high-powered promotion systems) can both reduce inequality and increase output. Holding promotion contests at the division level rather than the firm level can boost employees’ effort. Our results are also consistent with personnel policies that feature egalitarian pay systems and dismissal of worst-performing employees.
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9.
  • Gottfries, Nils (författare)
  • Insiders, Outsiders, and Nominal Wage Contracts
  • 1992
  • Ingår i: Journal of Political Economy. - : University of Chicago Press. - 0022-3808 .- 1537-534X. ; 100:2, s. 252-270
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • While the consequences of nominal wage contracts have been rather thoroughly analyzed, there is no generally accepted theory of why such contracts prevail. In this paper I argue that the distinction between insiders and outsiders is important for understanding nominal wage contracts. Since most employment fluctuations take the form of fluctuations in hiring, insiders are normally not affected by them. Since prices are primarily determined by costs, demand shocks have small effects on real wages. Thus insiders have little incentive to change to more complicated contracts. With rigid nominal wages, nominal demand shocks have large effects on the employment opportunities of outsiders, but outsiders have little influence on labor contracts.
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10.
  • Grönqvist, Hans, et al. (författare)
  • Understanding How Low Levels of Early Lead Exposure Affect Children’s Life-Trajectories
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Political Economy. - : University of Chicago Press. - 0022-3808 .- 1537-534X. ; 128:9, s. 3376-3433
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We study the impact of lead exposure from birth to adulthood and provide evidence on the mechanisms producing these effects. Following 800,000 children differentially exposed to the phaseout of leaded gasoline in Sweden, we find that even a low exposure affects long-run outcomes, that boys are more affected, and that changes in non-cognitive skills explain a sizeable share of the impact on crime and human capital. The effects are greater above exposure thresholds still relevant for the general population, and reductions in exposure equivalent to the magnitude of the recent redefinition of elevated blood-lead levels can increase earnings by 4%.
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  • Resultat 1-10 av 27
  • [1]23Nästa

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